Association between periodontitis and the main components of metabolic syndrome


The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing worldwide, and itappears to increase independently the risk of cardiovascular disease. Periodontitis hasbeen shown to have an association with the risk of cardiovascular disease.The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between periodontalstatus and the main components of metabolic syndrome, singly, and in combination intype 2 diabetic patients.One hundred and seventy five patients (96 males and 79 females) with type 2diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were enrolled in the study. The following clinicalcharacteristics were reported: age and gender, body mass index (BMI) and bloodpressure. Periodontal status was assessed using periodontal disease index whichincludes plaque, calculus, and periodontal component of the index. An assessment ofserum lipid analytes included estimation of serum triglycerides (TG) and serum highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C).There was a significant difference in mean value of periodontal disease index(PDI) between normotensive and hypertensive diabetic patients (3.31±0.83 vs.3.82±0.65, P<0.001). Also there was a significant difference in PDI between normaland high TG groups (3.49±0.73 vs. 3.81±0.61, P<0.01). There was a significantincrease in TG level in hypertensive compared to normotensive diabetic patients(P<0.01). Only in presence of hypertension and obesity in addition to diabetes thatPDI was significantly increased in comparison with diabetic hypertensive non obesepatients (4.1±0.58 vs. 3.62±0.64, P<0.001). There were no significant differences inTG level between obese and non obese diabetic patients while there was a significantincrease in TG level in patients who were hypertensive obese compared tonormotensive non obese (174.64 ±61.39 vs. 150.80±54.96 respectively, P<0.05).Presence of two or more characteristics of MetS has resulted in a significant increaseof PDI when compared with patients who had only diabetes (P<0.001).In conclusion, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia as main components ofMetS are singly associated with periodontitis in T2DM and the presence of any twostudied components of MetS in addition to diabetes will attain the worst deteriorationin periodontal status.