Performance Evaluation of Electrocoagulation Technique for Removing Groundwater Hardness of Tikrit University

Abstract

The performance of Electrocoagulation (EC) process for removal of hardness ingroundwater(GW) of Tikrit University in Salahaddin province, north of Baghdad inIraq has been studied using aluminum (Al)electrodes with both bipolar andmonopolar configurations. The effect of initial pH, applied voltage(U), electrolysistime(t), and electrodes configurations on the performance of EC has beeninvestigated. It was found that the best initial pHvalue to remove hardness(HD)was9.5. The results indicated that increasing U and t had a positive effect on thehardness removal efficiency(%Ehardness ) to reach 90.4%andit was influenced by theelectrodes configuration in which %Ehardness was 83.5% in bipolar connectioncompared with 66.2%in monopolar connection.Also The electrical energyconsumption%Ehardness and the experimentally and theoreticallyelectrodesconsumption (Wexp ) and (Wtheo )were calculated.It was absorbed,as determined, thatthere is no significant difference between pseudo-first and second-order kineticmodel except at 40 volt that the pseudo second-order kinetic model fits better thanthe first-order kinetic model with the data of the electrocoagulation process. Finallythe cost at themost favorable conditions for EC process was calculatedresulting thatthe electrocoagulation process is successfully applied to remove the hardness ratefrom groundwater with high performance.