Relationship between Severity of Periodontitis and Serum Lipid Profile in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Abstract

AbstractBackground: Periodontitis and serum lipid disorder are prevalent in type 2 diabetic patients. Serum lipid disorder is one of the established risk factors for cardiovascular disease while periodontitis is a probable another one. Some studies have reported an existence of a relation between serum lipid disorder and periodontitis while others have found no significant relation. Aim of study: To assess the relation between serum lipid profile and severity of periodontitis in type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty type 2 diabetic patients (60 males and 60 females) were enrolled in this study. Their periodontal status was determined by measuring Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), Gingival Recession and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL). Patients were selected consecutively but with consideration of sex and certain exclusion criteria to compose three groups based on CAL and PPD measurements. These three groups were:1.Group 1: 20 males and 20 females patients with Mild/No Periodontitis (G1) 2.Group 2: 20 males and 20 females patients with Moderate periodontitis (G2)3.Group 3: 20 males and 20 female's patients with severe periodontitis (G3).Serum lipid profile involved an estimation of serum total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and a calculation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Results: The mean serum levels of TC and TG were compared between the study groups. There were significant differences between G1 vs. G3 (P<0.05) while the differences were statistically non significant between G1 vs. G2 and G2 vs. G3. When HDL-C and LDL-C levels were compared between the study groups (G1 vs. G2, G2 vs. G3 and G1 vs. G3 groups) no statistically significant differences were found. Analysis of correlation showed that the correlations between PPD and both TC and TG were highly significant (P<0.001)). Concerning the correlation between CAL and TC or TG, both correlations were significant (P < 0.05) while there was no significant correlation between both PPD and CAL with HDL-C or LDL-C. Conclusion: Higher serum levels of TC and TG are associated with the more severe forms of periodontitis in type 2 diabetic patients.Keywords: Periodontitis, serum lipid disorder, Diabetes mellitus