جدول المحتويات

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: الزراعة
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تأسست مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية في كلية الزراعة جامعة بغداد عام 1966. كانت المجلة تصدر بعددين في العام فقط. بدأت المجلة عام 2000 باصدار ستة اعداد في السنة لكل مجلد, وهي الان في عام 2016 بالمجلد (47). تشمل ابحاث المجلة كافة العلوم الزراعية المرتبطة بالعلوم النباتية والحيوانية فضلاً عن المكننة الزراعية والاقتصاد الزراعي والارشاد الزراعي والعلوم الداعمة للعلوم الزراعية مثل الكيمياء والفيزياء لاسيما المرتبطة بالضوء والالحرارة والرياح وغيرها. يتضمن المجلد الواحد حالياً اكثر من 75 بحثأ حيث يتضمن العدد الواحد بين 20-25 بحثاً بحسب عدد الابحاث المقبولة في كل عدد

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معلومات الاتصال

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2011 المجلد: 42 العدد: 3

Article
PERFORMANCE OF TRIFLURALIN IN WEED CONTROL,GROWTH,AND YIELD OF COTTON AS AFFECTED BY IRRIGATION WITH MAGNETIZED WATER
أداء مبيد الترايفلورالين في مكافحة الأدغال ونمو وحاصل القطن بتأثير مغنطة مياه الري

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, Department of Field Crop Sciences - College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad, during 2008 and 2009 seasons, to investigate the performance of trifluralin in weed control, growth, and yield of cotton as affected by irrigation of magnetized water. A randomized complete block design arranged according to split-plot was used with three replicates. The study consisted of four levels of magnetic water strength (0, 500, 1000 and 2000 Gauss ) as main treatments and five rate of application of trifluralin (0, 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 and 3.6 l.ha-1) with weed free as sub treatments. The results showed significant effect of magnetic water on most characters studied. Magnetic water strength of 500 Gauss caused greater reduction of weed densities in both seasons at 90 days after planting which were 13.07 plants.m-2 as compared with 22.14 plants.m-2 for normal water treatment in 2008 and 33.44 plant. m-2 as compared with 43.44 plants.m-2 in 2009. Closer impact between lowest rate of application of herbicide (1.2 l.ha-1) with highest rate of application (2.4 and 3.6 l.ha-1) resulted in reduction of weed plant densities. Also significant interaction effects between magnetic water level and rate of trifluralin application were observed in weed plant densities These results reflected positively in growth characters such as, plant height, leaf area, numbers of monopodial per plant, numbers of sympodial per plant, Yield of seed cotton, also increased to 4531.71 and 5078.24 kg.ha-1 as compared with 3035.85 and 2610.23 kg.ha-1 for normal water treatment, respectively. It was concluded that magnetic water technique could be used to improve growth characters and yield of cotton. Also magnetic water may increase efficiency of lower rates of trifluralin herbicide which may reduce environmental pollution .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SUNFLOWER BASED ON CLUSTER ANALYSIS
تقدير التباعد الوراثي لزهرة الشمس بأستخدام التحليل العنقودي

المؤلفون: M.Sh.Hamdalla ماجد شايع حمد الله
الصفحات: 17-23
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الخلاصة

An evaluation experiment was carried out on 13 sunflower genotypes at the farm of Field Crop Res. Sta. of College of Agriculture / Univ. of Baghdad for two spring seasons) 2005 and 2008(. The experiment aimed to group similar genotypes into homogenous groups through cluster analysis and estimate genetic diversity between studied genotypes. Hierarchical clustering technique was used with respect to plant height, leafe area, head diameter, seed number per head, weight of seed and seed yield. Resemblance matrix was constituted then euclidean values were estimated .The genotypes were grouped into six clusters, where cluster I, III and IV included three genotypes followed by cluster II which has two genotypes followed by clusters V and VI which have one genotype for each. It was observed that genotypes Kws and Allstar ,Flamme and Zahratalaraq, Macao and Florasol have similar response pattern based on minimum euclidean. Genotypes Shimoos and Ibis was found to be better in performance and should be involved in crosses based on maximum euclidean values that express high level of genetic diversity. This can lead to give a high heterotic response and wider segregation after hybridization. This statistical technique can be auseful tool when other molecular techniques are not available. Keywords. Sunflower, cluster analysis, hierarchical, genetic diversity

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
SOME GENETIC PARAMETERS OF FIVE MAIZE INBREDS LINES VIA DIALLEL CROSSING
بعض المعالم الوراثية لخمس سلالات من الذرة الصفراء باستخدام التضريب التبادلي

المؤلفون: Ziyad A.Abed زياد اسماعيل عبد
الصفحات: 32-45
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الخلاصة

To study combining ability and type of gene action controlling of yield inheritance and some related traits in maize , a field experiment was conducted on the firm of the Dept.of Field Crop Sci./Coll.of Agric./Univ of Baghdad. A diallel cross with one direction was done among five inbred lines of maize introduced from Italy ( CO1159,CO1255 ,CO1010 ,CO1506 and CO1398). The inbreds were sowed at Spring season 2009 to produce ten crosses. In the next season, Autumn 2009, a field trail included parents and crosses by using randomized complete block design was conducted. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences in general combining ability and specific combining ability in all traits studied.The inbred CO1159 was the best general combiner in chlorophyll index ,leaf area and ears per plant , while the inbred line CO1398 was the best combiner in number of grains per ear and grain weight. Also the CO1010 was superior in grain yield . The cross,CO1398 x CO1010 was superior in hetrobeltosis% in many traits value were : grain yield ,leaf area, number of grain per ear and chlorophyll index 48.04% , 27.7% , 23.7% and 7.49% respectively. The heritability in broad sense was high but in narrow sense was low ,as a result of increasing dominance variance values. Therefore, the average degree of dominance was more than one in all traits studied .It was concluded that these inbreds have a high genetic diversity especially, Those gave a best general combiner for producing composites varieties or that gave a high specific combining ability effects ,so they can be exploited in producing hybrids.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
DIRECT SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS FROM MATURE SEXUAL EMBRYOS OF TWO TOMATO HYBRIDS
استحثاث الأجنة الجسمية المباشر من الأجنة الجنسية لهجينين من الطماطة خارج الجسم الحي

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الخلاصة

An experiment on the effect of three cytokinins and NAA on direct somatic embryos induction was conducted. The explants were sexual embryos, hypocotyls and cotyledenous leaves of two hybrids of tomato, Choorouk and GS-12. Four levels of BA, Kin or TDZ (0.00, 0.01, 0.10, 1.00) mg/l and three concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3) mg/l of NAA were tested. A histological study to investigate the stages of direct somatic embryos initiation was implemented. The results indicated that the source of explants was effective on somatic embryos initiation for both hybrids under study. Somatic embryos were not induced from hypocotyls and cotyledenous leaves, however, sexual embryos for both hybrids were superior on somatic embryogenesis. Choorouk sexual embryos cultured on MS medium supplemented with 80 g/l of sucrose; 0.01 mg/l of TDZ and 2 mg/l NAA gave 90% somatic initiation percentage with 13.1 somatic embryos. While GS-12 sexual embryos cultured on MS medium modified with 80 g/l of sucrose; 0.1 mg/l of TDZ and 2 mg/l NAA resulted in 90% somatic initiation percentage with 13.5 somatic embryos. The study confirms that the sexual embryos are the best explants on somatic embryos initiation for both tomato hybrids. Further research and evaluation needs to be done to study the physiological effects of plant growth regulators on somatic embryos growth and development.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF MEDIUM COMPONENTS AND EXPLANT ON BELLADONNA CALLUS INDUCTION IN VITRO
تأثير مكونات الوسط الغذائي والجزء النباتي في استحثاث الكالس لنبات البلادونا خارج الجسم الحي

المؤلفون: N.G.Jassem نورا جبر جاسم --- M.S.Hamad محمد شهاب حمد
الصفحات: 59-70
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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted at the tissue culture lab., Dept of Hort., College of Agriculture ,University of Baghdad during 2009-2010 . Explants (shoot tip – cotyledon – hypocotyls) were cultured on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) or Gamborge (B5) medium .Tow kinds of auxins at four levels of either 2,4-dichloro phenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) or naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) ,were added to medium . Concentration of each auxin were 0 , 1.5 , 3.0 and 4.5 mg / l . The study included effect of each medium components or explants or auxin on callus initiation. Results indicuted that no sign of contamination after sterilization belladonna seeds by using sodium hypo chloride at 4.5% for 15 minutes.MS medium ,complemented with 1.5 mg/l of 2,4-D was superior in giving higher fresh and dry weight, of callus that induced from shoot tip to be 177.7 and 18.9 mg , respectively .In comparison with the same 2,4-D concentration in B5 medium that gave only 110.0 and 12.3 mg of fresh and dry weight, respectively .The MS medium supplied with 4.5 mg/l 2,4-D gave the lowest fresh and dry weight of 23.4 and 2.0 mg callus which is formed the cotyledon, respectively. The callus which induced when cotyledons were explanted on MS medium supplement with 3.0 mg / l 2,4-D gave the highest values 44.3 ,5.0 mg for both fresh and dry weight callus respectively , while MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l NAA gave 18.9 and 2.5 mg for both fresh and dry weight callus, respectively .Shoot tip was superior than cotyledons and hypocotyls in inducing callus initiation 45.74 ,5.00 mg 38.98, 3.78 mg and 17.84 ,2.04 mg for both fresh and dry weight callus inducted from shoot tip , cotyledons and hypocotyls, respectively. We found the best medium for callus induction from belladonna explants is MS medium and the best hormone is 2,4-D compared with NAA and the best explants is shoot tip compared with cotyledon and hypocotyls.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
AGRARIAN OFFICIALS OPINIONS TOWARDS PROBLEMS FOR TRANSFERING AGRICULTURAL TECHNIQUES TO FARMERS IN SALAH-AL-DEEN GOVERNORATE
آراءَ الموظفين الزراعيين نحو معوقات نقل التقانات الزراعية إلى الزراع في محافظة صلاح الدين

المؤلفون: Ali .A. Ghaidaip علي احمد غضيب
الصفحات: 71-80
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الخلاصة

This research aims at familiarizing with problems of transferring agricultural techniques in Salah-AL-Deen Governorate. And to defining the connective relation among agricultural officials opinions towards these problems and age, education, service period variables, then classifying these problems and determining its most important aspects according to their thinking. The research has included 160 agricultural officials. The data of 100 officials have been collected and other 30 officials refused to answer. The questionnaire used as a tool to collect data using personal interview The data have been analyzed statistically after discharging them by using percentages, repetitions and the simple coefficient connection, person and Spearman's organized coefficient connection. The imported agricultural techniques have occupied the first position, as the result have shown. Also it showed a positive abstract connective relationship at level of 0.01 between(age and service period), and there were relationships at level of 0.05 with education and agricultural officials opinions with the problems of transferring agricultural techniques, also they have been determined according to their opinions that first position problems are related with direction bodies, then those related with the staff. The classification has been as follows: techniques invention aspects, techniques transferring, agricultural work and the farmers. The researcher recommends focusing on studying these problems by specialized research groups so as to determine these problems and going over them.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
TRAINING NEEDS OF FISH FARMERS IN TAJI CITY OF BAGHDAD PROVINCE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH SOME VARIABLES
الحاجات التدريبية لمربي الأسماك في منطقة التاجي - محافظة بغداد وعلاقتها ببعض المتغيرات

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الخلاصة

The objectives of this research were to identify the training needs of workers in fish farming, the importance of the training need in every field of fish farming, and to find a relationship between these training needs and fish workers personal characteristics such as academic education, the practice of other activity, and annual income. Research objectives are achieved throughout questionnaire form consists of two parts. The first part determines the personal characteristics of respondents, while the second part guarantees the gauge to measure the need for training educators which consist of 21 items distributed in four areas: Partitions for holding fish, utilization water, establishment of aquariums, and fish feeding, within a scale of 5 points as following: very large need, great need, moderate need, few need, there is no need, weighted as (5, 4, 3, 2, 1), respectively. Research population included all fish farmers in the Taji city, of 70 holders. A random sample was selected as 85% of the population and 60 holders. The research concluded that there was a moderate training need for the fish farms, and the partitions for breeding ranked first in terms of the importance of need. Also the results showed significant correlation between the need for training to fish farmers in fish farming and all of the annual income, and the practice of other activity, while there was significant correlation between the need for training of educators and academic education. The research recommends the need to held training programs to increase the efficiency of fish farmers with focus on fish feeding, and the establishment of fish partitions .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EXTRACTION AND STUDYING OF SOME PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPRETIES OF FENUGREEK GUM
أستخلاص ودراسة بعض الصفات الفيزوكيميائية لصمغ بذور الحلبة

المؤلفون: ضحى داود سلمان --- سلوى ليلو عزيز
الصفحات: 89-98
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الخلاصة

The gum of defatted fenugreek seed powder was extracted by 95% ethanol, and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The residual chemical compounds in gum and some of its physiochemical properties were evaluated. The yield of gum was 15.8 % (W/W) on dry weight. The gum is yellow – brown in color and converts to clear viscous liquid when dissolved in water with pH 7.3. The residuals in gum were protein 22%, fiber 0.96 %, fat 0.04 %, Ash 0.64%, moisture 8 % and residual gum was polysaccharides (galactomanan) (68.36%). The solubility of fenugreek gum was lower than guar gum (58.3%, 100%, respectively). The refractive index of fenugreek and guar gum were 1.334, 1.3345 respectively. The density of fenugreek and guar gum were 1.0095, 1.0083 g/cm3, respectively. The viscosity of fenugreek gum was lower as compared with guar gum ( 70.63 mp, 550.12mp, respectively). The molecular weight of fenugreek gum was lower (8.70 × 105 Dalton) than guar gum (91.45 × 105 Dalton).The fenugreek gum FTIR spectroscopy was varied from guar gum. Fenugreek gum showed maximum absorption which was at 330 nm whereas it was 290 nm for guar gum. There were variations in the capability of fat binding for gums of different source and also affected the source of oil. Fenugreek gum showed high binding capacity with castor oil (261.2%) and the least with sunflower oil (164.2%).Guar gum showed high fat binding capacity than fenugreek gum, the highest with castor oil 492.7% and the least with coconut oil 162.9% .


Article
MYCOPLASMA VIRUSES AND THEIR ROLE IN THE PATHOGENECITY OF AVIAN MYCOPLASMOSIS
فيروسات المايكوبلازما ودورها في امراضية المايكوبلازما في الدواجن

المؤلفون: Areej Abbas Majeed اريج عباس مجيد
الصفحات: 99-114
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الخلاصة

Mycoplasma viruses return to family Plasmaviridae , and they are small organisms which infect the mycoplasma cells and increase their virulence for containing specialized code in their genetic material. These viruses could characterize by their ability to form plaques on mycoplasma cells or on the host cell that had been mycoplasma isolated from it. Many viruses had been discovered over 50 years ago. If mycoplasma viruses term which is known now , change to include more other known viruses like Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) , infectious laryngeo trachitis viruses (ILTV) and infectious bronchitis viruses (IBV) and play a role by increase mycoplasma virulence in some way then show their signs in sever cases. These viruses activated and developed inside the mycoplasma cell to increase its virulence which specifically infect mycoplasma cells or they could infect a strain not another one of mycoplasma . Scientists mentioned that a specific mycoplasma cells may contain two kinds of mycoplasma viruses which they have microparacitical activity. Mycoplasma virulence which infect poultry fields. Later a lot of scientists had called these mycoplasma viruses in different callers and isolated in different diagnostic methods , since it had been discovered. Its obviously that all scientists agreed that mycoplasma cell needs more complicated conditions than any other bacteria when cultured. had been investigated mycoplasma viruses between 1967-1968. All studies now are going to explain the diagnosis of mycoplasma viruses , and how they could infect mycoplasma cells , and they increase their virulence of mycoplasma cells which may infecting by another species of viruses like Newcastle disease virus (NDV) , Infectious bronchitis disease virus (IBV) , Infectious laryangeo – trachitis disease virus (ILTV) , Marek's disease viruses (MDV) and avian infectious bursa disease viruses (IBDV) . Interfere between these viruses above with mycoplasma cells or any live cells may gives us new mycoplasma viruses generations , which it could be dangerous not for poultry only , but also to human and all other animals . Just like what happened in the world today like disease which infect human , when we had thought destroyed them and they disappeared but later will had backed stronger and that fit all viruses which infect human and animal. So our article try to explain how these viruses increase mycoplasma virulence , and if we could decrease or preventing such interfere between mycoplasma and viruses which increase their virulence in result.

الكلمات الدلالية

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