Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904/23121637
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi Journal of Science (IJS) is a peer reviewed open access journal issued by the College of Science at the University of Baghdad. It is a monthly journal that publishes original research articles in a wide range of subjects. The prestigious interdict planar editorial board in the journal reflects the diversity of subjects covered in the journal. The journal is being published since 1956.

The journal is basically self – financed by applying fees on the researcher’s work published in the journal. However, the journal is also supported by the college of science at the University of Baghdad.

Loading...
Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2019 volume:60 issue:1

Article
Studies 0n Ion Association of Some Α-Amino Acids with L-Ascorbic Acid In Aqueous Solution at Different Temperature

Authors: Muhammed J. Kadhim
Pages: 1-11
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Molar conductivity of ascorbic acid (AA) with some α–amino acids (glycine (Gly), methionine (Met), cysteine (Cys) and tryptophan (Trp)) in aqueous solution was measured at range temperatures from 298 K to 313 K. Λo. The limiting molar conductivity, KA, the association constant was calculated using the Shedlovsky method, and R, the association distance calculated by Stokes–Einstein equation. The thermodynamic parameters (The heat of association ΔHo, the change in Gibbs free energy ΔGo, the change of entropy ΔSo), and (ΔES), the activation energy were also calculated. All of the results obtained were discussed. The data showed the increasing in Λo, with the increasing of temperature. The positive values for (ΔSo) and (ΔES) showed a decrease in solvation of ion–pair and signifying the higher mobility of the ions. The negative value of ΔHo, refers that the association processes are exothermic. The negative values of ΔGo, are for ion association in aqueous solution and increase with the increase in temperature.


Article
Estimation of the relationship between the time delay of mastectomy and the stage of breast cancer among a group of infected Iraqi females

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study assesses the delay of mastectomy"time from the first consultation of a doctor to the time of mastectomy"and its relationship with the stage of the disease among Iraqi women with breast cancer.A study was carried out on (113) women who were referred to the Outpatient Clinic of the Oncology Teaching Hospital and the Iraqi National Cancer Research Center, University of Baghdad, for the period from 2012 to 2016.Patients' age range between (40-49) years comprised (60.2%) of cases, and showed advanced tumor stage (62.96%)of stage III.It was found that infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most common type of breast cancer that found in (77%) of cases. Mostly there was no delay of mastectomy for more than one month delay in (36.3%) of patients, while other patient's delay periods of mastectomy were distributed as : 1-3 months delay in (20.3%), 4-6 months delay in (14.2%),7-9 months delay in (8.8%), 9-12 months delay in (0.8%) and 12 months delay in(8.8%) of the patients. The percentage of the residual patients which had delay longer than one year, (2-9 years delay), was (10.6%) patients. Most patients (73%) were of stage III while others (17.6%) were of stage I, and (7.4%) were of stage II. Statically, correlation coefficient between the delay of mastectomy and the stages of the disease was significant with stage III. Results showed that (short time delay) was associated with higher stage of the disease,(79%) of patients were of stage III, while (53% ) of patients with long time delay had stage III . It seemed to be that long time delay correlated with lower stages at the time of identification which goes with most of the published papers. Results showed that the time delay of mastectomy seems not to be a serious problem in Iraq during the period of the current study. Only few studies are carried out in this field especially in the city of Baghdad, therefore, Further studies are required to explore the factors that are associated with different types of delay. Keywords: D

Keywords

elay --- mastectomy --- stage --- Breast Cancer --- Iraqi female.


Article
Fish Assemblage and Impact of Oscillation Between Drowning and Drought on Fish Size-Spectrum in the Al-Chibyaish Marsh, Southern Iraq

Authors: Abdul Hussein Jaafer Abdullah
Pages: 18-28
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present study was implemented in the period from January to December 2017, to assess the assemblage of fish, with the effects of some environmental factors and knowledge the impacts of annual periodic fluctuations between drowning and drought on the abundance and size-spectrum on the fish community in Al-Cibyaish marsh. Water temperature ranged between July, salinity from 2.90 PSU (Practical salinity unite) in February to 4.14 PSU in August. Hydrogen ion ranged between 7.60 in July to 8.30 in February. The present study appears contribution of environmental variables in the distribution, widespread and occurrence of fish assemblage in the Al-Chibyaish marsh. A total of 3294 specimens were collected represented 15 fish species affiliated to 15 genera, six families and five orders. Three fish species in present area were formed 72.38% of the total number of species in the marsh. Planiliza abu was the most abundant species formed 35.43%, Alburnus mossulensis, 19.22% and Oreochromis aureus, 17.73%. The ecological indices were within the range of previous studies and described as poor for diversity index ranged between1.38 in June to 1.96 in November. Richness index fluctuated from 0.96 in May and July to 1.96 in April and can express as half integrated. The evenness index values ranged from 0.68 in September to 0.85 in November and December indicate to semi-balanced or slightly balanced. Fish size revealed dominance of the small size due to high mortality in the dry season. The present study affirms prevalence and dominates of historical small native species P. abu and some of the small invasive species, which possess various functional characteristics, enable it to inhabit the marsh.

Keywords


Article
Impact of Seasonal Variation on The Spermatozoa Reproductive Cycle of Hemantura Walgo (Müller & Henle, 1841) From Iraqi Marine Waters

Authors: Noori Abdul-Nabi Nasir
Pages: 29-35
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The impact of seasonal variation on the spermatozoa reproductive cycle of Hemantura walgo in Western North of Arabian Gulf from January 2016 to December 2017 was studied. A total 225 individuals males of H. walga were collected using beach net. Gonads Somatic index (GSI) was high during May (10.1) and September (9.98) and the lowest values were recorded during on February, July and October with their values were 0.85, 1.21 and 1.43 respectively. Mature males were noticed during May and September which indicates there are two reproduction periods for H. walga during the year. The relationship between weight and width desk of H. walga was also investigated and generally demonstrated positive allometric growth (b > 3) for this species Thus, this study supplies to a better understand of seasonal variation on the spermatozoa reproductive cycle of H. walgo. The findings of this study also are essential to the estimation, protection and management of H. walgo , in addition to providing plan for the improvement of conservation strategies


Article
Synergistic Effect of Linezolid, Tigecycline, and Vancomycin on Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated From Iraqi Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract Ninety nine swabs were collected from patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFU), all swabs were cultured on different selective media for screening, 46 isolates confirmed as S. aureus by API staph. The results of antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that all isolates were resistant to metronidazole, 34 isolates were resistant to cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, and meropenim, 23 isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, 17 and 16 isolates were resistant to tetracycline and trimethoprim, respectively; while all isolates were sensitive to tigecycline. The results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) that carried out by using vancomycin, tigecycline and linezolid for 8 isolates, MIC results were1-2 μg /ml, 0.25-0.5 μg /ml, 4 μg /ml, respectively; 4 isolates were selected according to their aggressive antibiotic resistance to test the antibiotics` combinations effects, the combination of vancomycin/ tigecycline presented promising results against S. aureus infections at low concentrations

Keywords


Article
Relation Between Aerobic Bacteria, IFN-γ, TNF-α and Miscarriage in Sample of Iraqi Women

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Pregnancy is one of the cases that lead to immune compression, therefore the women are exposed to different types of infections and may sequel to miscarriage. Toxoplasma gondii and urinary tract infection (UTI) are the most prevalent infectious agents in human and have a worldwide distribution. IFN-γ and TNF-α are pro inflammatory cytokine play important role in miscarriage. This study focuses on the determination, type of aerobic bacteria , concentration of IFN-γ and TNF-α among (75) abortive women and their relation with miscarriages . The results indicated that S.aures was the most prevalence bacteria isolated from aborted women infected with UTI or compensation with toxoplasmosis. and among the subjected women, the significant increases of IFN-γ concentration in serum across all groups involved in this study especially that infected with toxoplasmosis(74.84 ± 0.44 and 66.81 ± 0.74) pg/ml compared to control (25.60 ± 1.10) pg/ml whereas no significant alteration has occurred to TNF-α concentration in all groups (2.26 ± 0.05 , 3.32 ± 1.22 and 2.12 ± 0.06 ) ng/ml respectively compared to the control (2.11 ± 0.89) ng/ml, and when analyzed the results according to gestational age, all abortive women in different trimesters showed significant rises in the concentration of IFN- γ (51.58 ± 3.32, 48.95 ± 3.50 and 48.71 ± 4.84 ) pg/ml.

Keywords

T. gondii --- IFN-γ --- TNF-α --- S.aures --- UTI


Article
Evaluation of Synergistic Effect of Nicotinic Acid with Imipenem as Antibiofilm for Clinical Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolates

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present study aims to evaluate the synergistic activity of nicotinic acid (NIC) with the Imipenem (IMI) as an anti-biofilm for clinical isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The values of minimum inhibitor concentration (MICs) for IMI and NIC (Separately) against P. aeruginosa were (16) ug/mL and (8) ug/ml respectively. Whereas, the concentration of NIC with IMI (as combined) for biofilm inhibition was 1 ug/ml for NIC and 4 ug/ml for IMI. The combining of NIC with IMI showed synergistic efficacy against formation of bacterial biofilm (at MIC levels). These results provide a conclusion that NIC combined with IMI is can be considered as a successful prospective treatment against the biofilm produced by P. aeruginosa and as antibacterial medication.


Article
Study of the Structure of Exotic 52,54,56,58Ca Isotopes Using OXBASH Code

Authors: Akram M. Ali --- Amenah A. Khamees
Pages: 57-63
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study dedicates to provide an information of shell model calculations, limited to fp-shell with an accuracy and applicability. The estimations depend on the evaluation of Hamiltoian’s eigenvalues, that’s compatible with positive parity of energy levels up to (10MeV) for most isotopes of Ca, and the Hamiltonian eigenvectors transition strength probability and inelastic electron-nucleus scattering. The Hamiltonian is effective in the regions where we have experimented. The known experimental data of the same were confirmed and proposed a new nuclear level for others. The calculations are done with the help of OXBASH code. The results show good agreement with experimental energy states for 52,54Ca isotopes while a new result are gotten for 56,58Ca isotopes as it is a modern nucleus investigation. For 58Ca , the results are given a smallest 2+ excitation energy with strong B(E2) confirmed by large-“scale shell model in fp-shell space that cannot describe the small energy E(2+) besides that, the reduce transition probability B(E2) in each interaction is different.


Article
Extraction and Delineation of Pera Magroon Alluvial Fans North East Iraq Using Remote Sensing Techniques and GIS application

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Pera Magroon anticline is located within the northeastern of Iraq, covering area estimated by 958 Km2. The Landsat ETM+ false color composite imagery was produced by assigning [741] bands. It is used to distinguish alluvial fans in the southwestern limb of Pera Magroon anticline. Digital elevation models (DEM) were used for describing topographic features related to the alluvial fans, as well as, three dominations model (3D) was created from (DEM) and the Landsat ETM+ image. Arc GIS, hydro tool set was used to draw the drainage patterns, the area of study was covered by dendritic and parallel patterns. Contour lines across the fans form segments of ellipses reveal the pattern of tectonic activity at near a mountain front. The slope map depends on ITC system explaining the alluvial fans slope range between almost flat to gently sloping.

Keywords


Article
Investigation of Sand Dunes Sedimentary Structures – Najaf Governorate – IRAQ

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This research concerns with the study of the sand dunes sedimentary structures in two areas from dunes field of Najaf governorate these are; 1)Al-Rahimiya and 2)Ain Mazlun areas, where the first area consists from barchans, barchanoid, and nabkha dunes types, while the second area has the dome, longitudinal, nabkha, and sand sheet dunes types. The affected prevailing wind direction is obvious on the study area, where has the NW-SE bearing and the sedimentary structures were influenced by prevailing and local wind directions in studied areas. Many types of sedimentary structures recognized in the studied areas these are; cross stratification, ripple marks, slump (grain flow), adhesion structures, and bioturbation structures. The changes in parameters of the depositional environment, which influenced the distribution or formed of special sand dunes sedimentary structures due to changes in climatic conditions at the time.

Keywords


Article
Determinations of The Depths to Magnetic Sources Over Al-Ma′Aniyah Depression Area-Southwest Iraq Using The Aeromagnetic Data and Their Tectonic Implication

Authors: Hussein Abdulrahim --- Ali M. Al-Rahim
Pages: 91-102
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Tectonically, the location of the Al-Ma'aniyah depression area is far from active boundary zones, their tectonic features have to reflect the original depositional environments with some horizontal movement due to rearrangement of the basement blocks during different actives orogenic movements. So, the analysis of aeromagnetic data were considered to estimate the thickness and structural pattern of the sedimentary cover sequences for this area. The aeromagnetic data, which are derived from Iraqi GEOSURV to Al-Ma′aniyah region is analyzed and processed for qualitative and quantitative interpretations. The process includes reducing the aeromagnetic data to pole RTP, separation the aeromagnetic data to regional and residual using power spectrum techniques and derivatives methods to delineate the anomalies boundary. The delineated anomalies from magnetic data are dependent for quantitative interpretation using 3D forward and inverse modeling. The depths of magnetic sources are 7-8 km at north and northeastern parts of study area and is about 8-10 km at south and southwestern parts of study area.

Keywords


Article
Using of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for investigate the subsurface archaeological features of Babylon, the ancient city (Mounts zoona)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) method has been used in the province of Babylon, the ancient city (constituted mounts zoona) archeological site The study area is located South of the city of Hilla by 40 km between longitudes 44˚ 24΄ 40˝ E to 44˚ 27΄ 00˝ E, and latitudes 32˚ 31΄ 10 ˝ N to 32˚ 33΄ 00˝ N, The type of GPR that used in the survey fieldwork was of Malå Geoscience / Sweden type (RAMAC /GPR). The constituted mounts zoona district are surveyed using Seventy – four parallel profiles trending S-N ,N-S , E-W and W-E using the available antenna 160 MHz and 450 MHz, with Five meter spacing between each other are acquired the round-trip survey was conducted for ease and speed of fieldwork for both antenna 160 MHz and 450 MHz taking this into consideration in the interpretation and take special area with dimensions 20*20 meter according to the first shape anomalies individual profiles with one meter between the old the profiles that spacing Five meter also direction longitudinal and transverse also the round-trip survey was conducted for ease and speed of fieldwork was surveyed depending on the result of the regional survey. It is found that the upper zone of the constituted mounts Zoona characterized by dried clay and sandy soil with brocken archaeological materials, The second zone shows a prominent low resistivity zone probably caused by the moisture in this region that reduces the resistivity. The thickness of this layer is different from parts of the site to the others. The third deeper zone is typical for archaeological walls. Some of the main anomalies, may refer to buried archaeological remains of clay brick walls The 2D and 3D view of the constituted mounts zoona show that the archaeological anomalies are concentrated mainly in the SE part of the district with higher values of the height of the archaeological walls that range between (6-8) meters and reach to more than (10) meters. At the parts of the study area some walls are with low height that range 4-6 meters.

Keywords


Article
Building a 3D Petrophysical Model for Mishrif Formation in Nasiriyah Oil Field, Southern Iraq

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A 3D geological model for Mishrif Reservoir in Nasiriyah oil field had been invented "designed" "built". Twenty Five wells namely have been selected lying in Nasiriyah Governorate in order to build Structural and petrophysical (porosity and water saturation) models represented by a 3D static geological model in three directions .Structural model showed that Nasiriyah oil field represents anticlinal fold its length about 30 km and the width about 10 km, its axis extends toward NW–SE with structural closure about 65 km . After making zones for Mishrif reservoir, which was divided into 5 zones i.e. (MA zone, UmB 1zone,MmB1 zone ,L.mB1 zone and mB2zone) .Layers were built for each zone depending on petrophysical properties. MA(1 layer) ,UmB1(6 layer) ,MmB1 (8 layer) LmB1(6 layer) and mB2(5 layer) Petrophysical models (porosity and water saturation) had been constructed for each zone of Mishrif reservoir using random function simulation algorithm. According to data analyses and the results from modelling, the MB1zone is a good reservoir unit regarding its good petrophysical properties (high porosity and low water saturation) with high presence of oil in economic quantities


Article
Building a 3D Petrophysical Model for Mishrif Formation in Nasiriyah Oil Field, Southern Iraq

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A 3D geological model for Mishrif Reservoir in Nasiriyah oil field had been invented "designed" "built". Twenty Five wells namely have been selected lying in Nasiriyah Governorate in order to build Structural and petrophysical (porosity and water saturation) models represented by a 3D static geological model in three directions .Structural model showed that Nasiriyah oil field represents anticlinal fold its length about 30 km and the width about 10 km, its axis extends toward NW–SE with structural closure about 65 km . After making zones for Mishrif reservoir, which was divided into 5 zones i.e. (MA zone, UmB 1zone,MmB1 zone ,L.mB1 zone and mB2zone) .Layers were built for each zone depending on petrophysical properties. MA(1 layer) ,UmB1(6 layer) ,MmB1 (8 layer) LmB1(6 layer) and mB2(5 layer) Petrophysical models (porosity and water saturation) had been constructed for each zone of Mishrif reservoir using random function simulation algorithm. According to data analyses and the results from modelling, the MB1zone is a good reservoir unit regarding its good petrophysical properties (high porosity and low water saturation) with high presence of oil in economic quantities


Article
Estimate the Two Parameters of Gamma Distribution Under Entropy Loss Function

Authors: Loaiy F. Naji --- Huda A. Rasheed
Pages: 127-134
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract In this paper, Bayes estimators for the shape and scale parameters of Gamma distribution under the Entropy loss function have been obtained, assuming Gamma and Exponential priors for the shape and scale parameters respectively. Moment, Maximum likelihood estimators and Lindley’s approximation have been used effectively in Bayesian estimation. Based on Monte Carlo simulation method, those estimators are compared depending on the mean squared errors (MSE’s). The results show that, the performance of the Bayes estimator under Entropy loss function is better than other estimates in all cases.


Article
Dynamics and an Optimal Policy for A Discrete Time System with Ricker Growth

Authors: Ghosoon M. Hamoudi --- Sadiq Al-Nassir
Pages: 135-142
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The goal of this paper is to study dynamic behavior of a sporadic model (preypredator). All fixed points of the model are found. We set the conditions that required to investigate the local stability of all fixed points. The model is extended to an optimal control model. The Pontryagin's maximum principle is used to achieve the optimal solutions. Finally, numerical simulations have been applied to confirm the theoretical results.


Article
Location Aspect Based Sentiment Analyzer for Hotel Recommender System

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Recently personal recommender system has spread fast, because of its role in helping users to make their decision. Location-based recommender systems are one of these systems. These systems are working by sensing the location of the person and suggest the best services to him in his area. Unfortunately, these systems that depend on explicit user rating suffering from cold start and sparsity problems. The proposed system depends on the current user position to recommend a hotel to him, and on reviews analysis. The hybrid sentiment analyzer consists of supervised sentiment analyzer and the second stage is lexicon sentiment analyzer. This system has a contribute over the sentiment analyzer by extracting the aspects that users have been mentioned in their reviews like (cleanness, service, etc.) by using accurate parsing system built on latent semantic analysis results. The accuracy measurements of the proposed sentiment analyzer were perfect


Article
Proposal Hybrid CBC Encryption System to Protect E-mail Messages

Authors: Soukaena Hassan Hashem
Pages: 157-170
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Email is one of the most commonly utilized communication methods. The confidentiality, the integrity and the authenticity are always substantial in communication of the e-mail, mostly in the business utilize. However, these security goals can be ensured only when the cryptography is utilized. Cryptography is a procedure of changing unique data into a configuration with the end goal that it is just perused by the coveted beneficiary. It is utilized to shield data from other individuals for security purposes. Cryptography algorithms can be classified as symmetric and asymmetric methods. Symmetric methods can be classified as stream cipher and block cipher. There are different operation modes provided by the block cipher, these are Cipher Block Chaining (CBC), Output Feedback (OFB), Cipher Feedback (CFB) and Electronic Code Block (ECB). CBC used to complex the cryptographic systems, by using Initialization Vector (IV), Xoring, and encryption with specified key over chain of blocks, but CBC is vulnerable to chosen plaintext attack because the IV is static and vulnerable to chosen ciphertext attack because the encryption method with the key are static. This paper introduce a proposed E-mail messages encryption systems , the proposal based on modified CBC mode operation hybrid with some of techniques exploited in the encryption such as RADG, DNA, RNA and a suggested permutation methods. The proposed modifications applied on the CBC are generate IV randomly, generate key randomly, and propose encryption method, these modifications proposed to avoid the attacks that CBC is vulnerable to.

Keywords

cryptography --- CBC --- RADG --- DNA.


Article
Calibration of a Three Meter Small Radio Telescope in Baghdad University using the Sun as a Reference Source

Authors: Mohammed R. Hoobi --- Kamal M. Abood
Pages: 171-177
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The calibration of the three meter Baghdad University Radio Telescope (BURT) has been performed using two types of calibrations: Antenna Position calibration, and Detector calibration. The sun is used as a reference source to calibrate the telescope. The antenna position Azimuth (Az), and Elevation (El) are calibrate according to sun's azimuth and elevation in the date (11/10/2017; at time 10:19 AM). A calibration report is designed to illustrate the calibration parameters for each specific date and time. The detector calibration is representing a study for power spectrum response for the sun according to radio telescope frequency band (1.3 GHz – 1.5 GHz) with central frequency (1.42 GHz). Drift Scan function in the telescope's software is used to draw the sun's radio spectrum at date (23/1/2018; at time 09:57:25 AM).


Article
Preview on the demarcation process of the maritime border between Iraq and Kuwait by using GIS and satellite image (landsat8)

Authors: Omar. M. Sultan --- Nawal. K. Ghazal
Pages: 178-188
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The demarcation in general and maritime borders in particular is an important process between any two states to define their respective regional Borders and their economic resources. This research is focused on the way in which demarcation took place between Iraq's maritime borders on the one hand and the Kuwaiti side on the other. Through satellite technology (Landsat8) and GIS can be identified the area and how the demarcation was done. The most important in addition, positive points of the demarcation have been explained. It was given a full description of the importance of the economic zone and Highlighting Iraq's most important marine facilities. More than one map of Iraq can be integrated and redesigned by GIS. This work has been talking about the most important vital installations in the region (Iraqi port of Faw AL- Kabeer and Mubarak port of Kuwait) and put them in Comparison with the negative and positive aspects affecting on two sides. In addition, the focus is on the most important economic and spatial Challenges for both ports. Finally, effective ideas and solutions have been offered to reduce economic adversities between the two sides.


Article
Simulation of Obstacle Avoidance for Auto Guided Land Vehicle

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This research is concerned with designing and simulating an auto control system for a car provided with obstacle avoidance sensors. This car is able to pass through predefined path an around the detected obstacles, and then come back to the intended path. The IR sensor detects the existence of the obstacle through an assumed range of detection, while the visual sensor (camera) feeds back an image including the path that contains an obstacle, which can be useful for determining the obstacle's length, speed, and direction. According to such information, the controller creates transient away point along the longitudinal axis of the obstacle which is the same as the transverse axis of the simulator path at an assumed distance from the obstacle. The robotic car will direct toward the transient point for avoiding the obstacle, which directly comeback into the original rout once when reaching the transient point. This strategy enables the car to move far away from the obstacle and then return it into planned path.

Keywords

Table of content: volume:60 issue:1