Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904/23121637
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi Journal of Science (IJS) is a peer reviewed open access journal issued by the College of Science at the University of Baghdad. It is a monthly journal that publishes original research articles in a wide range of subjects. The prestigious interdict planar editorial board in the journal reflects the diversity of subjects covered in the journal. The journal is being published since 1956.

The journal is basically self – financed by applying fees on the researcher’s work published in the journal. However, the journal is also supported by the college of science at the University of Baghdad.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2019 volume:60 issue:2

Article
UV-VIS Absorption Spectral Studies of N, N′-Bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine (Salen) in Different Solvents

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Abstract

In the present study, the influence of various solvents on UV-VIS absorption spectra of N,N-Bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine (Salen) has been investigated. Salen ligand has two absorption maxima (around 260 and 320 nm). To explain the obtained spectra, the frequencies and molar absorptivity values were combined with solvent properties using a total solvatochromic equation suggested by the Kamlet and Taft. The multiparametric examination denotes that non-specific dipolar interactions of the solvents (π*) with the solute play a significant role in absorption maxima in pure solvents. The ionization constant (pKa) of salen in methanol has been determined by spectrophotometric measurements. Two graphical methods have

Keywords

Schiff base --- Salen --- Solvent Effect --- Copper


Article
Hematological and histological Changes in mice Fed Aqueous Extract of Senna alexandrina

Authors: Mustafa A. K. AL-Taie
Pages: 211-222
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Abstract

This study aims to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract stem of dried of Senna Alexandrıa using male mıce once daily at varying doses for 2 and weeks on hematological and histological changer in liver and kidney. In the acute toxicity aqueous extracted of dried stem of Senna Alexandrıa were administrated orally to mice up to 20-25 gr of body weight, in sub-acute study mice was daily administrated orally with same extraction at dose 500,1000,2000 mg/kg for 14 days . Hematological findings have shown in male group increase of RBC, HGB, HCT in increase of PIT in group treated with 500mg/ kg of body weight. Body weight was increase after application of extract at the dose of 1000 and 2000 mg/ kg . The histology in liver includes congestion of central vein with inflammatory cell in their lamen, vascular dilation ,fatty infiltrations cytoplasmic vacillation necrotic hepatocyte . Whereas in the kidney the changer includes shrunken glomeruli increasing of renal space, swelling and cytoplasmic vaculation of epithelial cells lining the renal tubule. Increase in body weight was with a dose

Keywords

Toxicity --- Hematology --- Aqueous Extract --- Mıce.


Article
Investigation of Secondary Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (sALL) Among Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Iraqi Patients

Authors: Samar Ali Enad --- Wiaam Ahmed Al-Amili
Pages: 223-227
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Abstract

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia which developed after first primary solid organ malignancy (1M) considered as secondary acute lymphoblastic leukemia (sALL) and it is rare. The observational study that researches for(sALL) in worldwide and even in Iraq is limited. This study investigated (sALL) among 50 (ALL) Iraqi patients (30 children; 20 adults). Five (4 female;1 male) out of 50 (ALL) patients (10%) were with(sALL) .They asked through questionnaire form about their age , 1M , latency period and immunophenotype .They were in 14-40 years age group and with previous malignancies breast , ovary, lung and thyroid cancers. The median latency period (from 1M to sALL) was 30 months. Four of (sALL) were with B cell immunophenotype , while one was with T cell. This observational study gives an evidence of the present of (sALL) among (ALL) Iraqi patients after 1M in the adults . Since it is the first time to address the idea of this review article and has not been addressed previously, there is a need for a wide approach on this group of (sALL) patients, including surveillance epidemiology , molecular and cytogenetic study.


Article
Isolation and identification of Pseudomonas putida from soils of plant roots and determine the ability to produce hydrolases Enzymes

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Abstract

Two Pseudomonas putida isolated from soils of plants roots. The bacterial isolates were identified by morphological tests. Biochemical reactions the result confirmed that they belong to p.putida. The bacterial isolates were produced hydrolases enzymes such as pectinase, protease and phosphates (Phosphate solubilization) by these isolates were screened. All P. putida isolates were able to produce these types of enzymes.


Article
Effect of Ph on the Growth and Survival of Juvenile Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.)

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Abstract

Common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) juveniles averaging 7.68± 0.25 - 8.12± 1.14 g in weight were used for 6 weeks to investigate their survival and growth preferences. The experimented carp were stocked at 12 tanks formerly adjusted with different pH levels values as: 6.0, 7.0, 8.0 and 9.0. Growth and survival of common carp was assessed every Sunday of each week. Growth rates significantly (P < 0.05 ) increased at pH 7 and pH8 respectively. Therefore, the results suggest that the water with pH ranged from 7 to 8 was the best range for growth performance and survival rate of carp. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) improved at pH 6 and 9 respectively. In general, the results indicated that water pH 7- 8 could be more appropriate to juvenile carp culture for best growth performance and survival rate.


Article
Mineralogical study of Sand Dunes Fields in Najaf Governorate, Southern Iraq

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Abstract

Abstract The purpose of the present paper is to define the minerals content in the Najaf Dunes fields and the origin of these sand sediments in the southwestern parts of Iraq. There are three types of dunes in this field were described, the barchan, longitudinal, and dome dunes and additional types e.g. Nabkha, Barchanoid ridges, and sand sheet dunes. The study area was divided into three areas according to the geographical position, and numerous samples were collected from this field. The mineralogical study consists from three methods these are; the first: separation of sand samples into the light and heavy minerals by heavy liquids,where performed on 30 samples. The second method; carbonate content performed on 60 samples, and the third method; X-ray diffraction performed on 20 samples. The light minerals contents composed from quartz, feldspar, and rock fragments, the rock fragments composed mainly of sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rock fragments. The heavy minerals are mostly composed from opaques minerals, chlorite group, garnet group, zircon, pyroxenes, amphiboles, epidotes, biotite, muscovite, tourmaline, kyanite, staurolite, rutile,and celestite. The heavy minerals analyses of all dunes, in three areas, show to the many source areas, these recent sediments and nearby older Sedimentary formations around the study areas, especially Dibidbba formation were the great influence from other geological formations. While the high percentages of carbonate content was obtained due to the presence of neighboring formations, which consists of limestone rocks (e.g. Dammam, Euphrates and Nfayil). And the present study shows a clear relation between the carbonate percentages and the grain size, as they increase with finer sizes.

Keywords


Article
Mineralogical study of Sand Dunes Fields in Najaf Governorate, Southern Iraq

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Abstract

Abstract The purpose of the present paper is to define the minerals content in the Najaf Dunes fields and the origin of these sand sediments in the southwestern parts of Iraq. There are three types of dunes in this field were described, the barchan, longitudinal, and dome dunes and additional types e.g. Nabkha, Barchanoid ridges, and sand sheet dunes. The study area was divided into three areas according to the geographical position, and numerous samples were collected from this field. The mineralogical study consists from three methods these are; the first: separation of sand samples into the light and heavy minerals by heavy liquids,where performed on 30 samples. The second method; carbonate content performed on 60 samples, and the third method; X-ray diffraction performed on 20 samples. The light minerals contents composed from quartz, feldspar, and rock fragments, the rock fragments composed mainly of sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rock fragments. The heavy minerals are mostly composed from opaques minerals, chlorite group, garnet group, zircon, pyroxenes, amphiboles, epidotes, biotite, muscovite, tourmaline, kyanite, staurolite, rutile,and celestite. The heavy minerals analyses of all dunes, in three areas, show to the many source areas, these recent sediments and nearby older Sedimentary formations around the study areas, especially Dibidbba formation were the great influence from other geological formations. While the high percentages of carbonate content was obtained due to the presence of neighboring formations, which consists of limestone rocks (e.g. Dammam, Euphrates and Nfayil). And the present study shows a clear relation between the carbonate percentages and the grain size, as they increase with finer sizes.

Keywords


Article
The radiological effects of dust storms in Baghdad- Ramadi area

Authors: K. K. Ali --- S. J. D Shejiri
Pages: 255-262
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Abstract

Twelve storm dust samples were collected from three cities in Iraq. The samples were collected in the same time during big storms which hit Iraq in summer, 2012 and 2013. The deposited dust on 4 by 4 nylon sheet on surfaces of selected buildings in cities of Baghdad, Fallujah and Al-Ramadi were collected. Each sample was put in sealed Marinilli beaker and kept for 4 weeks to reach the equilibrium state between radium and its short half-life daughters. Gamma spectrometry system based on HPGe was used for analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in the dust. The activities of natural radionuclides were found to be ranged between 13-19 Bq/kg, 9-14 Bq/kg and 200-240 Bq/kg for Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 respectively, while Cs-137 was found in all the samples to be ranged between 3-10 Bq/kg. The current study includes the estimation of doses caused by external and internal exposure and inhalation dose of these radionuclides and discusses the potential sources of these relatively elevated concentrations of radionuclides

Keywords

dust --- storms --- radionuclides --- dose --- Iraq.


Article
Biostratigraphy of Euphrates, Dhiban, and Jeribe formations in Ajil oil field, Salah Al-Deen Governorate, central Iraq

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Abstract

The studied succession (Lower Miocene-Early Middle Miocene) In central Iraq is distinguished by a wide range of fossils, mostly benthic foraminifera, and other fossils including bivalves, gastropods, echinoids fragments, red algae and coral are also presented. Index fossils of benthic foraminifera have been used for the purpose of determining the age of the Euphrates and Jeribe formations, because of their young age, wide geographical distribution and abundance in the selected wells. The present study involves four selected wells of Ajil oil field and in terms of the biostratigraphy of the Euphrates, Dhiban, and Jeribe formations depending on benthic foraminifera and other associated fossils. Some of these fossils have a short vertical distribution, while others have long vertical distribution. There are two biozones determined. First, in Euphrates Formation "Ammonia beccarii-Miogypsina globulina" (Assemlage zone) Second in Jeribe Formation "Borelis melo curdica" (range zone). Dhiban Formation include only small pieces of distorted fossils and dominated by anhydrite, therefore it lacks the biostratigraphic zonation.

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Article
Stratigraphic and Structural Study of Khlesia Region Using 2D Seismic Data - North Western Iraq

Authors: Nawal A. Al-Ridha --- Nawal A. Al-Ridha
Pages: 277-289
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Abstract

This study deals with interpretation of stratigraphic and structural of Khlesia area north-west Iraq in Nineveh province, near the Iraq- Syria border, by using 2D seismic data. Synthetic trace are prepared by using available data of the well (Kh-1) using Geoframe program to define and picking the reflectors on seismic section. These reflectors are: (Within Fatha and Kurra Chine reflectors) representing Middle Miocene and Late Triassic ages respectively. A listric growth normal fault is affecting the stratigraphic succession, and normal fault as a result of collision of Arabian plate with Eurasian plate. In addition, minor normal faults (Dendritic and Tension) are developed on the listric normal growth fault and influenced the studied reflectors, the fault system extends (NE-SW) direction. The structural interpretation result shows two grabens (Khlesia and Tayarat) and number of structures domes. Seismic interpretation of the study area confirms the existence of some stratigraphic features which are probable to be hydrocarbon traps. Application of seismic attributes (instantaneous phase, instantaneous frequency and reflection strength section) showed low values in frequency and reflection strength, these values reflect or indicate to presence of hydrocarbon areas.


Article
Stratigraphic and Structural Study of Khlesia Region Using 2D Seismic Data - North Western Iraq

Authors: Nawal A. Al-Ridha --- Nawal A. Al-Ridha
Pages: 277-289
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Abstract

This study deals with interpretation of stratigraphic and structural of Khlesia area north-west Iraq in Nineveh province, near the Iraq- Syria border, by using 2D seismic data. Synthetic trace are prepared by using available data of the well (Kh-1) using Geoframe program to define and picking the reflectors on seismic section. These reflectors are: (Within Fatha and Kurra Chine reflectors) representing Middle Miocene and Late Triassic ages respectively. A listric growth normal fault is affecting the stratigraphic succession, and normal fault as a result of collision of Arabian plate with Eurasian plate. In addition, minor normal faults (Dendritic and Tension) are developed on the listric normal growth fault and influenced the studied reflectors, the fault system extends (NE-SW) direction. The structural interpretation result shows two grabens (Khlesia and Tayarat) and number of structures domes. Seismic interpretation of the study area confirms the existence of some stratigraphic features which are probable to be hydrocarbon traps. Application of seismic attributes (instantaneous phase, instantaneous frequency and reflection strength section) showed low values in frequency and reflection strength, these values reflect or indicate to presence of hydrocarbon areas.


Article
Facies Analysis and Stratigraphic Development of the Zubair Formation in the Mesopotamian Zone, Southern Iraq

Authors: Hani H. Al-Rubaye --- Ali D. Gayara --- Aiad A. Al-Zaidy
Pages: 290-307
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Abstract

The Barremain-Aptian succession represented by the Clasits deposits of Zubair Formation. This formation is the most significant sandstone reservoir in Iraq which deposited in fluvio- deltaic, deltaic and marine environments during the Barremain to Early Aptian age. The area of study is located in the Mesopotamian Zone at Southern part of Iraq which represented by five oil fields (Nasira, Luhais, Suba, Tuba and West Qurnah). The petrographic study showed that quartz mineral is the main component of the sandstone in Zubair Formation with minor percentage of feldspar and rare rock fragments to classified as quartz arenite. The formation consists of mainly interbedded sandstone, shale, siltstone and sometimes thin beds of carbonate. Shale thickness increase towards east and decrease the sandstone towards the east southern of Iraq. Zubair characterized in the lower member by mud - dominated delta front associated facies. They seem to vertically separate relatively multi-storied mode and multi-lateral changes deltaic channel sand bodies resulting in compartmentalized reservoir architecture. The presence of the delta front associated facies overlaying the unconformity surface (SB1) refers to the transgressive system tract (TST). This stage was ended by the deposition the fluvial channel facies to mark a high-stand system tract (HST). The fluctuation point between the TST and HST is represented a maximum flooding surface. The middle member of Zubair Formation is characterized by moderate to well sorted quartz arenite sandstone with appearance bands of the shale overlaying the sand body. This succession was deposied in the delta plain environment with steps of sea level rise during the transgressive stage. There are two sequences as TST in this part which end with the maximum sea level rise (MFS) to mark the upper part of the Zubair Formation. The next stage was appeared high concentrations of organic matters and pyrite mineral which indicating that the sedimentary environment has been reduced to the marshes environment during the HST. The upper part of the Zubair Formation showed a shallower environment with shale dominated rocks associated with high organic matters and pyrite. This indicates to the finning up-ward mode during highstand stage when the deposition environment changed from delta plain fluvial channel to delta front mouth bar. The sea level rise marked the end of this stage when deposition the upper part of Zubair Formation, and the beginning of deposition of shallow marine carbonate of the Shuaiba Formation as shallow carbonate marine.

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Article
Tectonic Boundaries and Depth Estimate of Some Gravity Sources in Diyala Area, East Central Iraq

Authors: Alaa N. Daham --- Ahmed S. AL-Banna
Pages: 308-320
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The Bouguer gravity and magnetic RTP anomalies data were used to detect the main tectonic boundaries of middle and south of Diyala Province, east Iraq. Window method was used to separate the residual anomalies using different space windows for the Bouguer and Magnetic RTP maps. The residual anomaly processed in order to reduce noise and give a more comprehensive vision about subsurface lineaments structures. Results for descriptive interpretation presented as contour maps in order to locate directions and extensions of lineaments feature which may interpret as faults. The gradient technique is used for depth estimation of some gravity source which shows that the sources depth range between (13.65 - 5.36) km. Some gravity sources confirms the depth of basement rocks, while other shallow sources related to sedimentary cover, on an assumption of body source approximated to a horizontal cylindrical. The Total Horizontal Derivative (THD) technique is used to identify the faults trends in the sedimentary cover and basement rocks depending upon gravity and magnetic data. The identified faults in the study area show (NW-SE),(NE-SW) and(N-S)trends. Most faults extending from the basement to the upper most layer of the sedimentary cover rocks. Depending on the detected faults, the main tectonic boundaries of the region were obtained.


Article
Evaluation of Petrophysical Characteristics of Carbonate Mishrif Reservoir in Ahdeb oil Field, Central Iraq

Authors: Madhat E. Nasser --- Buraq Adnan Al-Baldawi
Pages: 321-329
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Abstract

Ahdeb oil field is located in the central block of Mesopotamia plain in Iraq. It has three domes AD-1, AD-2, and AD-4.The current study represents characterization of carbonate Mishrif reservoir (Cenomanian-Early Turonian) in three wells (AD-A,AD-B,AD-C) at southern dome of Ahdeb oil field. Petrophysical properties were calculated using available well logs data such as neutron, density, sonic, gamma ray, resistivity and self-potential logs. These logs are digitized and then environmental corrections and interpretations were carried out using Techlog software. Petrophysical parameters such as shale volume, porosity, water saturation, hydrocarbon saturation, bulk water volume, etc. were determined and interpreted and illustrated in computer processing interpretation (CPI).Mishrif Formation was divided into five units according to reservoir properties (MI-1,MI-2,MI-3,MI-4 and MI-5). These units differ from each other’s by reservoir properties. The unit MI-4 is the best reservoir unit in Mishrif Formation that has good petrophysical properties such as high porosity and low water saturation. The MI-4 unit represents the principle oil bearing unit in Mishrif Formation.The other units of Mishrif Formation are characterized by high water saturation with variations of effective porosity that indicated of these units are free oil shows.


Article
Assessment of Magnetite Polishing by Using Tigris River Stream Sediments in Baghdad: An Ore Microscopy Application

Authors: Sara Ali Khalid --- Salih Muhammad Awadh
Pages: 330-340
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This aim of this study is to assess the Tigris River sediments and utilize them as a new abrasive for the preparation of polished surface of magnetite ore to be studied under reflected light ore microscope. Such polishing process was tested using 250, 125, 71, 45, 25 and 18μm grain sizes of the river sediments. For the completion of the polishing and to obtain a glossy perfect polished surface, the 7 and 2.5 μm sized standard diamond pastes were used. After each polishing stage, the reflectance and roughness of these surfaces were measured as an evaluation step for the polishing efficiency. The reflectance values (R%) of the magnetite surface were found to be reversely proportioned to the abrasive grain size; while the surface roughness values (Ra) showed positive relationship with the grain size. The polished surface showed gradual improvement with decreasing grain size of the abrasive. The reflectance increased at a rate of 0, 0, 0.3, 1.2, 2.5, 3.7, 9.3, 20% with reducing grain sizes from 250, 125, 70, 45, 25, 18, 7 and 2.5 µm; at the same time, the roughness reduced at a rate of 72.2, 51.8, 23.7, 17.2, 10.9, 7.5, 6, 3.8 with reducing grain size. The 18 µm abrasive grain size of river sediments was found to be the best. Buffing by 2.5 µm diamond paste as the last stage, improved the polishing efficiency and resulted in 20% reflectance. Based on the obtained results, the Tigris sediments can be considered as fine-grained granules with the ability of preparing a flat, homogeneous surface with little roughness and reasonable degree of reflectivity.


Article
Facies Analysis and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Zubair Formation in the Kifl oil field, Central of Iraq

Authors: Aiad Ali Hussien Al-Zaidy
Pages: 341-352
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The Zubair Formation is the most significant sandstone reservoir in Iraq which deposited during the Barremian. The study area is located in the central part of Iraq at the Kifl oil field, in the northern part of the Mesopotamian Zone. The petrographic study showed that quartz mineral is the main component of the sandstone in Zubair Formation with very low percentage of feldspar and rare rock fragments to classified as quartz arenite sandtone. There are five lithologic changes (lithofacies) that have characterized the studied succession: - well sorted quartz arenite, poorly sorted quartz arenite, poorly sorted graywacke, sandy shale, and shale. These lithofacieses were deposited in the deltaic environments as three associated facies [delta plane, delta front and distributary channel]. The different lithofacies contributed to division of the Zubair Formation into three distinct rock units, which had been used in interpreting and distributing the suggested environments. The lower part of Zubair Formation is characterized by wide spread mud - dominated delta plain associated facies. The presence of the delta plain facies overlaying the unconformity surface (SB1) refer to the transgressive system tract (TST). This stage ended with occurrence of the channel fill deposit to mark a high-stand system tract (HST). This stage has ended with the delta plain facies again to mark a high-stand system tract (HST). The fluctuation point between the TST and HST is represented by a maximum flooding surface. The middle part of Zubair Formation is characterized by moderate to well sorted quartz arenite sandstone with bands of the shale overlaying the sand body. This succession was deposited in the delta front environment with steps of sea level stillstand during the high stand stage. The HST in this part ended with sea level rise (TST) to mark the upper part of the Zubair Formation with appeared the delta front facies. While the upper part is represented by alternative of delta front and delta plain facies as four cycles. The sea level rise was marked the end of this stage when deposition the upper part of Zubair Formation, and the beginning of deposition the Shuaiba Formation as shallow marine carbonate.


Article
Key Generator to Encryption Images Based on Chaotic Maps

Authors: Ali H. Kashmar --- Ahmed Yousif
Pages: 362-370
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Abstract

It is known that images differ from texts in many aspects, such as high repetition and correlation, local structure, capacitance characteristics and frequency. As a result, traditional encryption methods can not be applied to images. In this paper we present a method for designing a simple and efficient messy system using a difference in the output sequence. To meet the requirements of image encryption, we create a new coding system for linear and nonlinear structures based on the generation of a new key based on chaotic maps. The design uses a kind of chaotic maps including the Chebyshev 1D map, depending on the parameters, for a good random appearance. The output is a test in several measurements, including the complexity of the standard balance and time execution. The results show that any change in input will change the output and the time required for the application requires only parts of the minute. The output is passed through the exponential function [exp (X))] to obtain a wide range of input. The result is then set to machine words to fit the desired range of multicast used. The next step is the output of machine words that will be used as input to the array that we have structured to generate the key. The key is converted to a sequential element into an element with an ordinary image to produce the encrypted image. Furthermore, keystream succeeded by passing tests (NIST statistical package tests for random). Finally, the real-time image encoding of the corresponding algorithm was applied; preliminary results show that the proposed algorithm has good coding strength with added benefit that resists security analysis.


Article
On µ-lifting Modules

Authors: Wasan Khalid --- Enas Mustafa Kamil
Pages: 371-380
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Let R be a ring with identity and let M be a left R-module. M is called µ-lifting modulei f for every sub module A of M, There exists a direct summand D of M such that M = D D', for some sub module D' of M such that A≤D and A D'<<µ D'. The aim of this paper is to introduce properties of µ-lifting modules. Especially, we give characterizations of µ-lifting modules. On the other hand, the notion of amply µ-supplemented iis studied as a generalization of amply supplemented modules, we show that if M is amply µ-supplemented such that every µ-supplement sub module of M is a direct summand, then M is µ-lifting module. Finally, we give some conditions under which the quotient and direct sum of µ-lifting modules is µ-lifting.

Table of content: volume:60 issue:2