Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology

المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية

ISSN: 18154794
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Institute of genetic Engineering and Techno-biology
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology was founded in 2001 ,it was first issued in 2002,it is a semi-annual refereed scientific journal issued by the Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in Baghdad University in fields of biology, environment, agricultural sciences ,medicine, dentistry, pharmacology, veterinary medicine and researches specialized in bioinformatics

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E-mail:journal@ige.uobaghdad.edu.iq
www.iqjb.net
www.ige.uobaghdad.edu.iq : موقع المعهدعلى شبكة
الإنترنت
TEL:7789300
Baghdad-AL-Jadriyah -p.o.box:12074

Table of content: 2019 volume:18 issue:1

Article
Review: Hormonal Disturbance in Ambiguous Patients

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Abstract

Sex development in humans is divided into two sequential steps: sex determination and sex differentiation. Sex determination refers to the expression of gene networks that direct the development of undifferentiated bipotential gonads into either testes or ovaries. Once developed, testes and ovaries secrete hormones that promote further sex differentiation of the body throughout embryonic development and adulthood. Mutations have been identified in genes that control both steps, leading to Disorders of sex development-DSD. A thorough history, physical examination, and appropriate diagnostic testing are needed to identify the underlying etiology. DSD are congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex is atypical. DSD are chronic medical conditions collectively affecting ~1% of the population, frequently requiring life-long care by multiple specialists, and carrying a significant public health burden. Some of DSD are associated with life-threatening events, such as adrenal crises in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. DSD are also associated with increased infertility, cancer, gender dysphoria risks, psychosocial distress, and pervasive challenges to health-related quality of life for patients and families. DSD are broadly classified into three categories: sex chromosome DSD, 46, XY DSD, and 46, XX DSD and are further classified according to the type of gonad found in the patient (ovary, testis, ovotestis). Currently, known etiologies include disorders of gonadal development and disorders in androgen synthesis or action, and are considered Mendelian. Ambiguous genitalia is defined as a condition in which there is difficulty in assigning sex of an individual based on the appearance of external genitalia. Possible genital presentations are: male or female regular, males with ambiguous features and hypovirilization (micropenis, lack of scrotal fusion, incomplete testicular descent, hypospadia) or females with ambiguous features and virilization (clitoromegaly, labio-scrotal fusion).


Article
Detection the Effect of Smoking and Age on Total Anti- Oxidant Capacity Level and DNA Damage of Individuals Exposure to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation

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Abstract

The aim of this study to detect the total anti- oxidant capacity (TAC) level and DNA damage by use alkaline comet assay in different measurements as biomarker of double and single strand breaks that caused by smoking and relation with age of individuals exposed to ionizing radiation, this study including 100 male blood samples (30-65) years, TAC level were measured as biomarker for detecting the effect of smoking and age of exposed individuals, in this research recorded non- significant increase in total TAC level in blood serum for the non-smoker individuals as compared with smoker, in other hand also we recorded non -significant result of TAC in three age groups (Less than 40, 40-50 and more than 50) years, but the single cell gel electrophoresis ( comet assay) appear highly significant increase ** (P<0.01) with Mean ±SE (18.63± 0.72) and LSD –value (3.386 **) of DNA damage(high damage measurement HD) in smoker individuals when compared with nonsmoking, the present study shows significant difference in comet high damage cells (* P<0.05) for some age groups that be less than 40 and more than 50years is 12.67 and 17.37 respectively, the study results show that the difference increased of comet assay measurements may be caused by smoking , aging and also effect of works environment. The level of TAC was non more difference in age groups and in smoker individuals or non- smokers . In conclusion, found that an negative correlation between TAC level and oxidised bases that measured by comet assay (single and double strands breaks), and age. This study , indicated that can use the different measurement of comet assay as biomarkers to detect influence of age and smoking in peripheral blood lymphocytes DNA. Also, the results confirmed usefuless of the TAC as biomarker of smoking and aging effect in exposed individuals.


Article
Study of Antibiotic Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii in Intensive Care Units (I.C.Us) and Burn Patients

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Abstract

The genus Acinetobacter is a major cause of nosocomial infections; it is increasingly being associated with various epidemics and has become a widespread concern in a variety of hospitals worldwide. Multi-antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, is now recognized to be of great clinical significance. Numerous reports relay to the spread of A. baumannii in the hospital settings which leads to enhanced nosocomial outbreaks associated with high death rates. However, many other Acinetobacter spp. also can cause nosocomial infections. This study focused on the role of Acinetobacter spp. as nosocomial pathogens in addition to their persistence, antimicrobial resistance patterns and epidemiology.


Article
In silico Modeling of Beta-lactamase Protein Acinetobacter baumannii

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Abstract

The most common mechanism of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in gram-negative bacteria is the production of β-lactamases that hydrolyze the drug. Results that have been obtained from some servers that have been used in this study were gave a poor quality and prediction. SWISS MODEL server results gave more promising result as it had 92% query coverage. Validated was done for the model study by using QMEAN score, Ramachandran plot and ProSA server. 3D Refine and Mod Refiner were used for model refinement. Finally, ProSA server have been used in order to revalidate the model.


Article
Detection of Tn917 Conferring Erythromycin Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pneumonoiae

Authors: Duaa Hammoud , Hameed M. Jasim
Pages: 43-49
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Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the genetic organization of erm-gene carrying Tn917 in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumonia. Swab samples were collected from pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sputum and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from patients suffering from respiratory tract infections who attended Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, Central Child Teaching Hospital and The Baghdad Teaching Hospital in Baghdad during the period from November/2017 to April/2018. A total of 15 isolates of S. pneumoniae isolates were examined and was found to contain Tn917 element. Susceptibility of these isolates to different antibiotics was also examined, results showed that these isolates are resistant to penicillin in percentage of 93%, then to streptomycin (87%), clindamycin (73%), kanamycin (50%), erythromycin and azithromycin (40%), tetracycline and trimethoprim (80%), ciproflaxin and levofloxacin (20%). Genomic DNA was extracted from S. pneumoniae isolates for detection Tn917 by using specific primers to amplify erm gene carried by this transposable element. Results showed that five of S. pneumoniae isolates were found to contain Tn917 element giving them erythromycin resistance. erm gene encodes this antibiotic but does not mediate resistance to other antimicrobial agents. On the other hand, nucleotide sequence for erm gene was determined, and compared by alignment with the erm gene sequence located on the same transposable elements in standard strains of S. pneumoniae recorded in NCBI data base. Results of alignment showed 100% identity between these sequences.


Article
Association of DIO2 Gene Polymorphism with Some Productive Traits and Prolificacy in Local Awassi Sheep

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Abstract

In this study 40 ewes of native Awassi breed and their offspring of 46 birth which belong to Department of Animal Production/College of Agriculture / University of Baghdad for the period of January 2018 to July 2018. The aim of the study was to determine the polymorphism distribution and allele frequency of DIO2 (exon 2) gene and its relationship with the productive traits and prolificacy. In PCR analysis, specific primer was used to amplify 350bp fragment flanking the polymorphism site Restriction fragment length Polymorphism (RFLP) applied on PCR Product by using (BstNI) restriction enzyme and genetic varied manifestations (Polymorphism) to the target area of the gene encoding DIO2 (exon 2) depending on the different enzymatic digestion resulting, CC wild, CG and GG, it amounted to distribute genetic manifestations of gene DIO2 ratios in a sample sheep Awassi thoughtful 82.50, 12.50 and 5.00% for each of the genotypes and it was the contrast between these highly significant proportions (P<0.01), allele frequency were 0.89 and 0.11 of each allele, G and C respectively. Total milk production significantly affected(P˂0.05) by DIO2 gene polymorphism, the highest production was in ewes with CG genotype (82.20± 4.21 kg), but non-significant effect in lactation period. Percentage of milk contents, fat, protein and sold non-fat affected by this DIO2 gene polymorphism (P˂0.05), and non significant in milk lactose percentage. Effect of genotype of LPR gene in prolificacy average was significant (P<0.05) for the Awaasi sheep that had the CG (1.20 ± 0.05 lamb/ewe) and CC (1.15 ± 0.06 lamb/ewe) genotype in this study. Concluded through the study of the genotype of DIO2 gene and its future it adoption to set the genetic rehabilitation strategies for sheep to maximize the economic return of farmed elect and crossing genotypes that have achieved the milk production and best prolificacy projects.


Article
Impact of Age Factor in Cervical Abnormalities and Cancers Incidence in Some Iraqi Married Women

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Abstract

Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, and it has the fourth highest mortality rate among cancers in women. The present study aimed to reveal the impact of age factor in cervical abnormalities and cancers incidence in some Iraqi married women. 150 scraping cervical cells samples were collected from the women clinically diagnosed with cervical abnormalities and cancer who were divided into two groups; the first group included the women with abnormal pap smear which revealed 13.33% of women were less than 30 years and followed by 66.66% of women whose age between 30-50 years and 20% of them were more than 50 years old. While the second group iclude the women with normal Pap smear (Healthy women) which revealed that 26.66% of women were less 30 years, followed by 53.33% of women whose age between 30-50 years and 20% of them were more than 50 years old. The results showed that the highest percentage of precancerous stage was founded in 30-50 years old women, wherease the highest percentage in advanced stage represented by squamous cervical cancer and adenocarcinoma was founded in more than 50 years old women. In addition, the results of current study exhibted that the rates of ASC-US were 43% and 50%, while the rates of LSIL were 42% and 52% in less than 30 years old and 30-50 years women respectively. Wherease the rates of ASC-US and LSIL were 6.6% and 4.7% in more than 50 years old women. As well as the results revealed that the rates of HSIL and SCC were higher in over 50 year's women with percentages 40% and 63.63%, respectively.


Article
Estimation of Allele and Haplotype Frequencies for 17 YSTR Markers in the Diyala Arab Population

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Abstract

In this study, 17 Y chromosome –Short tandem Repeat (Y-STR) sites were (DYS635, DYS437, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458). YGATA H4 DYS1919, DYS38911, DYS90, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS438, DYS439 and DYS385 a / b) were analyzed in 110members of the Diyala Arab population. According to measures of genetic diversity the highest diversity was observed at loci DYS385a/b= (0.933), DYS458=( 0.830) Low gene diversity (0.253). Therefore, these loci should be considered the most diverse and polymorphic for forensic testing that can be used to distinguish between male relatives. Genetic diversity values ranged from 0.253 to 0.933. The Diyala Arab populations is largely heterogeneous and a total of 78 different haplotypes were observed, there were 55 (0.009091) uniques haplotypes and 23 haplotype were shared between individuals. Haplotype diversity was 0.9990 and Discrimination capacity (DC) (0.705128).


Article
Isolation and Identification of lipA Gene Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Industrial Wastewater

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Abstract

Lipases are enzymes which have interesting in last few years for its widely applications in many industries like leather, detergents, cosmetic ,pharmaceuticals, biofuel, food, wastewater treatment etc. Many organisms produce lipase like animals, plants, fungi and bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipases are very interesting to have some properties that are not common among lipases produced by other microorganisms, such as their thermoresistance and activity at alkaline pH ,that make it suitable to degrade oils in industrial wastewater. This study aimed to isolation and identify for Pseudomonas aeruginosa from industerual wastewater (vegetable oils) depending on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeted lipA gene. Fifty samples were collected from oil rich industrial wastewater processed to routine biochemical tests to diagnosis P. aeruginosa and compare these results with diagnosis by PCR technique based on gene lip A, it was found that Thirty four of fifty samples (68%) positive results with P. aeruginosa . Tow lipA gene primers were used to detect for P. aeruginosa by the polymerase chain reaction Technique (PCR). Throw tow primers used, lipA 948 was the best and more specialized primer to isolation P. aeruginosa , (100%) positive result. While the second primer lipA 558, (66.66%) positive result.

Keywords

lipA --- P. aeruginosa --- PCR.


Article
Production of Recombinant IFN-α2b from Tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) by Non-Chromatography Purification

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Abstract

Developing genetically modified plants has been among wildly used strategies to produce recombinant proteins. Prior to have a large-scale production of a recombinant proteins, transient expression in a model plant is recommended as it could lead us to a proper insight of the subject. In this research, interferon alpha 2b gene (INF α2b) as a protein with antiviral and antitumor activities was subjected to be transiently expressed in tobacco and through Agrobacterium tumefaciens infiltration method. The optimized target sequence, IFN α2b, was designed to be constructed in such a way that it could be purified either by His-tag or Elastin-like peptide (ELP). Agro-infiltrated leaves were analyzed through real time PCR. In proteomics level, the ELP-tagged IFN was successfully purified through non-chromatography method and confirmed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Considering the low level of recombinant protein production in the plants, one remarkable achievement of this research was application of ELP in combination with IFN α2b for purification of recombinant protein from total protein of the plant hosts.


Article
Interspecies Interactions Induced Pigment Production from Non-Producing Isolate of Streptomyces MR24 in a Co-culture with Bacillus subtilis

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Abstract

In the nature, microorganisms is found in populations of different species in which they interact with each other. It is possible to hypothesise that microorganisms have acquired a diverse of physiological and metabolic responses as a result of inter-species interactions such as production of bioactive compounds. In fact, many of these reponses remain silent in the laboratory and hence many compounds which may be important are not appear. In this work, we utilized microbil interactions to activate silent pathways in order to induce metabolites production. Thirty different isolates of Streptomyces were examined for their pigment production in a pure and mixed cultures with Bacillus subtilis. In an interestng finding, we recognized a pink pigment produced by the isolate Streptomyces MR24 only in the mixed culture. The maximum absorption peak of the extracted pink pigment was approximately at 450 nm. The FT-IR spectra analysis revealed different stretching and bending functional groups at different wave length. The result of FT-IR analysis indicated the presence of O-H, N-H, C=N, C-N, C-C, C-O, C=C and C-H functional groups suggesting that this pigment may possess a good antimicrobial activity which already confirmed as the pink pigment was noticeably effective against Bacillus subtilis.

Table of content: volume:18 issue:1