Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology

المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية

ISSN: 18154794
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Institute of genetic Engineering and Techno-biology
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology was founded in 2001 ,it was first issued in 2002,it is a semi-annual refereed scientific journal issued by the Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in Baghdad University in fields of biology, environment, agricultural sciences ,medicine, dentistry, pharmacology, veterinary medicine and researches specialized in bioinformatics

Loading...
Contact info

E-mail:journal@ige.uobaghdad.edu.iq
www.iqjb.net
www.ige.uobaghdad.edu.iq : موقع المعهدعلى شبكة
الإنترنت
TEL:7789300
Baghdad-AL-Jadriyah -p.o.box:12074

Table of content: 2019 volume:18 issue:2

Article
Autolysis Activity of Vancomycin Resistance Staphylococcus epidermidis

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Out of one hundred clinical samples were taken from different sources which include burns, blood cultures, wounds and nasal swabs infections ; 90 isolates developed growth on mannitol salt agar. Among these, 40 (44.4%) were Coagulase positive (Staphylococcus aureus) isolates, 50 (55.5%) belong to coagulase negative staphylococci in which Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates were 30(60%).The effect of vancomycin resistant on cell autolysis activity of S. epidermidis was detected by whole cell autolytic assay . Three isolates of S. epidermidis ,vancomycin sensitive (VSSE),vancomycin resistance (VRSE) and vancomycin intermediate (VISE) were tested. The results revealed that was significant difference among three isolates , the VSSE isolate (S.epidermidis NO. 22) have the highest autolytic activity in the presence of antibiotic , followed by the VRSE isolate (S. epidermidis NO.1) and the VISE isolate (S. epidermidis NO.14) which was the lowest autolytic activity with the presence of antibiotic. The result of transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that the VRSE isolates (S.epidermidis NO. 1) have thicker cell wall followed by VISE (S.epidermidis NO. 14) isolates .However , the VSSE (S.epidermidis NO. 22) didn't showed any cell wall thickening.


Article
Identification of Leishmania donovani Isolates by Polymerase Chain Reaction

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Leishmaniasis is endemic of Iraq in both cutaneous and visceral form. The available tools for diagnosis and detection of Leishmania are nonspecific and may interfere with other species. In this study, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has been used to identify Iraqi isolate of visceral leishmaniasis (MHOM/ IQ/2005/MRU15) which a previously diagnosed by classical serological tests. PCR amplification was carried out using species-specific primers of Leishmania donovani. Four primer pairs of mini-circle DNA and ITS-1 were used.13A/13B, which is used to identify Leishmania as a genus, NM12, LITSR/L5.8S and BHUL18S, were used to detect the sub species of L. donovani. The result of PCR amplification of 13A/13B kDNA revealed that a band of ~ 120 bp. NM12, LITSR/L5.8S and BHUL18S primer pairs demonstrated bands of 204 bp, 320 bp and 311 bp, respectively. The results of this study are recommended to be used for identification of visceral leishmaniasis identification instead of time consuming and non-specific classical methods.


Article
Molecular Detection and Prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum, Among Patients with Diarrhea at Al-Rifai City/Thi-Qar Province

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Cryptosporidium parvum as genus of apicomplexan parasitic protozoa is well known as a worldwide protozoan parasite in both human and a wide range of animals and considered as one of the major causes of severe life-threatening diarrhea in immunodeficient people and self- limiting in healthy individuals. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of C.parvum in stool samples of diarrheic patients , this study is carried out in Thi –Qar Province / Al-Rifeadistrict in Al-Rifai general Hospital which included collection of stool samples from diarrheic patients at a period extended from October / 2017 – January / 2018 , (603) stool samples taken from patients with different ages to both sexes examined by microscopic examination and PCR technique. The results showed the percentage of positive samples C. parvum by microscopic examination was (5.1%) and negativesampleswas (94.9%), the highest infected patients found (58%) in males and lowest infected patients found (42%) in females,the highest infected patients found (64.5%) in Rural area and lowest infected patients found (35.5%) in Urbanarea, inage groupthe highest infected patients was (35.5%) inAge groupLess than (1-10years)and lowest infected patients found (9.7%) in age group (21-30) years. Results of PCR was positive sample 20 with percentage 10.4% and 172 negative samples, the percentage was (89.6%).the highest infected patients found (65%) in males and lowest infected patients found (35%) in females,the highest infected patients found (55%) in Rural area and lowest infected patients found (45%) in Urbanarea, .Age group was the highest infected patients found (45%) in age group (1-10years) and lowest infected patients found (5 %) in age group (31-40) years.


Article
Microbial Levan from Arthrobacter globiformis Strain KX 146411.1: Characterization and Enhancement of Production

Authors: Sanaa Basheer Kadhem
Pages: 28-39
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Levan producing bacteria was isolated from rhizosphere soil. The molecular identification of this isolate was conducted using 16S rRNA, which resulted in a sequenced region of 1295 base pairs. The sequence alignment in the gene bank indicated that this isolate has a high percentage of similarity (98%) to the retrieved consensus sequence of Arthrobacter globiformis strain JCM 1332. The produced levan was characterized using TLC. The effects of nutritional and physical factors on this isolate’s levan production were investigated. The results demonstrated that the optimal sources for carbon and nitrogen during levan production were sucrose and casein, yielding 7.8 g/l and 8.24 g/l of levan, respectively. The highest levan yield 8.6, 7.8, 8.6, 8.53 and 8.27 g/l were obtained at 300 g/l sucrose, pH of 7.8, 33°C, 72 h period of incubation and 150 rpm respectively.


Article
Clone, purify and 1D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the BRCT Domain of E. coli DNA Ligase LigA

Authors: Arqam Alomari1 , Mark Allen2
Pages: 40-48
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

DNA ligases are essential enzymes in all domains of life. The role of these enzymes are to bind DNA ends, nicked DNA and join broken nucleic acid strands. The tertiary structure of E. coli DNA ligase LigA has four main domains: nucleotidyltransferase, oligomer-binding, Helix-hairpin-Helix and BRCT domain. One of the main objectives of my previous study was to explore the potential DNA ligase LigA as possible antibiotic targets by using a molecular docking programme called Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) (in silico) just in the first three domains of the tertiary structure of NAD+-dependent DNA ligase of E. coli LigA protein. Fortunately, it was found that four compounds out of the eight (5-Azacytidine, Geneticin, Chlorhexidine and Imidazolidinyl Urea) did inhibit the activity of E. coli LigA protein in silico, in vitro and then in vivo experiments after purify the native LigA protein. Importantly, the tertiary structure of this small BRCT domain has not been solves before. It does not appear in the crystal structure of 2OWO (PDB) that solved by Nandakumar et al., 2007. In this paper, the project was carried out to clone, express and purify the 88 amino acid of the forth domain (BRCT) and doing initial NMR experiment (1D NMR spectrum) to check the folding of this domain. It was found and determined that the BRCT domain of E. coli DNA ligase LigA is folded accurately, which is increased and supported the possibility as antibiotic target in all domains of E. coli LigA protein in the future.


Article
Association of Transforming Growth Factor Beta1 Gene Polymorphism with Diabetes Mellitus Risk in Iraq Patients

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) refers to a group of multifactorial metabolic disorders characterized by elevated blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) that result from defects in the body's ability to produce and/or insufficiency of insulin action .This study was to investigate the correlation between TGFβ1 polymorphism and Diabetes Mellitus .The present study carried out in the labs of college of education for pure science and Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology of the Health Directorate in Thi- Qar province, the period of research was extended from January- July 2017. To test for the association of Polymorphisms in promoter region (G-800A) and (C-509T ) of transforming growth factor- β 1 (TGF-β1) gene with diabetes mellitus in Iraqian patients. The study included a total of 120 patients with type I and II diabetes and their age between 1-51 years. in addition to 52 healthy controls . DNA has been isolated and RFLP-PCR was performed by using primers specific for genotypes of two region of the TGF β1 gene (C509T)and (G800A). The results showed that only C509T polymorphism of the TGFβ1 gene is significantly different in genotype distribution in allelic frequencies between DM patients and control subjects and association with clinical characteristics. Thus this SNP seems to be related to DM susceptibility. This study supports the involvement of TGFβ1 gene polymorphism in the incidence of DM in Thi-Qar population.

Keywords

Diabetes Mellitus --- TGF-β1 --- G800A --- C509T.


Article
Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration from Immature Embryos of Two Wheat Cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study was conducted in the Plant Tissue Culture Laboratories of Genetic Engineering Institute/Baghdad University at the aim of inducing callus and regenerated plants from immature embryos of two wheat cultivars. Immature embryos were excised and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for callus induction. MS and doubled MS components were used with the addition of different growth regulators combinations to induce callus from immature embryos of the studied cultivars. The medium MS with 2 mg L-1 2,4-D gave the highest callus fresh and dry weights compared with the other medium. Tamooz 2 was significantly higher in both, fresh and dry weight of the induced callus than cv. Al-Iraq. Plants regeneration was induced on MS media supplemented with BA of (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 mg l-1). The control treatment (0 BA) was the best medium for regeneration.


Article
Detection of AGT Gene Polymorphism in Patient with Hypertension in Mosul City

Authors: Owayes M.H. Al- Hassani
Pages: 64-69
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene may affect AGT transcription and level of blood pressure. We determined the frequency of the AGT polymorphism in sample of Iraqi patients with primary hypertension. Using a molecular epidemiology approach, we also determined the relationship between primary hypertension and environmental-AGT polymorphism interactions of this study was to investigate the association between genetic polymorphisms of AGT M235T genes and Hypertension in Mosul city. Venous blood samples were collected from each subject in two separate test tubes: one was used for biochemical analysis. The other was collected in EDTA tube for DNA extraction. Genomic DNA was isolated from whole-blood samples of all the patients and control subjects. DNA concentration and purity were determined measuring by Bio drop and detected the optimum DNA concentration for PCR analysis. The quality of the DNA was determined using agarose gel electrophoresis stained with ethidium bromide, samples were stored at -20 °C until further use. The current study showed increase biochemical parameters in female patients compare with male patients. Regarding AGT/M235T gene polymorphism, In the present study, AGT/MT genotyping revealed that 47.5 % of patients, AGT/MM homozygous had 42.6 % and AGT/TT homozygous had 9.8 % in patients with Hypertension.

Keywords

Polymorphism --- AGT --- Hypertension --- DNA.


Article
Expression and Clinical Significance of the Chemokine Receptor CXCR2 in Ovarian Cancer

Authors: Maysaa G. Jumaah
Pages: 70-76
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present study aimed to shed light on the role the of the Chemokine Receptor CXCR2 in the pathogenesis and progression of ovarian cancer. A total of 23 Paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from patients with different stages of newly diagnosed ovarian cancer were provided by certain Iraqi hospitals as well as 7 samples of patients with benign ovarian tumors tissues as a control group were used in this study. In the present study, the CXCR2expression was assessed by means of an envision immunohistochemistery technique using the NovolinkTM Polymer Detection Systems for both benign and malignant ovarian tumors. The results showed that 6(85.7%) of benign ovarian tumors and 22(95.7%) of ovarian cancer samples were positive for CXCR-2 which showed significant differences (P value0.048<0.5). CXCR2 was not expressed in 1(14.3%) of benign tumors and 1(4.3%) of ovarian cancer sections. Weak (+) CXCR-2 expression was observed in 2(28.5%) of benign tumors and 5(21.7%) of ovarian cancer sections which showed no significant differences. No significant differences were observed in the median CXCR-2 expression (++) between samples of benign tumors 3(42.8)% and samples of ovarian cancer 5(21.73%). The highest vascular signal intensity of CXCR-2 expression (+++) was observed in 1(14.3%) of benign tumors and 12(52.1%) of ovarian cancer sections, which showed high significant differences (P value **<0.01). In correlation with stages the results showed that18(94.44%) of samples with stage I and 4(100%) of samples with stage III were positive for CXCR2, which showed no significant differences (NS) with differences I signal intensity. In conclusion this study investigated that the percentages of sections with positive expression were higher in ovarian cancer tissue sections than the sections of benign ovarian tumors, and the signal intensity of staining was stronger in late stages of ovarian cancer tissue indicate role of CXCR2 expression in ovarian tumor progression, and maybe reveals the diagnostic value of this receptor for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer, and also provide the evidence for the ability of tumor cells to metastasize and then tumor angiogenesis and invasiveness.


Article
Extraction and Evaluation the Activity of Urtica dioica as Bleeding Stop Material

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Urtica dioica From the medicinal herbs group, with many uses, the extract of the plant was prepared in order to study effect on the process of stopping hemorrhage of various pathological causes, collection of plants in the pre-blooming phase of the Jadiriyah area, Baghdad, Iraq. Prepare a sample of it by way of alcohol extraction for all parts of the plant. The substances and active groups were identified using chemical analysis. The results showed the presence of the necessary phytol in the blood clotting process as well as the glycosides, tannins, proteins, flavonoids and others. Some antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer compounds were found using gas chromatography technique. High-performance liquid chromatography was used as the important morphine was identified in the manufacture of a number of vitamins. The trace sample showed a high concentration of sodium and iron and a low concentration of zinc. The tested sample passed the toxicity test carried out on laboratory animals and proved its non toxic in the doses used. The results of the treatment of blood hemorrhage in mice found that the plant extract had an effect on reducing the duration of bleeding cessation to 1.14 seconds compared to the non-treated group (3.21) seconds, about 60% less, the hemoglobin level in rabbits was reduced to a significant level (P <0.01) to 13.2 g / dl compared with the control (14.5) g / dl and decreased packed cell volume (PCV) to 41 ml compared to 46 ml with control. It is noted that the number of white blood cells decreased with a significant value (P <0.01) to 5900 × 10 3 μl compared with control 8200 × 10 3 μl and found a decrease (P <0.01) at the time of bleeding by 50% after treatment with the extract and reduced the coagulation time by one third and with a significant value P <0.01).

Keywords

Urtica dioica --- Hemorrhage --- phytol --- Morin.


Article
Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of ZnO Nanoparticles Using the Precipitate and Irradiation Methods

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this study, ZnO NPS were synthesized in two methods: the precipitate and irradiation methods. X-Ray powder Diffraction, Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to study the crystal structure and surface morphology of the synthesized NPS, which showed that the average particle size of ZnO NPS synthesized by irradiation method was better than which synthesized by precipitate method. The antibacterial activity against staphylococcus epidermidis and E.coli bacteria were studied and showed that ZnO NPs prepared by Irradiation method have higher antibacterial activity against S.epidermidis and E.coli than ZnO NPs prepared by precipitate method because of ZnO NPs prepared by Irradiation method smaller than ZnO NPs prepared by precipitate method. In current study, we concluded that irradiation method is better than precipitate method in the preparation of ZnO NPS and in the inhibition of the work of types of bacteria such as (staphylococcus epidermidis and E.coli).


Article
Assessment of Co-Infection of Human Cytomegalovirus DNA and Epstein Barr-Virus (ZEBRA-Genes) in Tissues of Ovarian Tumors

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Infection by Epstein Barr-Virus (EBV) begins with a short replication phase. The virus remains in a latent phase, only entering the lytic phase in response to a cascade of transcriptional signals. These signals are triggered by the ZEBRA protein (BZFL1) along with Rta (BRLF1). Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is responsible for a lifelong persistent infection which ranged from 50% to 90% in adult population, and is related to either socioeconomic status or geographic location. HCMV infection might lead to buildup tumor cells via the protection of certain tumor cells from apoptosis and modulating angiogenesis. The study was designed to determine ZEBRA-EBV gene and DNA-HCMV infections in tissues from ovarian tumors. An 150 ovarian tissues were examined for ZEBRA-EBV gene with DNA-HCMV. Those samples belonged to (45) patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer ; (45) from benign ovarian tumors and (20) patients with borderline ovarian tumors as well as (20) apparently normal ovarian tissues. The detection of ZEBRA-EBV gene and DNA-HCMV were done by chromogenic In situ hybridization (CISH). The positive results of ZEBRA - EBV -CISH detection in malignant ovarian tumors, where 64.4% (29 out of 45 tissues) showed positive signals. While ,in the benign ovarian tumors group were 37.8 % (17 out of 45 tissues) ,followed by borderline ovarian tumors & the apparently healthy ovarian control tissues were 30% (6 out of 20 cases) and 7.5% (3 out of 40 cases), respectively. The present study shows the positive results of HCMV-CISH detection in malignant ovarian tumors, where 55.6% (25 out of 45 cases) showed positive signals, while, 44.4% negative signals which represented 20 out of 45 cases in this group. While, in the benign ovarian tumor group was 35.6% (16 out of 45 cases). Negative signals which in benign group represented 29 out of 45 cases constituted 64.4% .Whereas ,the positive results in borderline ovarian tumor group were 40% (8 out of 20 tissues), followed by the apparently healthy ovarian control tissues was 12.5% (5 out of 40 tissues). We concluded from this study, ZEBRA -EBV genes as well as HCMV-DNA positive signals in malignant, borderline and benign tumors tissues ,they suggest an important role for these viruses in the development of ovarian tumors in Iraqi patients.


Article
Effect of Fusarium graminarum Silver-Nanoparticles on IL-10 and INF-γ Cytokines Levels in the Mice by Leishmania donovani in vivo

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Leishmaniasis remains one of the fatal diseases worldwide, and the conventional antileishmanial therapies are toxic and most are expensive. Biological silver nanoparticles possess broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and could be a future alternative to current antimicrobial agents. In the present study an approach was made to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNps) using a Fusarium graminarum fungus. The present study it investigates the efficiency of silver nanoparticles against Leishmania donovani compared with pentostam drug in vivo by measuring the levels of immune cytokines (IL-10 and IFN-γ) in serum infected mice and treatment with AgNPs (0.1 ml / day) and comparisons with pentostam drug (0.01ml / day) after 21 days of treatment. The results showed that the level of IFN-γ in treating with AgNPs increased significantly in third weeks, compared to the pentostam group. When treated with pentostam/AgNPs together, there is a gradual decrease in the level of IFN-γ, compared with negative control. Also a significant increase occurs in the IL-10 level within 21 days when mice were treated with AgNPs compared with pentostam. It could be conclude that silver nanoparticles induce pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines also it safety, nontoxic and has a good anti-parasitic activity, it can be used as antileishmanial drug or can be used as supportive treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.

Keywords

F. graminarum --- silver --- nanoparticles --- IL-10 --- INF-γ.


Article
Isolation and Identification of Lactobacillus Using Biochemical and Molecular Methods

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present study includes isolation of fifteen isolates of lactic acid bacteria )LAB) from animals milk (cows, sheeps and human's milk). These isolates were identified using morphological and biochemical tests, the results revealed that all the isolates belong to the Lactobacillus genus. In addition, the genetic variations were analyzed among these bacterial isolates by polymerase chain reaction technique random ampilification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD PCR) and the results, showed that diversity among these isolates exist at high level which may be related to the source of these bacteria.


Article
The Association of Vitamin D Deficiency and Insufficiency with Genetic Polymorphism (CYP27B1 SNP rs10877012) in Iraqi Samples

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

: Vitamin D comprises a group of fat-soluble secosteroid found naturally only in a few foods, responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, in addition to other biological effects.In humans, the two majorphysiologically forms are vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). Vitamin D2 is obtained from dairy products whereas Vitamin D3 is produced in the skin after exposure to ultraviolet light. Vitamin D from the diet or skin synthesis is biologically inactive; enzymatic conversion (hydroxylation) in the liver and kidney is required for activation.Blood Sample were collected 100 individual to determine (test) vitamin D state and these sample divided into three group, the first group 80 sample, were collected randomly from people have normal vitamin D level, and 20 sample as control samples which were divide into two group, 11 sample from people with normal level of vitamin and 9 patient have deficiency in their level of vitamin D. These samples were tested using ELISA to determine the level of 25(OH)D. Genomic DNA was extracted from these samples and analyzed using real time PCR. The results from ELISA groups were 29% sample with vitamin D deficiency in normal people (they did not have any idea about their vitamin D level) 44 ± 24.06B. The negative control was 67.55 ± 21.85 A and the positive control was 9.85 ± 5.19C. These results show revealed the relation between the active form of vitamin D enzyme and CYP27B1 gene which is associated with the deficiency of vitamin D state. The genetic analysis of CYP27B1 gene polymorphism, the results from comparison between positive control and healthy group showed the TG and GG genotypes frequencies have significant association with vit. D deficiency (P= 0.002; OR= 16.3; CI 95%= 0.2-9.7) and (P=0.02 ; OR= 11.8 ; CI 95%= 0.1-10.2) respectively, while the G allele frequency was significantly associated with positive control group (P= 0.004; OR= 1; CI 95%= 0.5-4.2). The results of comparison between the negative control and healthy group showed no association in both genotype and allele frequencies. From these results we conclude the immunological test of plasma 25(OH)D is a useful marker to indicate the risk of clinicaldeficiency and insufficiency, while the genetic analysis we suggest it is associated with the deficiency and insufficient of vitamin D level but the study wasn’t performed with


Article
The Impact of HIV TAT and gp120 in Neuroinflammatory Response During HIV Active Infection

Authors: Guy Cabral1 , Zahraa Kamaz2
Pages: 135-141
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Despite the fact that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been treated effectively by highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders is still high due to the inability of most HAART to pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and target the virus. Neurocognitive disorder results from an inflammatory cascade in the brain. It is thought that the HIV-1 transactivating protein (TAT) alone or in combination with the major virus envelope glycoprotein gp120 trigger glial cells to secret chemokines that elicit the influx of more immunocytes and results in inflammatory amplification. To test this hypothesis, co-cultures of microglia and astrocytes were incubated with TAT, with gp120, and with TAT plus gp120. Chemokine expression then was estimated using an immunodot blot array. Macrophage chemotactic protein (MCP1) and TIMP metallopeptidase 1 (TIMP1), a tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, were present in the three coculture test groups. In addition to MCP1 and TIMP1, interleukin-8 (IL-8) was detected following coculture with TAT plus gp120. These results implicate the role of HIV- TAT and gp120 in activating brain glial cells to evoke an inflammatory response.

Keywords

HIV --- gp120 --- HAART --- TAT --- TIMP1.


Article
Inhibitor Activity of Some Coumarin Derivatives on Glycosyltransferases Produce From Streptococcus pneumoniae P 3

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the inhibitor activity of some coumarin derivatives on glycosyltransferases produced by Streptococcus pneumoniae P3. The increased occurrence of S. pneumoniae strains resistant to -lactam antibiotics has become a worldwide health problem. The results showed that the Coumarin and its derivatives in the concentration 100 µg/ml applied on Streptococcus pneumoniae P3 to estimate these affecting on the bacterial ability to produce enzyme by measuring the value of enzyme activity it decreased the enzyme activity from 178 unit/ml to (57.9 , 68.90, 72.65 and 62.34) unit/ml with inhabitation ratio 32.52 , 38.70 , 40.81 and 35.032 % respectively of Inhibitor coumarin, 7-ethyl-4-methyl coumarin, 4,7 dimethyl-6-nitro coumarin and7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin respectively. The study concluded that thus prompting the present more extensive investigation of coumarin derivatives. Attention is given to structure-activity relationships with emphasis on the aromatic oxygenation patterns among this class of secondary metabolites.


Article
Effect of Temperature and pH on Antioxidant Effectiveness of Capparis spinosa Leaves

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The Capparis spinosa leaves were collected for months (April, May, June, July, August and September) from the Eastern Radwaniya region in Baghdad. The aqueous and alcohol extracts were prepared and more than one method was used to estimate the stability of the extract as antioxidant toward heat and PH for the sample which exhibited highest antioxidant activity between all samples by methods used, the method of iron ion bonding , reducing power , the effectiveness of scavenging of hydrogen hydroxide and the effectiveness of free radical suppression, decreased antioxidant effectiveness when exposing the water and alcohol extract to different temperatures (5-55 ° C) for 4 hours. A decrease in the antioxidant effectiveness of the water and alcohol extract was observed in pH (3,4,5,6,7and8). A slight reduction in the antioxidant efficacy of PH7 was observed at temperature Refrigerator for 30 days and for all the tests mentioned above.


Article
Detection of CaMV-35S Promoter and NOS Terminator in Genetically Modified Tomato Seed in Iraqi Markets

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present study was focused to detect leading elements that control gene expression in genetically modified tomato by using conventional PCR technique.These common elements in all GM. plants are CaMV-35S promoter isolated from cauliflower mosaic virus and T-Nos terminator from the Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Seventy eight tomato genotypes were collected from Iraqiinstitutions and markets. The experiment was conducted in the Institute of Genetic Engineering/University of Baghdad/ Iraq and Directorate of Seeds Testing and Certification/Ministry of Agriculture/ Iraq. The tomato DNA samples were extracted manually by C- hexadecyl- Trimethyl-Ammonium-Bromide (CTAB) method. When measuring the optical density (OD) of the tomato samples, most purity values were found to be between (1.7-1.9).Two specific primers of CaMV-35S promoter, Nos terminator supplied by Canadian Alpha DNA Company, AccuPower®PCR Pre mix PCR supplied by Korean Bioneer Company and positive control (plasmid) supplied by Dr. ShathaAyidYousif/ Directorate of Agricultural Research/ Ministry of Science and Technology/ Iraq, were used in this study. Results showed that twenty four tomato genotypes were genetically modified. The primer specific of CaMV-35S promoter recorded a PCR product of ‎‎195 bp in 15 GM tomato and 13 GM tomato genotypes contain Nos terminator were a PCR product of ‎‎180 bp which as match with results of positive control (plasmid) which contains promoter and terminatorand that four tomato genotypes contain major components CaMV-35S promoter and Nos terminator together in the same sample.


Article
The Promising Anti-Tumor Impact of Newcastle Disease Virus Expressing IL-2 and P53 Genes in Many Cancer Cell Lines In vitro

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) has shown an anticancer effect in preclinical studies, but has never been tested in a lung cancer models. In this study we explored the anticancer activity of genetically modified NDV expressing IL-2-P53 (rClone30–IL-2-P53) in lung cancer model. We have cloned IL-2 and P53 genes and inserted them in the viral genome of New Castle Disease Virus to create a genetically modified rNDV- IL-2-P53 virus and tested the anti-tumor activity of the new virus in vitro on different types of cancer cell lines by MTT assay. TheIL-2 and P53 gene were successfully cloned and inserted into the viral genome by using a Mlu I and Sfi I endonucleases, viral vector was constructed correctly and successfully; sequencing results also showed that the recombinant plasmid was successfully constructed resulting in the formation of rClone30 NDV expressing both IL2 and P53 gene. In this study, P53 and IL-2 gene were successfully constructed into the NDV genome, by the use of reverse genetics technology, then successfully rescue of all recombinant rNDVclone30s and got high titer recombinant viruses.

Keywords

rNDV --- IL-2 --- P53 --- lung cancer --- MTT assay.


Article
The Detection of Aspergillus flavus in the Milk by Molecular Method in Diyala Province

Authors: Mays J. Khamees1 , Luma T. Ahmed2
Pages: 182-192
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Since ancient times, milk and its derivatives have been one of the most popular foods. This value put the food hygienists in a real challenge to provide safe milk to consumers with maintaining its nutritional value. The consumption of milk was estimated to be every day for a lot of people as it was the source of many nutrient essential for human. The main objectives of the present study were to isolate the fungus of Aspergillus flavus from milk samples and detect aflatoxigenic A. flavus. Accordingly, a total of 100 samples of milk samples were collected randomly from location (Baqubah , Buhriz , Alkhalis , Bani sa’ad , Muadadiya and Hebheb) and different animals (cows, sheep and goat) from Diyala Province. A conventional polymerase chain reaction assay was applied for the confirmation of A. flavus by using published primers (ITS1 and ITS4), and the result revealed 15 samples of crud milk have toxigenic isolate of Aspergillus flavus which have size 600bp. sequence and phylogenetic analysis to determinate A. flavus strain and its origin also this was isolates seven strain and then resulted in single new strain gene , This was done by recorded new strain of A. flavus in Gene bank data base with accession number (MH213344) that isolated from milk in Iraq, in addition to antifungal sensitivity where done for 15 toxigenic samples and the result reveled that all of them are resistance to antifungal drugs (Nystatin, Amphotericin B, Fluconazole ) that made them more virulent effective on human health.

Keywords

Aspergillus flavus --- Milk --- PCR --- sequencing.


Article
G6PD Deficiency in Syria: Identification of the Mediterranean Mutation Amongst Hemolytic Anemia Patients

Authors: Ghalia Aboualchamat
Pages: 193-200
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked genetic disorder. More than 400 million individuals are affected globally. The most common clinical manifestations are neonatal jaundice and acute hemolytic anemia. Numerous mutations have been described in the G6PD gene, many exhibit region-specific distributions. The G6PD Mediterranean mutation is frequently found in the Mediterranean region. However, in Syria no previous studies were conducted on G6PD deficiency disorder on its molecular basis. The aim of this study was to screen for the Mediterranean mutation amongst hemolytic anemia patients, as a preliminary search to determine the frequency of G6PD mutations in the Syrian society. A total of 265 children with hemolytic signs presented to Children's University Hospital in Damascus, were enrolled in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from 197 patients for genotyping, and the Mediterranean mutation has been determined by PCR-RFLP method. Our result showed that 30% of cases have a positive family history for G6PD deficiency. The Male to female ratio was 1.6:1. Mediterranean mutation was detected in 164 case (83%) with an allele frequency of 0.65. High prevalence of Mediterranean mutation in our study strongly suggests the need for nationwide screening to determine the prevalence of the deficiency in the Syrian society. Further expanded studies are needed to evaluate other mutations in the G6PD gene.


Article
Molecular and Nanotechnical Study for Antibiofilm Formation and CsuE Gene Expression Activities of Synthesized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Against Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the influence of synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (Fe3O4NPs) by co-precipitation method on biofilm formation and CsuE gene expression in multidrug resistance Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRA.b) which represents one of the important causing agents of nosocomial infection. A. baumannii isolates used in current study and isolates from different clinical sources (wounds, burns, urine, sputum, blood and throat) that able to produce strong biofilm. Synthesis and characterisation the physical-chemical nature of Fe3O4 NPs was carried out using UV-visible spectrophotometer, fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results show that they were very fine crystalline sizes reaching to 11±1 nm by XRD ,with a mostly spherical in shape and average of nanoparticles size between (40- 47) nm by SEM and AFM, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and sub-MIC test of Fe3O4 NPs at concentrations (15.75 to 2000) μg/ml against A.baumannii isolates had been determined using tube broth method measured by optical densities values at 630 nm. The results of the experiment of the best sub-MIC with concentration of Fe3O4 NPs 125μg/ml showed a significant difference at p˃0.05 the anti-biofilms inhibitory on polystyrene surface of microtiter plates for the bacteria isolate under study. Biofilm formation CsuE gene expression was investigated by using RT-qPCR technique with reference 16SrRNA gene before and after treatment with Fe3O4 NPs. The results showed a significant difference at p˃0.05 in Cycle threshold (Ct) values for CsuE gene expression of the isolates. The study concludes that the synthesized magnetic Fe3O4 NPs with 125µg/ml gave excellent antibiofilm activities and inhibitory efficiency against A.baumannii isolates and the potentiate to down regulate of gene expression fold for biofilm formation encoded by CsuE gene of A.baumannii leading as a result to have low biofilm production.


Article
Influence of Fortification with Extracts of Three Varieties of Iraqi Dates on the Viability of Lactobacillus plantarum in Probiotic Fermented Milk Products

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Therapeutic fermented milk is product owing to its particular physical, nutritional, probiotic and organoleptic properties containing prebiotics as enhancers of human natural micro-flora and probiotics with their positive effects on health when consumed regularly according to WHO recommendations, This study was conducted to fortified the Milk by the extracts of three variety of Iraqi dates (Zahdi, Khastawi and Khadrawy) on four different percentage levels of treatments T1 (5), T2 (10), T3 (15) and T4 (20) comparing with T0 (without any addition) in order to know its role in the impact on the vitality and numbers of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum expressed in terms of growth intensity when used as starter culture In the manufacturing of therapeutic fermented milk and their influence as Prebiotic enhancers, The lowest number appeared in logarithmic counts of viable bacteria cell were in the treatment of control T0 (10.80), comparing with the increase in the supported products with extracts for T4 treatment, which were similar to those of al-Zahdi and al-Kashtawi (12.86), while al-Khudrawi (12.96) and what it means that there is a direct increasing in the logarithmic number of probiotic bacteria with the higher percentage addition of date extracts, and was the most effective with the Khadrawi variety, there is a correlation between the growth of Lb. plantarum bacteria to get the best and smooth texture of the therapeutic fermented milk products, and to maintain the probiotic bacterial number at proper required accounts, That the results obtained give a positive indication of the role of date extracts of these varieties in increasing numbers and enhancing the viability of these probiotic bacteria in fermented milk products.


Article
Study of Protein Concentrate and Physical Properties for Each Wheat Germ and Defatted Wheat Germ in Biscuits Processing

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The wheat germ is an important secondary product known to be important in containing high protein, oil, carbohydrates, minerals and phenolic compounds. It has been used in many industries. The aim of study is produce a defatted wheat germ and protein concentrate powdered each wheat germ powder. The results of the chemical analysis of the defatted wheat germ , protein concentrate showed that the percentage of protein in the protein concentrate compared with the defatted wheat germ was (71.5, 34.26%) respectively, the percentage of ash, moisture, fat and carbohydrates in the protein concentrate 3.5, 5.3, 0.93 and 35.37%, respectively, the defatted wheat germ increased to 5.6, 7.3, 2.25 and 68.33%, respectively. The standard biscuit was manufactured using the replacement ratio of 5, 10% of the wheat flour in the protein concentrate powder and the defatted wheat germ powder. physical properties were carried out for biscuit samples. The highest percentage of spread factor was obtained for the sample in which the protein concentrate was replaced by 10% that 148.91. The results of the sensory evaluation showed significant differences between the biscuit control sample and all samples were with in acceptable limits.


Article
Study the Effect of Ionizing Radiation on a Sample of Workers Using Three Genetic End-Points

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present study aims to use the molecular biological techniques in a genotoxicity investigation of low radiation doses in samples of workers in Al-Tuwaitha site, this study including 30 male blood samples, aged (32 - 59 year), as well as 20 male blood samples, aged (30 -57 year) which are non- smokers and non-alcoholics as control group . Three genetic parameter were studied by using hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) mutation assay, micronuclei in cytoplasm of reticulocytes cells and comet assay .The statistical analysis showed that there was significant difference (p <0.01) the HPRT gene mutation assay between the radiation workers and controls group. The present study showed significant increasde (p<0.01) in micronuclei of reticulocytes cells for the radiation worker as compared with the control group. Also there were found a significant increase (p<0.01) in comet tail length and tail moment values in the human lymphocyte in these radiation worker of this study as compared with the control group. In conclusion, the obtained results confirmed the usefulness of the mutation frequency for HPRT assay, micronuclei in cytoplasm of reticulocytes and alkaline comet assay and as a sensitive additional biomarker in the regular health screening of workers occupationally exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation.


Article
Association of C-allele carrier Genotype of SLCO1B1 gene 521T

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The gene SLCO1B1 521 T>C is a crucial gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) concerning of a several medications transport enzyme OATP1B1 action variation such as statins drugs that may cause a serious side effect (myopathy), Iraq lack from recent studies about this variation related to statins side effect myopathy.The study of the SLCO1B1 gene 521 T>C polymorphism effect on Iraqis patients taken statins differ in showing myopathy as a side effect of statin. Settings and Design considered An only treated case-control study. The study of the effect of T521C of SLCO1B1 gene polymorphism and myopathy carried by collect venous human blood (3) ml of (96) samples divided to (48) as control and (48) as case. DNA extraction carried by (wizibiosolutions Korean kit for DNA extraction) and detection by Gel-Electrophoresis, nanodrop device used to adjust purity and concentration proper to next step, TaqMan Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (TaqMan RT-PCR) carried by Real-Time PCR System . Myopathy determined by a history of the patient, clinical examination. Highly significant difference p-value (0.0001>0.01) in genotype carry C-allele between control and case. Genotype (CC) was zero in control compared with cases, all (CC) genotype 5 patients with myopathy was (100%) in case. Genotype (TC) only 5 patients represent (15.6%) was in control parallel to 27 patients represent (84.4%) in case. Genotype (TT) wild type was 43 patients (72.9%) in control compare to only 16 case patients represent (27.1%). All numbers refer to a strong correlation between genotypes carry C-allele (100%, 84.4%) and case (patients with myopathy) against control only (15.6%) of (TC) genotype without myopathy. The significant risk of myopathy of (CC) genotype compare with (TT) genotype when (n=96) odd ratio (17.2) at (95%) Cl between (5.7051 to 51.8551) and P (0.0001) indicate the risk of development of myopathy for C-allele carrier genotype. C-allele considered a risk factor for patients taken statin lead to develop of myopathy in Iraq.


Article
Association between Ankylosing Spondylitis and the miR-146a Polymorphisms a Samples of Iraqi Patients

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding sequence that regulate the expression of multiple target genes at the post-transcriptional level, efficiently regulating fundamental cellular processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, and development. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic illness of mysterious etiology with a strong genetic susceptibility. Important development is being made in our considerate of the pathogenetic tools involved in this illness, and the recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) consequences have related at least 60 loci to As, The present study explored the association between ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), miR-146a rs2910164G>C, in Iraq population. The genetic analysis of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, for miR-146a gene by using PCR-SSCP technique that there was significant difference in genotype polymorphisms between patients and control . Also this research found relationship between miR-146a and Osteoprotegerin ,interleukin 23serum level in AS patients .

Keywords

miRNA-146 --- polymorphisms --- PCR-SSCP --- AS .


Article
Bacteriological and Immunological Study of Patients with Tonsillitis in Hila City

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The current study was conducted to investigate the bacterial causes of tonsil infection which including chronic and acute tonsillitis. Two hundred twelve swabs were collected from the infected people with Tonsillitis in addition to 90 blood sample of people who reviewed Al-Hilla teaching hospital and Al-Noor hospital for children from October 2013 to April 2014 and 100 blood control. Culture investigations showed 197 positive bacterial growths. The bacterial growth include 147 Gram positive and 75 isolates Gram negative isolates, Gram-positive include Streptococcus pyogens (20.2%), Staphylococcus aureus (19.3%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (15.3%) and Streptococcus viridans (11. 2%). Streptococcus pyogens show high percentage of isolate 20.2% while S. viridians show low percentage isolate (11.2%). While Gram negative include, H. influenzae (17.1%), K. pneumoniae (8.1%), P. aeruginosae (2.03),E .coli (3.6%). H. influenzae show high percentage of isolate (17.1%) while E. coli shows low percentage of isolates (3.6%). The concentration of cytokines was revealed in this study IL-17 showed increased at in concentration especially in age group 1-10 years and reached 55.25 pg/ml compared to control group. The Heat shock protein (HSP-27) showed increase in their concentrations in tonsillitis patient than in controls particularly at age group 21-30 years which reached 22.25 pg/ml.

Keywords

Tonsillitis --- IL-17 --- HSP27.


Article
Study Antioxidant and Functional Properties of Protein Hydrolysate Prepared from Silurus glanis Skin Using Papain Enzyme

Authors: Hind Kamal Ali
Pages: 261-268
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study aimed to prepare protein hydrolysate from the hydrolysis of silurus glanis skin using papain enzyme, and study the functional properties and antioxidative activity. Crud protein extracted from the same fish skin used for comparesion. Fish skin were mixed with phosphate buffer (pH 7.0, 0.2 M) and placed on magnetic stirrer for 3, 6, 9, 12 hour at 45c° after addition of enzyme (1mg / 100gm skin).the crud protein extracted designated as (H) and the obtained hydrolysate as (P1, P2, P3 and P4). The percentages of soluble nitrogen and total nitrogen in skin were (0.14) and (3.15) % respectively. The degree of hydrolysis for the obtained hydrolysates were (21.1) , (33.3) , (51. 1), 54.28))% for P1, P2 , P3, P4 respectively. The results of functional properties and antioxidative activity showed that the percentages of water holding capacity were (3)% for (H) and (2, 2, 1, 1 %) for P1, P2, P3 and P4 respectively. The solubility values were (12.8, 43.4, 64.7, 75, 92) % for (H, P1, P2, P3 and P4) respectively. The emulsion capacity values were (20 ml) for (H) and (12, 13, 14, 16 ml) for P1, P2, P3 and P4 respectively. It has been noticed that the reducing power values were (0.591 -1.21) , (0.540 – 1.11 ) for BHT and citric acid respectively, and (0.403 – 0.754 ) for (H ) and (0.350 - 0.570) , (0.444 – 0.992) ,(0.526 – 0.642 ) , ( 0.449 – 0.769 ) for P1, P2 , P3 and P4 respectively .


Article
Molecular Study of Malassezia furfur Isolated from Pityriasis Versicolor Patients

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Humans´ skin is the largest organ of the integumentary system; it has multiple layers of ectodermal tissue and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs. Pityriasis versicolor is the prototypical skin disease etiologically connected to Malassezia species. The large sub unit (lsu) gene is now perhaps the most widely sequenced DNA region in fungi. To identify Malassezia furfur associated with pityriasis versicolor patients and healthy control by using molecular detection methods. Sixty patients suffering from pityriasis versicolor disease who attended Imammian kadhamain Teaching Hospital and one hundred control individuals were randomly selected from (entities, primary and secondary schools) for a period of six months. Clinical diagnosis was done by consultant dermatologist. Forceps and surgical blades were used for skin scrapings collection. Direct and indirect methods were applied for diagnosis. Malassezia furfur was not grown on Tween 60 esculin agar, whilst it was grown on assimilation test of Tweens (20, 40, 60 and 80) containing SDA and pigment induction medium. In successful singleplex PCR reaction, the lsu gene product of 580 bp molecular weight was observed. Upon stratification of the M. furfur according to the gender in pityriasis versicolor patients and control groups. M. furfur was the most frequently isolated in males, with a percentage of 65% and 73.10%, respectively. As a conclusions from these findings, it was suggested that pityriasis versicolor was more infection in male than female. Also the chest was the most infected lesions associated with Malassezia furfur.


Article
Chromosomal Aberrations and Gene Expression Study in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present study aims to use the chromosomal aberrations and gene expression analysis as biomarkers for detection of the effects of ionizing radiation exposure in breast cancer patients (BC) undergoing radiotherapy about 20-30 Gy locally gamma cells, which may effect DNA of cancer patients. This study was carried out on thirty. Iraqi women patients with breast cancer patients during radiotherapy treatment at Al-Amel National Hospital for cancer Management in Baghdad during time 2-13 years , non-smokers and non- alcoholic, aged (30 - 59 year), with stage (grade) I - III, as well as thirty apparently healthy individuals females collected randomly from population living Baghdad , aged ranged (30 - 59 year) which are non-smokers non- alcoholic as control group. Using two molecular genetic end-points parameters were studied to determine genotoxic effects of radiotherapy in peripheral blood lymphocytes of some Iraqi breast cancer patients and compared with control groups. Investigations were carried out by using the chromosomal aberrations (CA) and gene expression were performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes for breast cancer patients and control groups.The present study showed significant increase (p<0.01) in the unstable chromosomal aberration types (CA) fragment, ring and dicentric chromosomes for the breast cancer patients during radiotherapy as compared with the control group. Also, This study including twenty. Iraqi women patients with breast cancer after radiotherapy treatment about 20-30 Gy locally exposure to gamma rays , aged ( 35 - 55 years), as well as twenty female blood samples, aged (35 - 55 years) which are non- smokers or alcoholic as control group. Total RNA was isolated from blood for BC patients and control groups.The RNA concentration was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring their absorbance that dependent on the ratio A260/A280 of the wavelength, which leads to the determination of RNA purity, which ranged from 1.79-2.1 in two groups. Complementary DNA was used in amplification of genes used in the present study, three types of specialized primer genes were selected for the genes CDKN1A, BRCA1 and BRCA2 which have a relation with ionizing radiation in addition to the primers for internal control (β-actin) genes. Gene expression analysis revealed statistically significant (∆∆Ct comparative Ct method) transcriptional changes in two genes CDKN1Aand BRCA2 up-regulated while BRCA1 gene down-regulated. In conclusion, the results indicated that there is a possibility of using the changes at the level of CA as useful biomarkers for the detection of the effect of radiotherapy in peripheral blood lymphocytes for BC cancer patients. several genes involved in cell cycle regulation and DNA repair were found to be significantly induced by radiation treatment.


Article
Characterization of Five Types of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosomal mec Genes in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Isolates from Iraqi Patients

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The distribution of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosomal mec (SCCmec) types I, II, III, IV and V was assessed in 137 methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA) isolates obtained from patients from different hospitals in Baghdad city. Each types responsible for certain virulence factors. It was found that 38 (27.73%) isolates of MRSA out of 137 contained SCCmecI, the lest percentage of SCCmec types in all MRSA isolates was type II, It was found that 8 (5.83%) isolates only were positive in this type. While 22 isolates (16.05%) contain SCCmec III. The number of isolates detected in SCCmec type IV were 53 (38.68%) isolates out of 137 while 86 (62.77%) for type V which represented the highest percentage with contrast with other types.


Article
Measurement of IL-18, IFN-ᵞ Levels in Iraqi Typhoid Fever Patients

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Typhoid fever is an acute illness associated with fever caused by the Salmonella enterica serotype typhi bacteria. It can also be caused by Salmonella paratyphi, a related bacterium that usually causes a less severe illness. The aim of current study was estimated of IL-18, and IFN-ᵞ level as a diagnostic tool. The level of IL-18, and IFN-ᵞ was investigated in 254 blood specimens in patients with typhoid fever, 207(84.48%) bacterial isolates were obtained and isolated from three groups of patients, serum levels of IFN-γ and IL-18 during the chronic and acute phase in typhoid patients. The groups were determined according to clinical features and symptoms of disesase. The results have been shown higher levels in both IL-18, and IFN-ᵞ (137.187±0.703, 377.357±106.585pg/ml respectively)in chronic phase while in acute phase 128.787±2.522, 137.833±23.424pg/ml respectively) with highly significant (0.01) than those in healthy control.

Table of content: volume:18 issue:2