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Al-Nahrain Journal of Science

مجلة النهرين للعلوم

ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

ANJS(Al-Nahrain Journal of Science) has been published by College of Science since 1996. This Journal consists of the latest researches in both English and Arabic Languages within the Specializations of the scientific departments in the College.

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Contact info

Al-Nahrain Journal of Science
P.O. Box: 64055, Al-Jadriah, Baghdad, Iraq .
Email: alnahrain-sci@hotmail.com
Webmaster Email: webmaster@jnus.org

Table of content: 2019 volume:22 issue:3

Article
Photo-Physical Studies of PVC Mixed with Organotin (IV) Complexes

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Abstract

PVC undergoes through many damaging changes upon the exposure to UV light. The rate of photodecomposition constant have been calculated for PVC films as a method for evaluating the efficiency of the organotin(IV) complexes Me2Sn(L)2, Bu2Sn(L)2 and Ph3Sn(L) that are used as a photostabilizers after 300 hour of irradiation. The results have showed that the additives had reduced the rate of photodecomposition constant of PVC films significantly with comparison to PVC (blank). The (Kd) value for PVC films was the highest (1.04 × 102 sec1) in the absence of any additives, and the lowest value (4.79 × 10-3 sec-1) was in the presence of dimethyltin (IV) complex. The surface morphology of PVC films examined utilizing the atomic force microscope (AFM).


Article
Controlling the Photo-Degradation Rate Constant of PS Containing Nickel(II) Complex

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Abstract

The complex of Ni(II) metal with 4-amino-5-(pyridyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol was used as a polystyrene (PS) films photostabilizer. The PS films comprising concentrating of complex 0.5% ww were outputted by casting method from chloroform solvent. The photostabilization activities of PS films compounds with dissimilar thickness were identified by computing the photodegradation rate constant (kd) for blank and modified polystyrene. From the practical consequences obtained, a mechanism was proposed count on the installation of the complex. The PS films were irradiated utilizing a 365 nm wavelength light source with intensity 6.02 10-9 Ein dm-3 s-1 at room temperature.


Article
Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Elemental Analysis of Ground Water in Thickly Populated and Industrial Area of Quetta Valley Pakistan

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Abstract

Quetta valley the capital of Balochistan Province, has faced twice the rush of immigrants i.e; Afghan refugees after Saur Revolution and people from interior Balochistan due to drought in Balochishan from the last two decades. Additionally a number of industries at various areas has been established. This abrupt increase in the population and discharge from the industries have affected the drinking water quality in the valley. To assess these affects, nine ground water samples taken from densely populated and industrial areas were analyzed for their physicochemical (taste, order, color, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, alkalinity, pH, total hardness and total dissolved salts) and concentrations of cations (Na, K, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd and Pb) by Flame Photometer and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. The results obtained were compared with both Pakistan National Standards (PNS) for drinking water Quality (2010) and World Health Organization (WHO), standards for drinking water. All the results were in the limits of the standards except cobalt (0.095 – 0.12 mg/L) and cadmium (0.0348 – 0.041 mg/L) which were found to be in high concentrations that are attributed to the anthropogenic activates.


Article
A Survey on Knowledge of Registered Drugs amongst Patients from the Specialist Clinic, Malaysia

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Abstract

Introduction: One of the solutions to reduce unregistered drugs usage is via awareness and educational programmes. The aim of this study is to determine the significance difference of patients’ level of knowledge between control and intervention groups towards registered drugs. Method: The study used a pre- and post-test by answering the validated survey during October-November 2018 at a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. It has two groups as an intervention group (IG) receiving counseling and control group (CG) which did not receive any counseling. This study used systematic random sampling. The data analysis was performed using SPSS version 23. Descriptive data was reported, including the answers each question, score, level of knowledge based on the percentages and the socio-demographic data. The pre and post differences of the score between control and intervention groups were assessed using ANCOVA. Result: A total of 657 respondents were obtained which overall response rate of 93%). Majority of the participants are aged between 18-28 years old (47%), female (58.3), Malay (47.4%), Degree holder (69.1%) and in the government sector (38.3%). However, the majority of participants are in the category of the acceptable level of knowledge towards registered drugs (40.8%) and only 3.5% of the participants are in the category of excellent. However, about 66.1% of the participants have scored above 50%. It can be considered that the majority of the participants have knowledge about registered drugs. IG group displayed significantly higher post-test results compared with CG group (p<0.001). Conclusion: The used of the validated survey during the awareness programmes might give benefit to the public who attends the awareness and educational programmes and finally can improve the effectiveness of the programmes in the future. In the future, the improvement of the design of the campaign might include the use of a survey in order to give more understanding to the public towards registered drugs.


Article
Classification of Crude Oils and its Fractions on the Basis of Paraffinic, Naphthenic and Aromatics

Authors: Wedad H. Al-Dahhan --- Shaymaa MA Mahmood
Pages: 35-42
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Abstract

The ratios of crude oils hydrocarbons vary according to its origin. Two types of crude oil (A&B) were selected from Dura refinery which was extracted from Basra oil fields. These samples were tested according to physical properties: density, Specific gravity, API gravity, Pour Point, Kw factor and Correlation Index. Results show that crude oil (A) heavier than (B) due to higher density; pour point and lowers (API). Crude oil (A) shows it has more aromatic compounds than the crude oil (B) according to its higher (Kw) and lower (CI) values or (B) contain more paraffinic compounds than (A) for the same reasons. Atmospheric distillation process was done according to ASTM 2892 method for the two selected crude oils. Fractions obtains were tested according to physical properties: density, Aniline Point, API gravity, Kw factor and Correlation Index. The nature of the ingredients for petroleum fractions derived from distillation of the crude oil samples can be classified on the basis of the Paraffinic, naphthenic or aromatic content, depending on the results obtained from distillation which confirm the findings stated above for crude oil. Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis was carried out for crude oils atmospheric fractions to identify the components in terms of being paraffinic, naphthenic or aromatics. Results refers to the same ingredients for crude oil B for the paraffinic and naphthenic components as in crude oil A but the main difference here is the disappearance of the bands for aromatics C-H stretching occur above 3000 cm-1 for crude oil B which refers that this crude has less aromatic compounds than crude oil A. These results have been confirmed through ultraviolet tests.

Keywords

Crude oil --- Distillation --- FT-IR --- Ultraviolet.


Article
β-Catenin Protein and Its Association with Helicobacter Pylori as A Possible Marker for Gastric Cancer

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Abstract

Gastric cancer is still the main health threat being the third leading cause of deaths from cancers in the world, the major risk behind this disease is that it remains asymptomatic in the early stages and in (97 %) cases it metastasizes to other organs. Gastric cancer is a multifactorial disease with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) being the major risk factor, however, patients with gastritis, especially atrophic gastritis and gastric ulcer have been shown to be at an increased risk for developing gastric cancer. In this research, serum β-catenin, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) were measured in patients diagnosed with gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and gastritis and also in healthy volunteers. Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was diagnosed by histological test, rapid urease test (RUT) and by serological tests which included IgG and IgA antibodies. The results showed that there was a large significant increase in the levels of serum β-catenin in patients with gastric cancer compared to the control group as well as to the gastritis and gastric ulcer patients. A significant increase was also seen in gastric ulcer and gastritis patients when compared to the control group. In addition, a significant increase was seen in β-catenin serum levels in patients with gastric cancer and gastric ulcer infected with H. pylori compared to the uninfected gastric cancer and gastric ulcer patients. A non-significant change was observed in the levels of CEA and CA 19-9 in all the patients compared to the control group. The results of this study suggest that β-catenin can serve as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of gastric cancer and that H. pylori has a significant effect on the levels of this protein.


Article
Influence of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone on Liver Enzymes Levels in Serum of Thyroid Disorder Iraqi Patients

Authors: Marwa Hameed --- Qutaiba Samir
Pages: 50-55
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Abstract

Thyroid hormones are essential element in body growth and influence the formation of many enzymatic proteins. These hormones regulate and have a major role in controlling the metabolism of the entire body. They also play an important role in the normal hepatic function. Thyroid diseases are linked with liver enzymes levels irregularities, cholestatic jaundice resulted from low bilirubin level and bile excretion, hepatic lipid homeostasis, viral hepatitis, an increase in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transferase and alkaline phosphatase. Thyroid stimulating hormone and serum liver enzymes were analyzed using standard kits. Results showed that hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism patients had an elevation in the levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transferase and alanine aminotransferase when compared to controls. However, the values were higher in hyperthyroidism patients. This work aims to study the effect of thyroid stimulating hormone on the level of liver enzymes in a group of local Iraqi patients with thyroid disorder.

Keywords

TSH --- liver enzyme --- thyroid disorder --- ALP --- AST --- ALT.


Article
The Neutron Halo Structure of 11Be and 14Be Nuclei Studied by the Binary Cluster Model

Authors: Ahmed N. Abdullah --- Marwah D. Abdullah
Pages: 56-64
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Abstract

We have calculated some of the basic structural properties such as the ground state proton, neutron and matter densities and elastic form factors of halo nuclei namely, 11Be and 14Be using the binary cluster model (BCM) within the Gaussian and harmonic oscillator wave functions. The halo nuclei have been considered as a compact core with loosely bound valence neutron(s) forming the halo. The comparison between the calculated and experimental matter density distributions supports the halo structure for 11Be [14Be] where the valence one neutron [two neutrons] occupy the 1p1/2 [(2s1/2)2] orbital. We have also calculated the reaction cross sections (σ_R ) for these nuclei using the Glauber model with an optical limit approximation at low and high energies. The calculated (σ_R ) of these nuclei give a good description of experimental data at both low and high energies.


Article
The Properties of Neutron Halo Structure for 17B and 22N nuclei

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Abstract

The radial wave functions of the Harmonic Oscillator and Woods-Saxon potentials within the three-body [two-body] model of Core+2n [Core+n ] have been used to study some of the basic structural features such as the ground state proton, neutron and matter densities, the associated root mean square (rms) radii and elastic form factors of neutron-rich 17B [22N] halo nucleus. The long tail manner is clearly shown in the results obtained of neutron and matter densities of these nuclei. According to the calculated results it is found that this model provides a good description on the nuclear structure of above exotic nuclei. The reaction cross sections for these nuclei have been studied using the Glauber model with an optical limit approximation at high energy region.


Article
A Proposed Measurement for Video Quality of Experience

Authors: Rana Fareed Ghani --- Amal Sufiuh Ajrash
Pages: 75-81
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Abstract

Technological development in the last years leads to increase the access speed in the networks that allow a huge number of users watching videos online. The Quality of Experience (QoE) Knowledge of services that provide from the network is a very critical matter to have a strong design of multimedia streaming networks. This paper provides a video streaming QoE prediction metric that does not require any information on the reference video. The proposed system extract numbers of features from videos that used to train the neural network and finally prediction the QoE value. Verify models prediction using 10-fold cross-validation that in a regular way split dataset (training set and test set) with multiple percentages. The proposed system verifies the best result.

Table of content: volume:22 issue:3