Table of content

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development

مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة

ISSN: 25200917
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development
College of Engineering /Mustansiriyah University
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• About the journal
The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is a peer reviewed open access scientific Iraqi journal issued by the College of Engineering/ Mustansiriyah University, under the regulations and standards of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq. In the meantime, the journal commits itself to the regulations of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE).


The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is an open access journal that all contents are free of charge. Users are allowed to read, download, or share the full texts of the articles in this journal without prior permission of the publisher or the author(s). A DOI is guaranteed by no means to change, so it can be used as a permanent link to any electronic article. Our journal DOI prefix account is 10.31272.

The journal welcomes submissions in the following topics:

Structural Engineering

Geotechnical Engineering

Engineering Management

Materials Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Dam and Water Resources Engineering

Architectural Engineering and Urban Design

Energy and Power System

Electronics, Control, Signals and Systems

Computer and Software Engineering

Communication Engineering

Renewable Energy Systems

Environmental Engineering

General Engineering

The vision for the future is to make the journal abstracted and indexed by the prominent databases and internationally cited, read and downloaded by the scholars. The mission is to contribute to the advances in the engineering fields and sustainable development. The journal aims at revolutionizing the practice in industry by promoting cutting-edge and effective research.

The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is published bimonthly, and the issues appearing on the beginning of each other month.

The corresponding author must pay fees of 100000 Iraqi dinars for the professor academic title, 75000 Iraqi dinars for assistant professor or less title, and 30000 Iraqi dinars for graduate (or undergraduate) students where the student is the first author. For international researchers, the submission fees are 125 USD.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07717944560
E-mail:editor@jeasd.org
ali.alghalib@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

Table of content: 2019 volume:23 issue:4

Article
إنتقال الحرارة وهبوط الضغط خلال عملية التكثيف في أنبوب عمودي للمائع R407c

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Abstract

تضمن العمل الحالي تقديم تحليل نظري لانتقال الحرارة وهبوط الضغط وخصائص الجريان للمائع R407c خلال عملية التكثيف لنمط الجريان الحلقي في أنبوب عمودي. واستخدمت طريقة (Gauss Seidel) لحل معادلات حفظ الكتلة والزخم والطاقة المتحكمة بعملية الجريان وتمت كتابة البرنامج الحاسوبي بلغة EES(Engineering Equation Solver).وأجريت الدراسة لثلاثة أقطار للأنابيب هي (8و10و12mm), وثلاث سرع تدفق كتلية وهي (75و100 و125kg/m2.s), وثلاث قيم للفرق بدرجات الحرارة بين البخار المشبع المار في الأنبوب وجدار الأنبوب وهي (2 و4 و6K). وبينت النتائج أن لتغير الفرق بدرجات الحرارة تأثير كبير في معامل انتقال الحرارة ومعظم خصائص الجريان الثنائي الطور يليه تأثير تغير سرعة التدفق الكتلية للبخار, وان أقل تأثير هو لتغير قطر الأنبوب إذ بلغ معدل نسبة الزيادة في معامل انتقال الحرارة عند صغر قطر الأنبوب من (12 mm) إلى (8 mm) 3.738% وبلغ معدل نسبة الزيادة في هذا المعامل عند زيادة سرعة التدفق الكتلي من (75 kg/m2.s) إلى (125 kg/m2.s) 20.516% في حين بلغ معدل نسبة النقصان في هذا المعامل عند زيادة الفرق بدرجات الحرارة من (2K) إلى (6K) 27.574% .


Article
دراسة نظرية لتقييم اداء محرك احتراق داخلي يعمل بنظام القدح وباستخدام مزيج من الكازولين مع الوقود الحاوي على الاوكسجين

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Abstract

يهدف البحث الى دراسة تأثير إضافة الوقود الكحولي الحاوي على الاوكسجين (الايثانول او الميثانول) بنسبة حجمية مقدارها (5%) الى الكازولين , على اداء محرك إحتراق داخلي الذي يعمل بالقدح والتي شملت كل من(عزم المحرك , الاستهلاك النوعي للوقود , الكفاءة الحرارية , وملاحظة تأثير هذه الاضافات على كمية انبعاث الملوثات والمتمثلة بانبعاث غاز اول اوكسيد الكاربون (CO) , واكاسيد النتروجين .اظهرت النتائج التي تم الحصول عليها , ازدياد التحسن الحاصل في عزم المحرك والاستهلاك النوعي الفرملي للوقود والكفاءة الحرارية الفرملية مع تقديم توقيت القدح بصورة واضحة , انخفاض في عزم المحرك, زيادة في الاستهلاك النوعي الفرملي للوقود والكفاءة الحرارية الفرملي عند اضافة الكحول الى الكازولين , فيما يتعلق بالملوثات لوحظ انخفاض في انبعاث كل من (CO)و عند اضافة الكحول الى الكازولين , تم اعداد برنامج حاسوبي بلغة فيجول بيسك (VISUAL BASIC) لمحاكاة عمل المحرك عند ظروف تشغيلية مختلفة شملت كلا من توقيت القدح (Spark timing) والتي تراوحت ما بين (5 btdc-35 btdc) وبواقع زيادة (5) درجة كل مرة ,نسبة الانضغاط (Compression ratio) كانت ثابتة عند (1:10) , مع تثبيت كلا من النسبة المكافئة ( Equivalence ratio ) والسرعة الدورانية للمحرك عند (2000) دورة لكل دقيقة .


Article
اسلوب الافضليات الضبابية لفض النزاع المائي على حوضي نهري الزاب الاسفل و ديالى

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Abstract

يعتبر النزاع المفترض بين ايران والعراق حول حوضي نهري الزاب الاسفل وديالى نزاعاً كامناً يمكن ان يندلع في اي وقت نتيجة لتوسع الهوة بين التجهيز والطلب لكلا البلدين. تم بحث موضوع تحليل وفض هذا النزاع في ورقة سابقة (نشرت في مجلة المثنى للهندسة والتكنولوجيا) و ذلك بتطبيق نموذج GMCR-II (نسخة مطورة من نموذج GMCR) وقد تم التوصل الى نتائج لفض هذا النزاع المفترض. يتبنى البحث الحالي استخدام نموذج او اسلوب FGM و مقارنة النتائج المستحصلة منه مع تلك التي رشحت عن نموذج GMCR-II. بينت نتائج المقارنة ان استخدام FGM الذي يتبنى طريقة الافضليات الضبابية تعطي حلولاً اكثر واقعية من تلك المستحصلة من تطبيق نموذج GMCR-II وذلك لأنها مدعمة بقيم تفضيلية ملموسة تصل للمتلقي بسهولة اكثر, ففي نزاع نهر الزاب الاسفل عل سبيل المثال فقد ظهرت ثلاث حالات هم (S4, S5, S7) من اصل سبعة حالات حققت جميع الإستقراريات المعتمدة من قبل النموذج GMCR-II. في حين اتاحت الطريقة الجديدة عند استخدام FGM حالتين مستقرتين فقط لغرض التوصل الى فض النزاع و هما (S7 و S6) من اصل السبع حالات. فالحالة S4 في الطريقة السابقة (تمثل قيام الطرف الايراني بتصعيد الوضع و استغلال كميات مياه اكثر مما تستغله حاليا لغرض الإيفاء بمتطلبات مشاريعها و قيام الجانب العراقي بتقديم شكوى الى المحافل الدولية) يمكن استبعادها من قبل المنمذج تجنبا للتصعيد و لوجود خيارات متاحة اخرى افضل من تلك التي تبديها S4 وهكذا يكون بالإمكان التحول نحو الحالةS5 (و التي تمثل قيام الجانب الايراني بزيادة الاطلاقات المائية نحو العراق فيما يتبنى العراق المبادرة في اتاحة بعض المحفزات الاقتصادية لإيران) او لجوء العراق الى الحالة S7 (عقد اتفاقية مع ايران وفي نفس الوقت اتاحة بعض المحفزات الاقتصادية). ان تطبيق FGM اشار الى الخيار S6 (توقيع معاهدة بين العراق و ايران و تنظيم الوضع المائي بين الطرفين) وهذه الحالة تختلف قليلاً عن الحالة S7 و الموضحة اعلاه في مسالة وجود بند للمحفزات الاقتصادية يقوم العراق بإتاحتها للجانب الايراني. بالطبع فان صاحب القرار سينحو منحى الحالة S6 اذ ان التزاماتها اقل من الحالة S7. كما وينطبق الامر نفسه على نزاع نهر ديالى اذ ظهرت حالتان مستقرتان للحل النهائي هما (S6 و S5) وحالة واحدة مقترحة للحل من اصل ستة حالات في حين كان هناك ثلاث حالات ايضا مستقرة للحل النهائي عند استخدام GMCR-II.


Article
COMPARISON OF EARTHING TECHNIQUES FOR SINGLE LINE TO GROUND FAULT IN 11 kV DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING SIMULINK

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Abstract

In this paper, a new smart earthing method was proposed to reduce the current magnitude of single line to ground fault and thus reduce the damage caused by this fault. Traditional methods of earthing system were studied and compared with the proposed new method using simulation in the MATLAB program to show the superiority of the new method and its economic benefit. The power system characteristics depending on the selection of earthing methods such as charging current magnitude, overvoltage, insulation level, mechanical and thermal damage and fault clearing time are discussed. In this smart technique, a bank of earthing resistors is used according to the characteristics of the earthing fault (fault resistance value), which leads to the passage of a low electric current, but it is detectable regardless of the faults characteristics. Fuzzy Logic Controller technique is used to solve control problem.


Article
MULTIPATH FADING EFFECTS ON UNCODED AND CODED MULTIPLE FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING PERFORMANCE IN MOBILE WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

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Abstract

This paper presents an analysis to multipath fading channel effects on the performance of multiple frequency shift keying (MFSK) modulation that used in mobile wireless communications. These effects take account of AWGN, Rayleigh, and Rician multipath fading environments. The analysis also includes the block coding (BC) in error control coding is used in MFSK receivers such as interleaving, Reed Solomon BC, and Alamouti space-time block coding (STBC). The performance analysis of these models is based on bit-error rate (BER) of uncoded and coded MFSK systems when such models operate under multipath fading channels. The simulation results show that an additional enhancement in BER performance and coding gain is gained by adding a space-time block coding to the combination of interleaving and RS coding compared with uncoded MFSK model but at expense of system complexity.


Article
AN EFFICIENET ALGORITHM FOR STATIC STATE ESTIMATION IN ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM

Pages: 34-51
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This paper presents an efficient static state estimator that is suitable for real time monitoring of the power system. The proposed algorithm includes a weighted least square (WLS) method based on rectangular coordinates system. A predictor-corrector iterative technique is used in solving the state estimator model which is described by a set of nonlinear equations relating measured quantities and the state variables. The proposed algorithm is enhanced by selecting the allocation the PMUs meters optimally by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The proposed algorithm is applied to the IEEE-14 bus and IEEE-30 bus test systems. The obtained results reveal the significant contribution of the proposed algorithm in optimal estimate of the static state in terms of number of iterations for convergence, execution time and accuracy.


Article
BEHAVIOR OF HYBRID REINFORCED CONCRETE DEEP BEAMS WITH WEB OPENINGS UNDER REPEATED LOADING

Authors: Sawsan Akram Hassan --- Mohammed Kamil Ali
Pages: 52-75
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Abstract

This research aims to study experimentally behavior of hybrid deep beams when subjected to two point's monotonic and repeated loading in presence or absence of web openings. All tested deep beams have the same reinforcement in flexural (ρ= 0.0184) and web (ρw=0.003) and same dimensions of (1500mm length, 150mm width and 350 mm height). In this research, the idea of hybridity was achieved by reinforcing the two shear spans with steel fiber keeping the middle span free from this fiber. The aim was to strengthen shear wings against shear failure (diagonal strut failure). To achieve the aim, twelve deep beams were cast and tested. Six of them were tested under monotonic loading as control beams to the other six beams tested under repeated loading at levels of 55% of the ultimate load of their control beams. The variables attempts were: loading type (either monotonic or repeated), beam type (either hybrid or non-hybrid), steel fiber (SF) ratio, and finally web opening sizes. The results illustrate that the ultimate load of deep beam with web openings under monotonic loading increases as the SF ratio increases. When SF was added to shear spans with a ratios of 1% and 2% under monotonic loading system, the ultimate load percentages increase are 37.5% and 68.75%, respectively compared with ultimate loads of beams which are without SF. Also, using fiberous concrete in casting the entire length of beams leads to an increase in the ultimate load of 4.55% as compared with deeps beams with the same SF ratio of 1%, and 43.75% as compared with beams cast with conventional concrete. The results using different opening size of square shapes, it was found that the ultimate load decrease as size of web openings increases from 0.61% of beam size to 1.37% of beam size by 10.17% and 25.42%, respectively as compared with hybrid deep beam without openings.


Article
BIT ERROR OPTIMIZATION OF CODED OFDM SYSTEM OVER RAYLEIGH FADING CHANNEL

Authors: Awatif Ali Jafaar --- Zainab Majeed Abid
Pages: 76-85
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Abstract

Low Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes are one of the hottest topics in coding theory today. This code invented in the early 1960's, and it having an amazing comeback in the last few years. In this paper, a scheme is proposed to analyze the performance of LDPC which is considered important rival to turbo codes, Convolutional Code (CC) and Read Solomon (RS) in terms of performance and complexity. This code is utilized in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system to evaluate the improvement in the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of the system. Comparison is done between turbo code and LDPC code through Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and fading channels. The effect of varying the code rate channel, number of iteration and the code length on the performance of the scheme are also explained.

Keywords

OFDM --- LDPC --- Turbo code --- BPSK --- AWGN --- Fading channel.


Article
EVALUATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN THE PIVOTAL FARMS UTILIZING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

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Evaluation of the efficiency and estimating crop yield and forecasting are very important, because relation to food security of the country and to reach the stage of self-sufficiency. Research is trying to estimate the crops, and solves the problem of monitoring of farms inaccessible by field visits; monitor the implementation of the agricultural plan in addition, to monitoring the health status of crops. Utilizing application of remote sensing RS, geographical information system (GIS) added satellites imageries with multi temporal and spatial analysis of vegetation cover. The research includes the collection of (12 image) Landsat8 and (3 image) Sentinel-2. In addition the meteorological data from agricultural meteorological stations of the Iraqi Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover the field data. Covered the winter planting season from 01/10/2015 to 01/05/2016.The research includes using Cropwat program to calculation Calendar germination of crops, and using ERDAS IMAGINE 2014 to create process and calculation NDVI, Change Detection, and spectral profile analysis from imageries. Moreover using ArcGIS 10.3 for building Geodatabase, building spatial database, analysis data, and product maps. The results of the evaluation showed that most of the Ain al-Tamur pivotal farms are highly efficient and the results of change detection for the NDVI and NIR are very effective.


Article
POWER FACTOR CORRECTION IN A RADIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING OPTIMAL CAPACITOR PLACEMENT FOR BAGHDAD CITY

Authors: Nidaa Hameed Dawod
Pages: 100-118
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Abstract

In recent years the nature of load has changed drastically and different electrical equipment's. mercury lamps, transformers, motors, switchgears are running inherently at low power factor. Planning of electrical distribution networks is considered of highest priority at the present time in Baghdad city, due to the huge increase in electrical power demand and expansions imposed on distribution networks as a result of the great and rapid urban - development. This work presents the new and efficient approach for capacitor placement in radial distribution network that determine the optimal locations and size of capacitor with the main objective for the improving voltage profile, reducing active power losses and improving power factor. This work includes two parts: part one implementation on the IEEE 33-bus test system using CYMDIST software program, as a tool for the simulation of a distribution network and performing the required analysis. The results, shows a good matching as compared with previous work mentioned in the literature and used for the same network but the analysis of different ways. , and in part two, we select actual sector of Baghdad city distribution network that is Al Adel_33/11kV_feeders 2, 3, 6, and 7 (11 kV_93 bus) network is depicted for the implementation of this analysis. The results using backward / forward load flow method, show that minimum power losses and improving voltage profile had been achieved. So the network can be operate in normal condition without any violating operational constraints.


Article
SUGGESTED EQUATIONS FOR MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE STRENGTHENED WITH STEEL FIBERS AND EFFECT OF SUCH FIBERS ON SHEAR CAPACITY OF SIMPLY SUPPORTED DEEP BEAMS UNDER AXIAL LOADS

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Deep beams are structural elements that commonly design for bridges, girders, foundation walls, pile caps and others. Also, using Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) mix for deep beam is a suitable choice for deep beams because of reinforcement congestion therein. The main objective of this work is to study the shear capacity of SCC reinforced concrete deep beams subjected to axial load, so that both of experimental and analytical works are done. The experimental work consists four simply supported deep beams casted by using SCC mix with steel fibers and tested. All these beams have dimensions 1300mm length, 350mm high, 150mm width and have been subjected to axial force with (100) kN value and then subjected to two-point loads. The variables of this work are vertical and horizontal shear reinforcement and steel fibers ratio in order to study their effects on first crack load and ultimate load and mid span deflection. From the experimental results obtained all the tested beams failed by diagonal splitting mode with some crushing at support zones (in some beams). The second part is the analytical study of this research, including presents proposed equations to estimate the mechanical properties as: compressive strength f`cf, splitting tensile strength ftf, modulus of rapture frf, and modulus of elasticity Ecf of fibrous SCC.


Article
ENHANCEMENT OF CUMULATIVE CORROSION-FATIGUE INTERACTION LIVES OF 6061-T6 ALUMINUM ALLOY USING ULTRASONIC IMPACT PEENING PROCESS

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The fatigue behavior of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy under constant and variable amplitude loading was investigated in air for as-received and pre-corroded specimens in 3.5% NaCl corrosive solution for 77 days. The experimental results presented that the tests of fatigue life on pre-corroded samples with and without ultrasonic peening revealed a significant reduction in life related with the presence of corrosion defects before cyclic loading. In state of unpeened specimens the constant S-N fatigue strength curve was decreased by 4.5% due to immersed the specimens in corrosive 3.5% NaCl solution for 77 days, while in state of ultrasonically peened specimens for 10 sec. per line and 2.5 joul energy the reduction of S-N curve decreased to 2.2% due to the beneficial effect of this treatment for increasing the corrosion-fatigue life. The improvement of fatigue life and corrosion-fatigue life of specimens when applying of ultrasonic peening was 8.69% for dry fatigue life and 2.3% for corrosion-fatigue interaction. The results of cumulative corrosion-fatigue tests indicated that the life of corroded specimens under the effect of ultrasonic peening treatment improved to approximately (3% ـــ 2.25%) for low-high and high-low sequences.


Article
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MRP LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE AND EFFECT OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH ON SHEAR CAPACITY OF BEAMS

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The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of compressive strength on the shear capacity of Modified Reactive Powder Lightweight Concrete (MRPLWC) Beams. The structural behavior of (3) MRPLWC beams without web reinforcement under two point loading system , are studied. Three percentage of Silica Fume (SF) were used to improve the compressive strength of MRPLWC. The experimental results pointed that a positive correlation between the compressive strength and diagonal cracking load and ultimate shear load. Increasing the compressive strength from (89.53 MPa) to (90.3) MPa lead to increase the diagonal cracking load Vcr and increasing ultimate shear load Vu .


Article
IEEE 802.16 E&M SYSTEMS BANDWIDTH RESOURCE ALLOCATION PERFORMANCE INVESTIGATION

Authors: Ghassan Amanuel. H. QasMarrogy
Pages: 155-169
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This paper concentrates on the downlink resource allocation strategy for the bandwidth in Mobile WiMAX system based on IEEE802.16E and IEEE802.16M standards. Most of the recent algorithms deal with giving higher priority to the applications that have higher delay tolerance known as real-time applications. While the applications using the non-real time doesn’t have enough priority or interest. still, the real-time applications should have a higher priority than the non-real time applications to be served first. In this paper, a higher priority and QoS (quality of services) will be given to the real-time applications while the applications for the non-real time will be helped to give some fairness to decrease the dropping packets without starving. It will be done by merging two major technologies (minimum resource allocation and round robin manner. Also, a comparison will be done between the IEEE802.16E and IEEE802.16M systems to evaluate the system throughput, the resource allocation, the average end-to-end delay, and the data packet dropping to demonstrate the affecting algorithm of the entire system. Finally, the paper will demonstrate that the total system will be enhanced by reducing the nonefficient dropping packets. As a result, it will simulate and verify that there is lesser packet drop in the applications of real and non-real time. therefore, every single service and the total system throughput will be enhanced.


Article
INVESTIGATION THE EFFECT OF BLADE’S SLOT ON ROTATING STALL OF HIGH SPEED BLOWER

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Abstract

Experimental and numerical investigations to study the effect of add one slot to the impeller blades on the rotating stall and pressure fluctuations in a high speed centrifugal blower. The experimental test rig which includes a blower of centrifugal, transducer of pressure as well measurement instrumentations which constructed for this study. A data acquisition system (hardware) and its (software) have been developed to transfer the signal from transducer of pressure to the computer then analysis with time. The experimental work has been implemented through measuring the static pressure variation as well fluctuating of pressure for two cases of impeller (without slot and with one slot). Static pressure has been taken in different points prepared on the front-wall of the volute casing along one track for two cases of the impeller. This track is angular track about the impeller. The results of experimental show that the fluctuations of pressure increase with the mass flow rate decrease. Also the results indicate that fluctuations of pressure decrease with adding slots into the impeller blades. The simulation of numerical has been carried out on blower of centrifugal into analysis both field of flow and fluctuations of pressure through using ANSYS (FLUENT 15). The simulation of numerical has been completed through solve the continuity and momentum equations with moving reference framework technique inside the blower. The numerical simulation results show a good agreement with the results of experimental.

Table of content: volume:23 issue:4