Table of content

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal

مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان

ISSN: 18121217
Publisher: Mosul University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Refereed Scientific Journal deals with fields of dental sciences
Date of first issue: 2001
No of Issues: 27 issues
publishing biannually till 2012
publishing becomes triannually at 2013

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Contact info

University of Mosul
College of Dentistry - Deanery Building
Tel. 009647481705863

e mail:

Table of content: 2001 volume:1 issue:3

Article
Caries-preventive effect of topical APF gel with three different frequencies of application in 9-11 years old school children in Ninevah

Authors: Karam H JAZRAWI --- Tarik Y KHAMRCO
Pages: S201-S214
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Abstract

This is the first study carried out in Iraq that aimed at evaluating the effect on dental caries of Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride (APF) gel applied topically with different frequencies (once per year vs. twice per year vs. four times a year). A sample of (235) school children [116 (49.36%) males and 119 (50.64%) females) initially in the fourth grade (aged 9-11 years) were collected from (4) primary schools in Mosul city Centre. The children were allocated randomly to (3) experimental groups and one control group. The first group received (0.49%) APF gel four times a year for (4) minutes. The second group received (0.4%) APF gel once per year for (4) minutes; whereas the third group received (0.4%) APF gel twice per year for (4) minutes. Two examinations were done using DMFT and DMIFS indices: one before fluoride application and the other after one year. The results showed a reduction in dental caries (with respect to DMFT index, and in comparison with the control group) of (112.8%) for the first group,(35.9%) for the second group, and (80.4%) regarding the third group. With respect to DMFS index, and in comparison with the control group, the reduction in dental caries was (97.3%),(32.8%), and (72.6%), respectively. The best benefit from using topically applied APF gel was, therefore, achieved from applying (0.4%) gel four times a year for (4) minutes.


Article
Fluoride release from different tooth colored restorative materials: An in vitro study

Authors: Manal A AL-TAEE --- Abdul-haq A SULIMAN
Pages: S215-S228
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Abstract

This in vitro study evaluated the amount of fluoride released from fluoride-containing materials over a period of (30) days. Twenty eight disk samples (2.5 mm depth × 10 mm diameter) were prepared and divided into four groups: GroupI Vitremer glass ionomer, group II resin composite Tetric, group III resin composite Definite, and group IV Compoglass. The samples were stored in an incubator at 37°C for (24) hours. Each disk was suspended in an individual plastic tube containing (3) ml of deionized water. The water was changed every (24) hours, fluoride release was determined at each day for (30) days, after buffering the solution with equal volume of TISAB. The fluoride release was measured with a fluoride-ion selective specific electrode previously calibrated from (0.05) to (100) ppm. Fluoride release was expressed in part per million (ppm). ANOVA test was used to evaluate the data. The results revealed that Vetrimer glass ionomer released significantly more fluoride (4l ppm) for the first day than all the other products. This was followed by Compoglass which exhibits more fluoride release than the other two types (32 ppm), the Tetric composite resin Was the third material in the amount of fluoride released (3.75 ppm), and finally the resin composite Definite released fluoride in about (0.75 ppm). All fluoride release was decreased from day (1) to (30) observation period.


Article
A comparative study between the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic and antibiotics after apicectomy

Authors: Helme A AL-TAEE --- Tahani A AL-SANDOOK
Pages: S229-S236
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Abstract

Non steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIAs), particularly Ibuprofen, found to be effective in lowering the degree of swelling after apicectomy when it is compared with the combined use of antibiotic particularly Penicillin with Paracetamol. This study suggests the only use of the NSAIAs after apicectomywithout the need of antibiotic use, unless it is recommended or NSAIAs were contraindicated.


Article
Measurement of surface roughness of the stone cast poured on different impression materials

Authors: Munther N KAZANJI --- Lamia T REJAB
Pages: S237-S246
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the mean roughness values of the stone casts Surfaces that were poured from two different gypsum products (ZETA and QD) dental stones on the three different impression materials (Supersil,Neogenate and Xanthano). Ten patients were selected to perform this study, for each patient six impressions were recorded. Sixty stone casts were poured and examined to evaluate surface roughness values. The stone casts were tested for surface roughness values with surface-roughness-measuring instrument,Profilometer(Perthometer). The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test. The results of this study showed that there were a significant differences in the mean roughness values of the stone casts among the three different impression materials and two different dental stones used at alevel of (P≤0.05). It was concluded that the smoothest surface of the stone cast were obtained from poured ZETA stone on Supersil impressions, while roughness surface were observed on the stone casts produced from poured QD dental stone on Xanthano impressions.


Article
In vitro study to compare the sealing ability of a hydroxyapatite endodontic sealer with other Sealers (Quantitative Measurement)

Authors: Raghad A MOHAMMED --- Majidah K AL-HASHIMI
Pages: S247-S256
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Abstract

This study is designed to compare and evaluate the sealing ability of a new Iraqi hydroxyapatite-containing endodontic sealer and other sealers using spectrophotometric system as a quantitative measurement of the volume of dye penetration into root canals. Fifty single-rooted extracted human teeth were used. Step-back technique was used to flare and enlarge the canals, the teeth were divided into five groups according to the type of sealer used: Group I:Zincoxideeugenol cement sealer, Group II: ZOE + hydroxyapatite (Iraqi), Group III: Glass ionomer cement sealer, Group IV: GIC + hydroxyapatite (Iraqi), Group V: Calcium phosphate cement + zincoxide(Wach's cement). All groups were immersed in methylene blue dye for one week then dissolved in 50% nitric acid and filtered then centrifuged. The leakage was assessed quantitatively using a spectrophotometric system. The results showed that calcium phosphate cement + zincoxide,(Wach's cement) had the lowest mean of dye leakage, followed by glass ionomercement sealer, then glass ionomer cement Sealer + hydroxyapatite, while ZOE had the highest mean of dye penetration into the filled root canal, The newly developed Iraqi hydroxyapatite containing endodontic sealer was as effective as the other tested sealers concerning apical microleakage.


Article
The effect of using sectional stock tray on the accuracy of gypsum cast

Authors: Nadira A HATIM --- Sawsan H AL-JUBORI
Pages: S257-S266
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Abstract

Patients with restricted mouth opening are a common occurrence in prosthodontic practice. Sectional impression technique was simplified manipulation and decreased patient's trauma. The aim of study is to compare between the impression done by using sectional and full arch stock trays, and to evaluate volumetric changes in the abutments of partially edentulous arch and the linear dimensional changes between the abutments of stone casts at different intervals of time. The measurements were done by using 3D (IOTA 1203, DEA) machine on (80) die stone casts prepared after taking an impression (two-step technique) of hand mix Dorisil and Supersil addition silicone impression materials using a special mold and test apparatus. There was low significance in the volumetric differences among casts produced from sectional stock trays in relation to that produced from full arch stock trays. Little linear dimensional changes between abutments of casts prepared from sectional stock tray of an average 0.031mm were found. According to these results, sectional trays can be used instead of full arch trays in clinical cases of restricted mouth opening.


Article
Does the size of the resorbed bone periapically predict the lesional type

Authors: Sabah M SAKA
Pages: S267-S270
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Abstract

A retrospective study on (86)periapical lesions associated with non-vital anterior teeth was performed. The size of the resorbed bone caused by the lesion was measured to the nearest millimeters on the radiograph. Twenty two of the lesions were radicular cyst and the remaining (64) were granuloma or abscess. The size of the resorbed bone was related to the histological type of the lesion. It was possible to predict radicular cyst with (91.3%) accuracy before apical surgery is undertaken. In periapical granuloma or abscess, it Was possible to predict with (94%) accuracy. Therefore, selection of treatment modality whether conventional endodontic or apical surgery is possible


Article
Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in rural area in Mosul city

Authors: Mahmood Y TAHA --- Mohamed Kh HASOUNI --- Tariq M KASIM
Pages: S271-S278
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Abstract

The prevalence of HBs antigen in (400) healthy people in rural area in Mosul was (5%). A high incidence of HBs was seen in young age group (25-34) years (11.69%) and in males (7.15%) more than females (3.64%). The high incidence of HB infection suggests that the dentist should take the preventive measures of being infected by their patients.

Keywords

Hepatitis --- antigen --- prevalence


Article
Reconditioning of used metallic direct-bonding orthodontic brackets by using chemical solvents

Authors: Fadhil Y JASIM --- Amer A TAQA
Pages: S279-S282
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Abstract

Thirteen different chemical solvents were used to remove the bonding adhesive from the metallic edgewise stainless steel direct-bonding orthodontic brackets. These solvents were Alcohol, Alcohol with (1)gm Ascorbic acid, Water with 1 gm Ascorbic acid, Acetic acid, Acetone, mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid, Ammonium hydroxide,(40-50%) potassium hydroxide,trichloroacetic acid, Hydrogen peroxide (30%), Toluene, Pyridine. It was found that the Pyridine is the most powerful solvent that remove the adhesive material from the bracket base without damaging or weakening the delicate bracket base mesh.


Article
Epidemiological study on prevalence of plaque and gingivitis among adolescents and adult population (15-54) years in Hamam-Allel villages, Ninevah, Iraq

Authors: Tarik Y KHAMRCO
Pages: S283-S290
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Abstract

The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of periodontal disease (gingivitis) and oral hygiene condition among adolescents and adult population (15-54) years in Hamam-Allel villages in Ninevah city. A sample of (402) individuals aged (15-54) years (10 males and 292 females) were selected randomly and examined using plaque index Score by Silness and Loe and gingival index by Loe and Silness. The results revealed that mean plaque score was (1.21) for the total sample, and it was increase with age, the males reported lower mean than females with no significant difference between them. The mean gingival score was low (54) for the total sample and it was increase with age significantly, the mean gingival score was slightly better in females than males, however, there was no statistically significant differences between them. The study indicated that about 2/3 of the total sample did not brush their teeth or brush infrequently,so the population can be educated in effective and regular oral hygiece, therefore dental health education orogram for those population is an essential activity for promoting their oral health and preventing oral disease.


Article
The effect of bleaching on shear bond strength of resin bonded bridges

Authors: Sabah A ISMAIL
Pages: S291-S298
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Abstract

Sixty intact upper central and lateral incisors were used in this study the teeth were divided into four groups, the first group was the control group the other groups were bleached with (10%)carbamide peroxide (Opalescence 10%) for two weeks the bleaching material was changed every (8) hours. Sixty discs shaped samples were cast from nickle chromium CB Blando 72 alloy the diameter of each sample was (5) mm and the thickness was (1) mm, the bonding surfaces were sandblasted. The discs were bonded to the teeth in the first and second groups one day after bleaching, the third group was bonded one week after bleaching while the fourth group was bonded two weeks after bleaching. The bonding material used for all groups was Super Bond Crown and Bridge Material. The shear bond strength of the samples was tested. The statistical analysis showed that the second group has the lowest bond strength while the fourth group showed the highest bond strength. This indicates that bleaching affects the bond strength of resin bonded bridges fabricated from CB Blando 72 nickel chromium alloy so that bridges must be fabricated at least two weeks after bleaching.


Article
Occlusal variation among Sharkhan rural population

Authors: Nada M AL-SAYAGH
Pages: S299-S312
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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to provide information about the occlusal variations among Sharkhan rural population and explore significant sex and age differences in occlusion. A sample of (194) subjects (117 male and 77 female) aged (12-50) year was examined. Many occlusal features were studied. The results indicate that most of the subjects had class I molar and canine occlusion, approximately (3/4) of the sample had normal overjet and correct midline relation, about (1/2) of the sample had normal overbite The most common malocclusion features was crowding in the lower anterior teeth and spacing in the upper anterior teeth followed by deep bite. While the crossbite and scissors bite were less likely to occur among the total sample. It was found the females had a high percentage of class II canine relation, and missing posterior teeth, while the males had a high percentage of class III canine relation, deep bite and upper posterior teeth rotation. With advancing age the prevalence of lower anterior crowding was decreased while the prevalence of missing posterior teeth were increased.


Article
Assessment of dentists self-performed plaque control measures in Mosul city

Authors: Faiz A AL-SULTAN --- Rafi A AL-TALIB --- Baceer A ABDULLAH
Pages: S313-S326
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Abstract

A survey of (146) dentists in Mosul city was involved by questionnaire to evaluate the plaque control measures include brushing & interdental aids, the age range (23-58) years. The result of this survey revealed that (54%) of the sample brush their teeth once daily,(29%)&(17%) brush their teeth twice & more respectively. Significant difference was found between the frequency of brushing & the gender were female brushes their teeth more frequent than male,(74%) of the dentist select specific tooth paste, Signal &Sanino were the most frequent tooth pastes selected by the dentists. Also this study showed that (69%) of the dentists were used interdental aids,(51%) used dental floss,(18%) used toothpick,(66%) used it daily,(29%) weekly &(5%) monthly.

Keywords

Dentist --- toothbrush --- dental floss


Article
Prevalence of dental discoloration among 5-44 years population in Sharkhan village, Nineveh Governorate, Mosul, Iraq

Authors: Manar M AL-NE,MA --- Talal H AL-SALMAN --- Ma,an M NAYEF
Pages: S327-S334
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Abstract

The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence of dental discoloration in the rural area and to identify, if there is any variation between sex and age group in a sample of (114) subjects aged (5-44)years. The sample was divided into four age group (5-14),(15-24),(25-34) and (35-44) years. The results revealed high percentage of teeth discoloration in all age groups & it was particularly due to natural or acquired cause and there were no differences between the age groups or sex. Also, the result of this research showed that about (82%) of the total sample are with discoloration defect in their teeth.

Keywords

Discoloration --- rural area


Article
Dental treatment needs and treatment achieved for children attending the clinic of pedodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Mosul

Authors: Ban S AL-MUKHTAR
Pages: S335-S342
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the reason for seekinig dental treatment and the type of treatment carried out for the children attending clinic of pedodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Mosul. The study included (1850) case sheets which represent the total number of children that attend to the pedodotic clinic, during the academic year of 1997-1998. The result show that children with age (9-10) years have higher percent in attending the pedodontic clinic than other age groups. The result indicate that children attended to the clinic Seeking treatment for painful condition have higher percentage (36.11%) than other cases, then check up, esthetic problem, preventive therapy, trauma come in a lower percentage than the pain. The study reveal that the higher percentage of treatment done is extraction (29.06%) followed by scaling and polishing (20.27%), amalgam filling, preventive program, other type of treatment done in a lover percentage.


Article
Evaluation of shear bond strength of brackets bonded to fluoride-treated enamel surfaces: An in vitro study

Authors: Ahmad A ABDUL-MAWJOOD --- Khidair A SALMAN
Pages: S343-S352
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Abstract

Enamel decalcification is a well-recognized problem associated with orthodontic treatment with fixed multibanded appliances. Several methods have been proposed to minimize the incidence and severity of white spot decalcification around brackets. The present study is concerned with the evaluation of the effect of different topical fluoride gels, applied before and after etching on the shear bond strength of directly bonded orthodontic brackets. The sample consisted of (70) human upper first premolars distributed to (7) groups: group A served as a control; groups B1, C1, andDl received, for (4) minutes prior to etching, a topical application of neutral sodium fluoride gel (1.1%), sodium monofluorophosphate gel (1.2%), and acidulated phosphate fluoride gel (1.23%) respectively. Groups B2, C2, and D2, on the other hand, were treated, for (4) minutes after etching, with topical application of neutral sodium fluoride gel (1.1%), sodium monofluorophosphate fluoride gel (1.2%), and acidulated phosphate fluoride gel (1.23%) respectively. The brackets were loaded under shear to failure using Universal Compression Machine Apparatus. The shear strengths were recorded in Megapascals. The results of the present study showed that the application of fluoride gels for (4) minutes before and after etching did not alter the shear bond strengths of directly bonded orthodontic brackets, when compared with the control group, for all groups except for group D2 in which the topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride gel for (4) minutes after etching has resulted in a significant reduction in shear bond strength and severity of white spot decalcification around brackets.

Keywords

Bond strength --- fluoride


Article
Clinical assessment of stainless steel brackets failure rate after reduction of phosphoric acid concentration and etching time

Authors: Ali R AL-KHATIB
Pages: S353-S362
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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinically the effect of reduction of phosphoric acid concentration and etching time during bonding procedure of stainless steel brackets. As (240) metal mesh-backed brackets were bonded by using no-mix adhesive orthodontic composite, they were divided into (3) equal groups, each of (80) bracket (10 patients), the labial and buccal Surfaces of the first group was conditioned with (37%) phosphoric acid for (45) seconds, the second with (20%) for (10) seconds, and the third group was conditioned with (5%) for (15) seconds, all patients were received the orthodontic treatment by the same operator, the study period was (1) year of, the results indicate that the percentage of failure rate for the second and third groups did not significantly differ from the first group, this was calculated by using the Z-test of two proportions at (p<0.05). However, the evaluation of the adhesive remnant index (ARI) after bracket failure, revealed that the application of (37%) acid for (45) second resulted in higher amount residual adhesive left on the teeth The present study demonstrated that phosphoric acid concentration of (5%) for (15) seconds could be sufficient for bracket bonding on anterior or premolar teeth.


Article
The effect of different storage times and storage conditions of two types of alginate impression on accuracy of master cast

Authors: Najlan A JASIM --- Munther N KAZANJI
Pages: S363-S374
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The aims of this study were to determine the effect of using different storage time and storage media on the accuracy of two types of alginate impression material,Hydrogum soft and Hydrogum elastic. One hundred sixty impressions were recorded from a standard acrylic model using perforated trays. These impressions were divided into three main groups. In the first group,(48) impressions were stored at (3) times interval namely (15) minutes,(30) minutes,(60) minutes and left on the bench uncovered. In the second one,(48) impressions were stored in disposable plastic bags at the same time interval mentioned above. In the third one,(48) impressions were divided into (3) subgroups, the first one were only washed with tap water before pouring, the other two subgroups were immersed in Sodium Hypochiorite(0.5%) and ChlorhexidineGluconate(0.5%) disinfectant solutions for (30) minutes before pouring,(16) impression will be taken and poured immediately to be considered as a control for this study. A three dimensional measuring machine (3D) was used for measuring the dimensional change of stone casts, the results showed that there was no significant differences of casts accuracy produced from the two types of an alginate impression material. Storage of alginate impression material at (15) and (30) minutes on the bench or inside sealed plastic bags showed no significant differences in dimensional changes compared with control samples that poured immediately, Storage to (60) minutes showed a significant difference,washing alginate with tap water and immersion in chlorhexidine disinfectant solution (0.5%) for (30) minutes showed no significant difference Immersion in sodium hypochlorite (0.5%) for (30) minutes showed significant changes. It was concluded that alginate impression could be stored for (30) minutes inside bags without significant changes if the pouring of alginate impression will be delayed for any reason.


Article
Cutaneous and oral myiasis infecting human in Iraq

Authors: Sabah M SAKA --- Hind J MAHMOOD --- Wisam M AL-SAEED
Pages: S375-S378
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Abstract

Five human cases infected with myiasis in a village (10) kilometers southern Babylon governorate, four of them ranging between (18) months to (12) years of age, suffering from cutaneous myiasis, while the fifth case was a farmer With (53) years old suffering from oral myiasis, all cases recorded for the first time in Iraq. The species specific causing cutaneous problem was identified as a botfly (Dermatobiahominis), while the causative agent of oral myiasis are related to the family Sarcophagidae, genus Wholfalirtia spp. All cases received medical and surgical treatment.

Keywords

Myiasis --- oral --- cutaneous


Article
The palatal injection: A painless approach

Authors: Wafaa KH FATHIE --- Tahani A AL-SANDOOK --- Rayan S HAMID
Pages: S379-S384
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Abstract

A painless approach to the well known painful palatal injection using topical application of pressure is described. Seventy dental patients requiring anesthesia of the palatal tissue (soft and hard) for:surgical procedures were chosen for the study. A highly significant value (p>0.01) of a painless injection was noticed when the ipsilateral side was compared with the contralateral side in the same patient. Further studies on this approach are recommended to further evaluate its success.


Article
Prevalence of dental caries (DMFT) in Iraqi children and adolescent living in areas with low and high level of natural fluoride

Authors: Tarik Y KHAMRCO --- May GH AL-AJRAB
Pages: S385-S400
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The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries in a group of school children lived in area with high and low natural fluoride contained drinking water in Ninevah governorate. The study is conducted among (1724) schools students aged 11-16 years from randomly selected schools (primary and intermediate) in two provinces in Ninevah governorate. Eight hundred and thirteen students who had lived since birth in high natural fluoride level area (Sinjar province)(2.05-222 ppm) and (911) students lived continuously from birth in low natural fluoride level area in their drinking water (Talkaif province)(0.11-0.19 ppm). WHO methodology (1997) has been used to assess the dental caries status and using DMFT index for permanent teeth. The results show that in Sinjar province the mean DMFT for total samples were (1.67) and (36.2%) are caries free with no sex difference. while there is a significant age differences. On the other hand, in Talkaif province the results reveal higher DMFT (3.7) and lower percent of caries free (19.1%), The mean DMFT reported twice in Talkaif province than Sinjar province with highly significant differences between them. The percentage of reduction of dental caries has been found to be (54.3%) in Sinjar province compare to Talkaif province.


Article
The relationship between the maxillary dental arch width, depth and circumference

Authors: Khidair A SALMAN
Pages: 401-410
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Abstract

This study was carried out on a random sample of (50) upper stone dental caste for intermediate school student (25 males and 25 females) aged (12-15) years from different areas of Mosul city. The correlation between the dental arch width, depth and circumference was calculated. It was found that male maxillary dental arch is greater in all dimensions than the female one. There was a weak correlation between the dental arch widths and the corresponding palatal vault depths. The correlation was moderate between the maxillary arch circumference and widths except at intercanine distance width, which it showed a high correlation and it was a weak between the arch circumference and the palatal vault depths.


Article
Evaluation of tactile sensation for apical root canal Obturation

Authors: Abdul- haq A SULIMAN
Pages: 411-418
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Abstract

An accurate Working length is absolutely necessary for successful root canal treatment.Obturation of the root canal system forms the final Stage of root canal therapy and its success depends on obtaining perfect apical seal. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of tactile sensation in obtaining an optimum obturation. Three hundred and fifty radiograph of root filled teeth taken after obturation of clinical cases evaluated in this study. The root canal prepared and the length was determined by the tactile sensation. After the obturation final radiograph to evaluate the obturation in the apical area was recorded. The films (284 radiographs included in the study) were divided according to the sex, position in the jaws and the type of tooth. Two observers evaluate the radiograph for apical obturation separately. Three categories were used: The first category, which is given a score of zero for optimal obturation(1) mm from the anatomical apex, The second category, which is given a score of one, is regarded as an underfilled root canal filling which is more than (1) mm from the anatomical apex. And finally the third category which is given a score of two which is regarded as an overfilled filling when there is extension of the filling material beyond the anatomical apex. The data were tabulated and a non-parametric chi square analysis was used for statistical test. The percentage of optimum apical obturation was found in (66.55%) of cases while those scored (1)was (28.9%) and those scored (2) was (46%). The analysis showed that there was no effect of the sex of the patient or between both jaws or with regard tooth type. The result of the study showed that, under the circumstances of this work, the tactile sensation produce results as effective as other methods of working length determination and could be justified, under the circumstances that limit the availability of other methods for working length determination and in particular the X - ray machine for the general dentist in Iraq upon which a harsh sanction is imposed which include scientific and health sanction


Article
Dental glass ionomer cement consistency and film thickness

Authors: Jabbar H KAMEL --- Waad M HUSSAIN
Pages: 419-430
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This comparative study is to evaluate consistency and film thickness for Iraqi made (Ashour) glass ionomer cement (GIC) and five different types glass ionomer cement and to compare these materials with each other and with British Standard Specification (BS Sp.) no.(6039) in (1981). In this study the following materials were used: 1.Ashour,Ketac, QD and Meron glass ionomer cements are type "1" (luting materials) according to manufacturer instructions. 2. Ionodent and Hybond glass ionomer cements are type "2" (filling materials) according to manufacturer instructions. The tests were done by using specimens of tested materials prepared by the aid of metal moulds, which are manufactured for each test according to specification. Electronic balance was used to calculate the amount of powder that must be mixed with (0.5) ml of liquid to provide consistency value within the range of specification. Glass slab, stainless steel mixing spatula and micrometer were used for measuring the film thickness,while vernier used instead of micrometer for measuring the consistency. Cabinet was made of wood and glass manufactured for providing (by using of atmospheric thermometer and hygrometer) the temperature and humidity necessary for each test. The results showed that there is a significant difference between different treatment groups. Further results showed that some tested materials exhibit a significant difference between each other and with specification. The comparative study found that the filling materials which are tested have physical properties of luting materials and there are some variations in these properties of all tested materials from those which are illustrated in the manufacturer leaflets and in the specification.

Table of content: volume:1 issue:3