Table of content

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development

مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة

ISSN: 25200917
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development
College of Engineering /Mustansiriyah University
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• About the journal
The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is a peer reviewed open access scientific Iraqi journal issued by the College of Engineering/ Mustansiriyah University, under the regulations and standards of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq. In the meantime, the journal commits itself to the regulations of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE).


The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is an open access journal that all contents are free of charge. Users are allowed to read, download, or share the full texts of the articles in this journal without prior permission of the publisher or the author(s). A DOI is guaranteed by no means to change, so it can be used as a permanent link to any electronic article. Our journal DOI prefix account is 10.31272.

The journal welcomes submissions in the following topics:

Structural Engineering

Geotechnical Engineering

Engineering Management

Materials Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Dam and Water Resources Engineering

Architectural Engineering and Urban Design

Energy and Power System

Electronics, Control, Signals and Systems

Computer and Software Engineering

Communication Engineering

Renewable Energy Systems

Environmental Engineering

General Engineering

The vision for the future is to make the journal abstracted and indexed by the prominent databases and internationally cited, read and downloaded by the scholars. The mission is to contribute to the advances in the engineering fields and sustainable development. The journal aims at revolutionizing the practice in industry by promoting cutting-edge and effective research.

The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is published bimonthly, and the issues appearing on the beginning of each other month.

The corresponding author must pay fees of 100000 Iraqi dinars for the professor academic title, 75000 Iraqi dinars for assistant professor or less title, and 30000 Iraqi dinars for graduate (or undergraduate) students where the student is the first author. For international researchers, the submission fees are 125 USD.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07717944560
E-mail:editor@jeasd.org
ali.alghalib@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

Table of content: 2019 volume:23 issue:5

Article
مقارنة أداء منظومة تثليج امتصاصية تعمل بالطاقة المتبددة من ماء تبريد محرك سيارة باستخدام محاليل تثليج مختلفة

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Abstract

يتضمن البحث التحقق من امكانية عمل منظومة تثليج امتصاصية تعمل بالطاقة المتبددة من ماء تبريد محرك السيارة باستخدام أربعة محاليل تثليج مختلفة (ماء- بروميد الليثيوم/ أمونيا- ماء/أمونيا– ثيوسينات الصوديوم/ أسيتون- بروميد الزنك)، إذ بنيت أربعة نماذج رياضية (أنموذج لكل محلول) لمحاكاة عمل المنظومة والمقارنة بين أداء المحاليل باستخدام برنامج حل المعادلات الهندسية (EES). بيّنت النتائج أنً باستخدام محلول (ماء – بروميد الليثيوم) وعند ظروف عدم التحميل للمحرك يمكن الحصول على سعة التثليج بمقدار ((14kW وبدرجة حرارة للمبخر (14C°). أما بظروف التحميل للمحرك فيمكن الحصول على سعة التثليج بمقدار (32kW) وبدرجة حرارة للمبخر (17C°). وباستخدام محلول (الأمونيا– ماء) وعند ظروف عدم التحميل للمحرك يمكن الحصول على سعة التثليج بمقدار (12kW) وبدرجة حرارة للمبخر (15C°). أما بظروف التحميل للمحرك فيمكن الحصول على سعة التثليج بمقدار 27kW)) وبدرجة حرارة للمبخر (17C°). وباستخدام محلول (الأمونيا– ثيوسينات الصوديوم) وعند ظروف عدم التحميل للمحرك يمكن الحصول على سعة التثليج بمقدار (11kW) وبدرجة حرارة للمبخر (15C°). أما بظروف التحميل للمحرك فيمكن الحصول على سعة التثليج بمقدار (23kW) وبدرجة حرارة للمبخر (17C°). وباستخدام محلول (الأسيتون- بروميد الزنك) وعند ظروف عدم التحميل للمحرك يمكن الحصول على سعة التثليج بمقدار (13kW) وبدرجة حرارة للمبخر (16C°). أما بظروف التحميل للمحرك فيمكن الحصول على سعة التثليج بمقدار (32kW) وبدرجة حرارة للمبخر (18C°).


Article
تأثير الحجم الحبيبي على بعض الخواص الميكانيكية لمواد متراكبة بوليمرية متدرجة وظيفيا مصنعة بطريقة الترسيب تحت تأثير الجاذبية

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Abstract

هذه ا يتضمن هذا البحث إنتاج مواد متراكبة بوليمرية متدرجة وظيفيا Functionally Graded Polymer Composite ) FGPCs) مادتها الاساس البولي أستر غير المشبع) Unsaturated Polyester Resin) ومعززة بدقائق من كربيد السليكون (Silicon Carbide) ) SiCp) بكسر حجمي كلي6 Vol%)) وحجوم حبيبية ) 53,106,150 µm) ومصنعة بطريقة الترسيب تحت تأثير الجاذبية (Gravity Casting ( بدرجة حرارة الغرفة 22C°)) كما وتم إنتاج أنموذج من البولي أستر النقي وبالظروف نفسها لغرض المقارنة . ويهدف هذا البحث الى دراسة تأثير تغير الحجم الحبيبي للدقائق في القيم الموضعية للكسر الحجمي والصلادة ومعامل المرونة للنماذج المصنعة وفي نقاط محددة على طول كل أنموذج متدرج , حيث تم تقطيع كل إنموذج متدرج الى تسع ( (9 قطع وبسمك (8mm) وتم حساب كثافتها وتحديد كسرها الحجمي الموضعي و إختبار الشد . وتبين من نتائج البحث إنخفاض القيم الموضعية للكسر الحجمي والصلادة ومعامل المرونة في النهايات العليا للنموذج وإرتفاع هذه القيم في النهايات السفلى للنموذج نتيجة لتركز الدقائق( أعلى كسر حجمي موضعي مع زيادة الحجم الحبيبي للدقائق) .


Article
استخدام نظم المعلومات الجغرافية في السيطرة على استعمالات الارض (منطقة الدراسة – مدينة سامراء

Authors: علي ظافر عبد
Pages: Ar-34-Ar-48
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Abstract

يهدف هذا البحث الى معرفة التغير الحاصل في استعمالات الارض الحالية لمدينة سامراء بالنسبة للمخطط الاساسي المقترح لسنة 2010 والذي نُطقت فيه جميع الاستعمالات حسب تشريعات وقوانين وزارة البلديات والحكومة المحلية, وذلك لمعرفة التجاوز الحاصل في استعمالات الارض المختلفة, وتحديد نوعها ومساحتها ونسبها نسبة للاستعمالات الاخرى, وسبب ذلك التجاوز, وما امكانية السيطرة علية من خلال توفير البدائل لهذه الاستعمالات, او تغيير وظائفها, او معالجة الخلل في هذه الاستعمالات. افلحت هذه الدراسة في معرفة انواع استعمالات الارض التي لا تتطابق مع المخطط الاساسي ونسبها ومساحاتها واسباب تلك التغيرات التي حصلت في هذه الاستعمالات, بالاضافة الى تحديد النقص الحاصل فيها, وذلك لوضع استراتيجية مستقبلية لاعادة تطوير المخطط الاساسي او معالجة الخلل الحاصل من خلال اساليب التخطيط الحديث, وقد اعتمدت هذه الدراسة على برنامج نظم المعلومات الجغرافية GIS في تحليل موقع الدراسة والحصول على النتائج المطلوبة باسرع وقت واقل كلفة وجهد.


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SHEAR RESISTANCE OF MRPC LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE BEAMS WITHOUT STIRRUPS

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: Shear behavior of (9) modified reactive powder lightweight concrete beams (MRPLWC) beams without web reinforcement under two point loading system, are studied. A number of variables are used to show their effects on the diagonal cracking load and ultimate shear load. Those variables are: volume fraction of fiber (Vf), ratio of longitudinal reinforcement (ρ) and the ratio of the shear span to the effective depth (a/d). The test results show that the shear strength increased by increasing the volume fraction and the ratio of longitudinal reinforcement, while a reduction in shear capacity is noticed by increasing the ratio of shear span to effective depth (a/d).


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SHEAR CAPACITY OF SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE DEEP BEAM UNDER CONSTRAINED AXIAL LOADS

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The main objective of this paper is to study the shear capacity of SCC reinforced concrete deep beams subjected to axial load. Seven simply supported deep beams casted by using SCC mix with steel fibers and tested. All these beams have dimensions of 1300mm length, 350mm high, and 150mm width and have been subjected to constant axial force with value (100) kN and then subjected to two point loads. The variables of this work are (shear span/depth (a/d), vertical shear reinforcement (ρv), and horizontal shear reinforcement (ρh) to study their effects on first crack and ultimate loads , and mid span deflection.


Article
ASSESSMENT OF USING HY-8 MODEL FOR SIZING CULVERTS UNDER HIGHWAYS IN IRAQ

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In Iraq, the infrastructures are developing rapidly, so it is necessary to consider the hydrology of the developed catchment before constructing any drainage facilities such as culvert to prevent traffic disruption during rain. In this study, sizing of box culvert for highways in Iraq is proposed using rational method for determination of peak runoff from small catchment (less than 3 km2). However, soil conservation service curve number (SCS-CN) was used in the estimation of peak runoff from catchment with size ranging from 3 to less than 30 km2. HY-8 computer software was used for sizing square and circular sections. The appropriate sizes for square sections in large basins are 3 m to 4 m and 2 m to 2.9 m for more than 114 m3/s and 32 m3/s, but for circular sections, diameters were 4.1m, from 3 m to 3.8 m and from 2.5 m to 2.9 m under flow rates more than 160 m3/s, 68 m3/s and 25 m3/s in sequence. However, for small basins, square sections sizes were 3m to 3.1m and 2 m to 2.7 m for flow rates more than 23 m3/s and 8 m3/s in sequence. Diameters for circular sections were 3 m to 3.2 m and 2 m to 2.9 m under flow rates 23 m3/ s and 8 m3/s in sequence.


Article
EFFECT OF EXTERNAL SULPHATES ON PROPERTIES OF LIME-POZOLANA CONCRETE

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This study aims to evaluate the resistance of Lime-Pozzolana concrete mixtures to external sulfate attack, represented by studying their effect on compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, dynamic modulus of elasticity, and weight loss. Three types of pozzolanic materials used in concrete mixtures; Silica fume (as LS mix), Silica fume-Fly ash (LSF) and Metakaolin (LMK). LS and LSF mixture were exposed to 5% concentration of MgSO4 solution, while LMK mix was exposed to 5% concentration of NaSO4 solution until 210 days after a moist curing in tap water until 14 days age. Results indicate that specimens of mixtures (LS and LSF) didn’t disintegrate when subjected to the very harsh environment of MgSO4 solution until 210 days age. There was not visual sign of deterioration nor a significant loss in specimens weight of the two mixes at the end period of exposure of 210 days age. While LMK mix specimens disintegrate at 180 days age due to exposure to Na2SO4 solution.


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STUDY OF THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING ON EFFICIENCY OF POWER LINE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

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Due to the increasing demand for communications services, particularly the application of broadband multimedia services, it has become necessary to search for easy, low cost and reliable communications with information security. Communications via power lines PLC have become an attractive environment for communications services because of the power grid covering large areas of the world. This research will discusses the most important factors affecting the efficiency of PLC systems, and will focus more on distance between modems and change in load within the network. A set of modems has been connected to the local area network LAN, performing the tests at different distances, then switching the load and observing changes in system efficiency. The practical results have shown that the long distance had a negative effect, also the change in load has a significant negative impact on the rate of transfer of information and efficiency, as described later in the practical section. Therefore requires further practical research and full knowledge of other challenges that currently limit their widespread commercially PLC application.


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MYTHS AND REALITY OF IMPLEMENTING THREE-DIMENSIONAL TECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION

Authors: Rawaa Abdulla Al-Safy
Pages: 71-94
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Due to the increased demand for more sustainable building environments, and the excessive need in building field to meet the designer’s requirements such as irregular,complex shaped structures, the utilization of three-dimensional technology (3D printing or additive manufacturing (AM)) by engineers in construction sector is increased globally. The key-advantages of use 3D printing method over traditional building methods are: low labor cost, less waste materials, freedom in design, faster construction, no need for formwork and reduce the risk and safety issues in construction sites. In theory, the printing is based on using 3D computer-aided-design (CAD) to materialize the whole building structure by just pressing a button in the 3D printer that brought to the construction site while the reality is not like that. This paper presents most recent developed innovative methodology used for 3D printing, possible printed building materials and the existed 3D printed structures in reality towards spotting the light on the most high-tech applications in construction and the possibility to adopt such technology in Iraq to overcome the challenges in design with faster building methods towards develop the country in construction sector.


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DEVELOPING SELF-CURING CEMENT SAND MORTAR USING SODIUM POLYACRYLATE

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As the sustainable construction intends to optimize the use of natural resources and because of the important of water resources, the self -curing could be assigned as sustainable strategy.This study introduces self-curing cement sand mortar with specific properties concern compressive strength, consistency by using sodium polyacrylate as additive. The sodium polyacrylate has wide ranges of uses for many purpose, for its ability to absorbe water and its good mechanical, physical and chemical properties. This study assesses the possibility of using it with traditional raw materials for developing self-curing high workability cement sand mortar which could be useful in many construction applications such as ferrocement slabs and building partitions. The study assigned the possibility of using sodium polyacrylate in gel fashion within cement sand mix as efficient additives for self-curing, as well as its positive effect upon compressive strength and consistency of cement sand mortar comparing with specimens cured with traditional technique of immersing them within water for week. Specimens of sodium polyacrylate to cement ratio (S/C) between 1 to 5 % as gel (with constant water cement ratio, W/C=50%) developed significant strength improvement in absent of any curing techniques, compressive strength upgrading ratio assigned between 1.12 to 1.25 with respect to specimens cured by water for seven days while excellent ratio (1.37) associated with positive effect of specific W/C ratio beside sodium polycraylate effect.


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TRIBOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR AND LUBRICATION MECHANISM OF FINE PARTICLES IN THE BASE OIL SN500

Authors: Haidar Akram Hussein --- Hassan Hamoodi Mahdi
Pages: 108-116
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The using of powders with attractive wear and friction has increased attention industrial sectors and research. In this study the experimental work results of the tribological behavior of base oil SN500 with CuO and ZrO2 as anti-wear and anti-friction hybrid additives powders at concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 and 4) wt. % were obtained and comparing the results with pure oil. Therefore the effect of normal loads and sliding speed under mixed lubrication were studied according to ASTM G-99 pin on disc and ASTM G-77 block on ring principles for friction and wear measurements respectively. The optimum lubrication concluded on the level of concentration of the hybrid powder was at (2) wt. % by the formation of protected boundary layer in the significantly improved i.e. friction coefficient decreased about (20.8%) and the wear rate about (46%) as compared with the case of using pure lubricant oil.


Article
EVALUATION OF HOT MIX ASPHALT CONTAINING RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENT TO RESIST MOISTURE DAMAGE

Authors: Mohammed Qadir Ismael --- Teba Tariq Khaled
Pages: 117-136
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Due to increasing cost of asphalt binder, significant economic savings can be realized by using the amount from reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) in the production of new hot mix asphalt (HMA). Moreover, this is an environmentally friendly option as it reduces the demand for virgin materials. It has to be remarked that in Iraq RAP is not used in the production of HMA and this valuable material is mostly degraded for use in lower value applications. Four mixtures were designed, which contains three different percent RAP, it is (0%, 5%, 15%) with asphalt grade (40-50) and (25%) with asphalt grade (60-70), it has been changed the grade of asphalt when adding RAP (25%) to compensate for the aged binder in the RAP when adding to mixture. All types of tests result demonstrated that all mixtures have good properties compared with the virgin mixture. This demonstrated that mixtures with RAP content could be successfully designed to meet the local volumetric and performance-specification requirements.


Article
EFFECT OF WARM ASPHALT ADDITIVE ON PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE

Authors: Hasan Hamodi Joni --- Humam Hasan Mohammed
Pages: 137-146
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Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is mixed at temperatures ranging 20 – 50 °C lower than those in which called hot mix asphalt (HMA). The use of synthetic zeolites as a warm mix asphalt additive has exhibited many additional advantages, such as a reduced susceptibility to permanent deformation. However, there are also indications that the use of synthetic zeolites as a warm mix asphalt additive for some percentages increases the moisture sensitivity of pavements except for 5% there is a slightly improve. The results of the study indicated that the selected percentages of synthetic zeolite to the warm asphalt differently effected on the mixture properties. When the mixture properties were compared, it was observed that WMA with 3% of synthetic zeolite reduced the indirect tensile strength value, also the WMA mixture with 5 % of synthetic zeolite decreased the rut depth of the mixtures and slightly increased in the tensile strength ratio (TSR).


Article
NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY THE EFFECT OF (SiO₂) NANOPARTICLES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER

Authors: Muna Sabah Kassim --- Shaymaa Fahad Lahij
Pages: 148-171
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Numerical and experimental investigation of the heat transfer and the friction factor characteristics in a counter flow double pipe heat exchanger with and without Nano fluid was studied. Tests are performed for fully developed turbulent flow ranges, homogeneous Nano fluid. The double pipe heat exchanger consisting of two tubes, the first inner plain tube which has been manufactured from copper materials with inner and outer diameters of (11.2 and 12.7) mm respectively, the length of first inner plain tube is 1057 mm. The second insulated an external tube which has been manufactured from PVC material with inner and outer diameters of (44.4 and 50)mm respectively, with length is 1032mm. The flows has been tested at Reynolds number ranging (3019.43-4824.22). Nano particle size ranging (15-20)nm. The results show that the heat transfer rate increases as Reynolds number and volume concentration of Nano fluid increase. The increasing percentage of Nusselt number, friction facto and performance factor of (15.72,11.51 and 11.57) % respectively for maximum volume concentration and volume flow rate of 3% and 1.6 lpm respectively. ANSYS FLUENT 2015 package used to simulate the heat transfer and the fluid flow in the heat exchanger. The results show that the heat transfer increases when Nano fluid was added. The agreement observed with experimental work with maximum discrepancy 12%.


Article
BOND STRENGTH OF SELF-COMPACTING REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS EXPOSED TO SALINE WATER

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This study includes a series of bond tests related to reinforced concrete beams with rectangular cross section (140x150) & span of 600 mm that are provided with shear reinforcement. The specimens are tested as simply supported beams with one point load with strain reading in steel bar by strain indicator placed in a hole (recess) prepared for this purpose. Displacement between the steel bar and the concrete at the free end of bar has been measured. Three groups of beams have been tested to study the effect of many variables on bond strength for Self Compacting Concrete (SCC ) and conventional reinforced concrete (CC). The variables are: [steel bar diameter (8, 12 and 16) mm, concrete compressive strength (30, 60) MPa and type of curing (tap water continuous curing, saline water wetting and drying, saline water continuous exposing) for a time of (90 days). The study also involves the effect of each variable on bond strength and comparison between the results of all the specimens of SCC and CC bond stress-slip relationships. The results of comparison between all specimens of SCC and CC bond stress-slip relationships show that, the CC bond strength is lower than the SCC bond strength in two cases of curing (tap water continuous, saline water continuous exposing), but in case of saline water wetting and drying, the CC bond strength is higher than SCC bond strength.


Article
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE ON STRENGTH AND MODULUS OF ELASTICITY OF CELLULAR CONCRETE

Authors: Suhad Mohammed Abd --- Dunay Khalil Ismail
Pages: 193-206
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The objective of this study is to improve properties of structural foamed concretes by adding fine and coarse lightweight aggregate. The materials that used in this study were fly ash as fine material and various type of lightweight aggregate (Leca, porcelanite). The mechanical properties included fresh and hardened density, compressive strength and elasticity modulus were tested in this study. The results show increases in compressive strength and modulus of elasticity by increasing the percentage of fine aggregate (fly ash).The optimum percent is 50% for fine aggregate (fly ash).The compressive strength decreases with increasing the percentage of lightweight coarse aggregate .The modules of elasticity increases by increasing the replacement percentage of fly ash . The addition of lightweight coarse and fine aggregate affect on the percentage of foam need be added to the mix for the desired density. Type of aggregate have significant effect on compressive strength and modulus of elasticity for foamed concrete. Flyash increase in compressive strength about (39%). Light weight aggregate decrease in compressive strength about (2-50) %. Flyash increase in modulus of elasticity about (10-56)% and light weight aggregate increase in modulus of elasticity about (1-20)%. Fly ash and lightweight aggregate (Leca and Porcelanite) improved the properties of foamed concrete.

Table of content: volume:23 issue:5