Table of content

Mesopotamia Environmental Journal

بيئة وادي الرافدين

ISSN: 24102598
Publisher: Babylon University
Faculty: Environmental research and studies center
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Mesopotamia Environmental Journal (Mesop. Environ. J.) is a peer-reviewed journal. All papers suitable for the Journal will be reviewed by at least two reviewers. The Journal is published quarterly. There is not any definite timeline for manuscript submission, and your paper (s) is always welcome. The Journal only accepts papers in English. Submission of a manuscript implies that the work has not been published before and that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, Mesopotamia Environmental Journal is an International, professional, peer-reviewed Journal. It is regularly published quarterly in English by Environment Research Center, University of Babylon, Iraq. Its mission is to provide an interactive plenary forum for discussion and debates about pressing and current environmental issues.

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oar.10me@yahoo.com (admin)


mej.env@uobabylon.edu.iq (Journal email)
bumej10@gmail.com (Journal email)

http://www.bumej.com/


Table of content: 2016 volume: issue:Special Issue A

Article
Acomparative Study for Removal of Dyes from Textile Effluents by Low Cost Adsorbents

Authors: Ihsan Habib Dakhil
Pages: 1-9
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Abstract

The aim of this work is a comparison study among three low cost adsorbents [Sawdust "SD", Spend tea leaves "STL", Rice husk "RH"] for removal of Methylene blue (MB) dye which used as a dye in textile factory from wastewater effluents. Batch experiments were conducted to obtain optimum removal conditions of MB dye on three low cost adsorbents. The effluents of Initial dye concentration (100-1000) mg/l, adsorbent dosage (0.05-1) gm, pH (2-10) and contact time (10- 180) min under constant temperature of 30oC on removal of MB dye has been studied by batch adsorption technique. The optimum operating conditions are 100 mg/l initial dye concentration, 0.6 gm adsorbent dose, neutral pH and 120 min contact time. At these conditions, the maximum adsorption capacities were 120 mg/g, 102 mg/g and 86 mg/g for SD, STL and RH, respectively. The experimental data were analyzed and compared with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Langmuir model is found very well represent the equilibrium data with correlation factor is close to unity than the Freundlich model.


Article
Improving mechanical and electrical properties of Ca bentonite for energy storage applications

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Abstract

In the present study the effect of silica and alumina addition on the electrical and mechanical properties of Iraqi calcium bentonite clay have been investigated. The prepared specimens were compacted at 100 MPa as a disc shape and then treated with firing temperatures of about (1000 oC, 1100oC, 1200 oC, 1300 oC). The samples were examined with XRD to identify the structural phases, also we have examined the physical properties (apparent porosity and apparent density) and the electrical behavior as a function to applied frequency range from 50Hz to 1MHz. While the mechanical tests include Brinell hardness test (BHN) and diametrical strength. The best electrical parameters at 1MHz have been showed for the sample fired at 1200 oC while the best mechanical tests have been showed for the sample fired at 1100 oC which has the mullite phase content as the dominant phase (57.5 %).

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Article
Effect of Alien species on assemblage fishsin Shatt Al-Arab river and East Al-Hammar Marsh

Authors: Ahmad Ch. AL-Shamary
Pages: 18-32
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Abstract

The present study was choose two zones the first called Sinbad in the Shatt al-Arab river and the second zone called Al-Salal in Al-Hammar marsh the period from April 2013 until March 2014. 13 were studied environmental factor in both regions. Record of 12 species of alien species and has been record 9 and 11 individual fishing in Shatt Al-Arab river and Al-Hammar marsh respectively. was record 3091 and 16988 individual in the Shatt al-Arab river and Al-Hammar marsh respectively. While catch 4858 and 62614 individual from total number of fish catch in the Shatt al-Arab and Al-Hammar marsh respectively, while the total number of fish catch was 6747 fish also formed three species of 89.83% of the total number of alien species, While were recorded 7 species sensitive endemic in two stations and record 5 species were present species tolerant. has also been fishing 38 species in the present study,while the highest values (2.12) of diversity index (H) was obtained in December and the lowest (0.86) in October. the results showed statistical analysis using (F.test) the existence of significant differences under the level (P> 0.05) between the two station.


Article
Bacteriological and Molecular detection of Salmonellatyphimurium from Chicken Meat in AL- Najaf province

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Abstract

This study was conducted to detect the prevalence of Salmonellae infection among isochicken meat samples imported from different area to local markets in Najaf governance. The result showed that 11 and 13 isolates were belong to Salmonella spp. According to identification by Biochemical test and vitek system respectively , where as the result of identification by PCR using 16s , ,RNA and inVA gens showed that only 17 and 8 isolates were belong to Salmonella spp respectively . out of 25 Salmonella spp. Isolates that detected by PCR only 10 isolates were belong to Salmonella typhimurium.the highest percent age of isolates were 85.8 % for foreign origin and the lowest percent age were 23% from local origin.

Keywords

Meat --- S.typhimurium --- PCR.


Article
Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extract of Al-Rawag tree (Moringa oleifera Lamarck) Cultivated in Iraq and Efficacy the Antimicrobial activity.

Authors: Esam J. Al-Kalifawi
Pages: 39-48
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Abstract

In the present study, environment friendly and cost effective silver nanoparticles were synthesized using the leaves extract of Al-Rawag tree cultivated in Iraq as the reducing and capping agent. The nanoparticless were characterized using UV-visble, FT-IR, XRD, and SEM methods. The surface plasmon resonance peaks in absorption spectra for silver colloidal solution showed an absorption peak at 430 nm in a UV-visible spectrum. The functional biomolecules such as carboxyl groups present in the seaweed responsible for the silver nanoparticles formation were characterized by FT-IR. The XRD results suggested that the crystallization of the bio-organic phase occurs on the surface of the silver nanoparticles or vice versa. The broadening of peaks in the XRD patterns was attributed to particle size effects and the average particles size about 30 nm which was calculated by using the Dubai-Scherrer equation. The silver nanoparticles synthesized by the help of Al-Rawag leaves extracts were scanned using SEM. It reveals that a silver nanoparticle seems to be spherical in morphology. The results shows that silver nanoparticles synthesized by leavesextract of Al-Rawag tree has effective antibacterial activities on the test isolates as indicated by the diameter of their zone of inhibition. The inhibition zone was 14 mm for Enterobactercloacae and Escherichia coli, 20 mm for Klebsiella pneumonia, 16 mm for Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus sp. and Streptococcus spp.12 mm for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 18 mm for Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial activity of leavesextract of Al-Rawag tree has effect against tested isolates less than Silver nanoparticles synthesis by it. The study revealed that the silver nanoparticles synthesis by using leaves extract of Al-Rawag tree could be as a therapeutic agent for human microbial infections.


Article
Mycoremidation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons of the Refinery Wastewater in Najaf/Iraq (2-mixiture of fungi)

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Abstract

The present study deals with investigate the possibility of some fungus in the removal of petroleum hydrocarbon and some pollutant from Najaf oil refinery wastewater.The study have two axes the first is isolate and diagnose fungus of oil waste water and the soils surrounding as it was isolated (5) species belonging to (3) genes, three isolate were selected which have thee frequency Penicillium sp. 49.51% ,A. niger 10.67% and A. terreus 34.95% in the experiment a mixture offungus used to remove oil hydrocarbon in the media center as the sole source of carbon and energy .The result showed that ,the mixture of A.niger and A.terreus remove(66.63%) of the weight of hydrocarbons existing in media and showed efficiency in reducing a conductivity, salinity and TDS and total hardness and hardness calcium, hardness magnesium, alkalinity and nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate by (70.51)% and (71.06)% and (59.43)% and (67.23)% and (63.77)% and (80.5 )% and (76.87)% and (62.5)% and (67.2)% and (63.6)% (71.4)%, respectively , while the triple mixture were the lost in the removal of oil hydrocarbons and other parameters.

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Article
Manufacturing HHO cell and study the effect of Nano Photocatalyst to produce hydrogen

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Abstract

This paper reports the investigation of Manufacturing HHO cell consists of two canisters, we designed this cell of glass Pyrex and cylinder hydrogen holes one to enter the thermometer and the other for the exit of the gas, as well as containing a quartz lens to enter the optical beam , the process of photo electrochemical where they are to prepare aluminum are used as substrates. to deposition of SnO2 electrodes under the influence of light source of the type N-type for the Liberation of hydrogen presence of photocatalytic and P-type for the Liberation of oxygen , The study of the volume of gas output, time with change voltages and current, we have the results were almost identical and structured characteristics were studied through the analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD). Also, The he morphological characterizations of photocatalytic (nano Znic oxide ), were carried out using the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM).


Article
Use of Phytoplankton Index of Biological Integrity (P-IBI) as a tool to evaluate Tigris RiverHealth

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Abstract

A multimetric Phytoplankton Index of Biological Integrity (P-IBI) was composed to assess the biotic integrity of water of Tigris River seasonally. The IBI was applied throughout Baghdad city on 3 locations in Tigris River during 2010. The P- IBI had 8 metrics: Species Richness Index, Phytoplankton Density and Relative Abundance for Blue Green Algae, Green Algae, Centrales, Pennales, Yellow Green Algae and Pyrrophyte Algae.The P-IBI scores were calculated by comparing it against historical data on phytoplankton assemblage composition. They P-IBI result ranged between good- acceptable, where the values ranged (60.5-63.3) in station 1, (60-75.5) in station 2 and (57.7-70.7) in station 3. The highest value recorded in station 2 through spring, and the lowest value observed in station 3 through summer. The P-IBI is a valuable, easily and complementary tool to assessing river ecosystem health and evaluating restoration efforts, this index appears to be an effective measure of levels of anthropogenic disturbance.


Article
Detection of Aeromonas spp. by traditional and molecular methods from tap water in Baghdad city

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Abstract

Water borne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganism's viruses, bacteria, intestinal parasites and other harmful microorganisms, which are directly transmitted when contaminated fresh water is consumed.Most of enteritis cases caused by drinking contaminated water with pathogenic bacteria such as Aeromonas spp, determination of its virulence factors very important especially its ability to produce toxins.One thousand five hundred sixty seven water samples from different parts of Baghdad city were collected from the beginning of April 2010 till the end of December 2011, all samples were bacteriologically examined by traditional methods for detection of Total coliform and other pathogenic bacteria. Thirteen isolate of Aeromonasspp were isolated and tested for its pathogenicity and ability to toxin production in the mouse module, all environmental isolates induced fluid accumulation (FA ratio≥100) after 5 hours and cause histopathological effects after 24h of inoculation. Histopathological changes showed severe inflammation of the mucosa and submucosa in the small intestine with mild chronic inflammatory cells and shortanage of villi, mild degenerative of gastric mucosal glandular epithelial and slightly necrosis, massive necrosis of hepatic cells with infiltrate of chronic inflammatory cells in the liver section،while no effect appeared on kidney tissue. All isolated of A. hydrophila were analyzed for conventional PCR for detection of virulence factors using Fla and laf flagell in genes most of isolates gave positive results for boththese genes.

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Article
Study the bacteriological quality of bottled water in Baghdad province and Inhibitory effect of bacteriocin extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: Sanaa R. Oleiwi --- Seham I.Ali --- Zena A. Shayal
Pages: 79-85
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Abstract

Three hundred and nineteen samples of bottled water belonging to ten different local and imported brands (37 imported and 282 local samples ) collected from the Iraqi (in Baghdad ) market with different size ranged (500 ml to 20 litter ) during January tile June 2014 was analyzed bacteriologically. Heterotrophic plate count (HPC) was determined using R2A agar culture medium also all the collected samples were analyzed for the presence of coliform bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, E. coli ,and, P. aeruginosa. Around 5 % of the water samples exhibited HPC counts ranged between 5- 500 cfu/ml. The bacteriological tests of water showed that the bacterial failure percentage was 5% of bottled water samples, the most probable number of total coliform ranged between 1.1 to 23 CFU/ 100ml. These results didn’t agree with national and international standard characters that detected no coliform bacteria / 100 ml of treated water. In this study three isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( most dominant bacteria) were tested for bacteriocin production and antimicrobial activities were measured by using the agar well diffusion method on some Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria which involved (Aeromonas hydrophilia, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis) were used as indicator isolates. Three isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were positive for bacteriocin production with a wide range effect on gram positive and negative bacterial growth, with diameter (2-20) mm.

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Article
Water pollution removal by Non- thermal plasma jet

Authors: Mohammed Ubaid Hussein --- Rana Talb Mohsen
Pages: 86-92
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Abstract

In this study used device jet plasma needle with atmospheric pressure which generates non thermal plasma jet to measure treatment potent with plasma against bacteria which contamination water, where, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli bacteria were inactivated with plasma at 40 sec, where bacteria respond for treatment according to bacteria type. Bio-decontamination of water and surfaces contaminated by bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli) was investigated in atmospheric pressure air, in plasma needle. Electro-spraying of the treated water through the needle resulted in fast bio- decontamination, with radicals and reactive oxygen species seem to be dominant biocidal agents.


Article
Study and Invistagation of Electric Properties of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

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Abstract

The aim of this paper is on the studies and investigation of the electric properties of dye sensitized solar cell according on estimation of the charge transfer current .Quantum theory have been used to evaluation the probability of current of charge transfer at N3/GeAs and N3/SnO2 interface system .Theoretical calculation used to explain the behavior of the electric properties in N3/GeAs and N3/SnO2interface system depending on the evaluation flow of the current of electron through system. Data results of the current of electron at system show that current of charge is depending on the transfer energy  , driving energy , strength coupling coefficient  , concentration of electron  , volume of unit cell for semiconductor  , pentration factor  , and temperature T(K) for N3/GeAs and N3/SnO2 system structures. A MATLAB designed program to predict the current of electron.


Article
New record of the carangid fish from the Iraqi marine waters, northwest Arabian Gulf

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Abstract

Two species of carangid fish, Alectis ciliaris (Bloch, 1787) and A. indica (Rüppell, 1830) were collected from Iraqi marine waters, northwest Arabian Gulf from January to November, 2014. A. ciliaris was recorded as a first time from Iraqi marine waters. A. ciliaris could be distinguished by nape, head profile broadly rounded, and gill rakers on lower limb of first arch ranged from 14-15, while the nape and head profile something angular, and gill rakers on lower limb of first arch ranged from 18-25 in A .indica. The DNA fingerprints were identified of two species using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (PCR-RAPD) with six primers: P1 (212), P2 (239), P3 (244), P4 (250), P5 (265), and P6 (347). The number of bands generated by primers varied between 46 in A. indica to 48 in A. ciliares. The genetic similarity and genetic distance between two examined species were 0.42 and 0.57, respectively.


Article
Effect of foliar application with some treatments to avoid stress environments on spring planting of maize (Zeamayze L.)

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Abstract

Field experiment was conducted in spring season of 2014 in Abu Gharaq , (8 km northeast of Hilla , within longitude 32.3 latitude and 44.2 east longitude) in silt-clay loam soil to study the effect of spraying two levels of high- potash fertilizer (control and spraying one time at the beginning of flowering) , three levels of urea spraying (control, one time at silk stage and two times at the silk stage and grain filling stage) and two levels of salicylic acid (control and spraying at 10 leaves stage). Randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The experimental unit consisted of four ridges 4 m long and 0.75 m width seeded with Al-Furat hybrid maize. In hills 25 cm apart. The results showed that spraying high-potash fertilizer caused a significant increases in plant ear number , rows no. , number of rows per ear , row grain no. , 500 grain weight and grain yield compared to control, with a percentage increase of 4.8, 4.4, 6.1, 4.1, 0.4%, respectively . Spraying urea also led to significant increases in plant ear no. and grain yield, with a percentage increase of 11.7 and 4.9% and 6.1 and 5.4% at spraying one time and two time respectively compared to control. Spraying urea twice time led to significant increases in ear weight (about 6.9%) and 500 grain weight compared to control. Spray salicylic acid led to a significant increase in row grain no. only. The interactions had a significant effect on most of the traits.


Article
Determination of Selected Essential and Trace Elements in Traditional Vegetables in Middle Euphrates, Iraq

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In this research, some essential and trace elements such as, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Manganese, Zinc, and Lead in ppm unites in some Iraq's vegetables determined to investigate the causes of pollution. Sodium level increases in the silty Loam soil while the potassium increases in the sandy soil. Lettuce has the highest manganese concentration and radish has the highest zinc level. Calcium is absent in several vegetables while lead concentration in vegetables was increased. Also, darker green vegetables are richer in magnesium.


Article
Effect of spraying extracts concentration of three organic fertilizers on growth and yield of maize (Zeamayze L.)

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Abstract

Field experiment was conducted for the season of 2013on the extension farm in Almhnawiya,Babylonin silt clay loam soil to study the effect of spraying three concentrations :control (spray water only), 0.50% and 100% of the extracts of three types of organic fertilizer(waste Poultry, wheat residue, remnants of palm fronds) on growth and yield of maize. Maize compositional variety 5028 were planted in 15/7on ridges width of 75 cm and a distance of 25 cm between plants. Randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Plants were sprayed three times(in the sixth leafs stage , when the first appearance of the male flowers, and in the beginning of the grain filling), the most important results are summarized as follows:Spraying organic fertilizer extracts led to increase the number of leaves ,leaf areaindexandchlorophyll content, also led toreducethe number of daysuntil flowering male and female significantly compared to control.The extract of poultry waste fertilizer was superior compared to residues of wheat and palm fronds. Extract fertilizer spraying led to increase yield components ( cob rows number , row grains number , cob grains number , weight of 500 grains , weight of grim, ear grain weight ) and grain yield significantly compared with control, and the extract of poultry waste fertilizer was superior compared to the other both extracts.


Article
The role of environmental impact assessment tool in achieving sustainable urban development and its challenges in Iraq

Authors: Zaynab R. Abaas
Pages: 138-148
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This research will concentrate on an environmental impact assessment tool as one of the tools which has the capability to achievesustainable urban development, andthe kinks which lead to incapableapplying it in Iraq. This is done by focusing on the most important principles, objectives, and criteria to evaluate the impact of urban projects on our local environment, as well as the mechanisms to achieve best environmental assessment practices to reduce the adverse environmental effects. From above,and in this research there will be two parts, one of them will concentrate on building an environmental impact assessment matrix for urban projects, depending on the most important environmental factors affecting urban projects in the local Iraqi environmentand their actions. While the other part will extract briefly in a developed modeldepending on the sustainability indicators,the obstacles that face the planner and urban designer in achieving sustainable urban development in Iraq. As aresult, the research emphasizesthe importance of considering this matrix (after developing it)one of the main elements of the planning process in Iraq and an active factor to take the necessary precautions to reduce the negative environmental effects and thus achieve the goals of sustainable development.


Article
Evaluation of Adsorption Capacity by Porcelain Made of Palygorskite and Cow Bone to Heavy Metals Ions(Cu+2, M n+2, and Pb+2)

Authors: Sanaa Abdul-Razak Jassim
Pages: 149-155
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In this study kinematic energy of porcelain made of Palygorskite clay and cow bone. Solutions containing ions of Pb+2, M n+2, and Cu+2, were prepared at different concentrations ( 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80)mg/l, to measure the adsorption capacity of the porcelain to these ions. The adsorption capacity were computed according to several kinematic models. The most important models were Langmuir model and Freundlich models. The results showed variety in adsorption capacities for each heavy metal. Results of adsorption capacities according to Freundlich model were: Cu>Mn>Pb. Where maximum capacity was for Cu(3.751mg/g), and minimum was for Pb (2.419mg/g). While the results according to Langmuir model were: Pb> Cu> Mn, and the capacities were nearly equal for the three ions. They were for Pb (0.891 mg/g), for Cu(0.8165mg/g) and for Mn (0.801mg/g).

Table of content: volume: issue:Special Issue A