جدول المحتويات

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: الزراعة
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تأسست مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية في كلية الزراعة جامعة بغداد عام 1966. كانت المجلة تصدر بعددين في العام فقط. بدأت المجلة عام 2000 باصدار ستة اعداد في السنة لكل مجلد, وهي الان في عام 2016 بالمجلد (47). تشمل ابحاث المجلة كافة العلوم الزراعية المرتبطة بالعلوم النباتية والحيوانية فضلاً عن المكننة الزراعية والاقتصاد الزراعي والارشاد الزراعي والعلوم الداعمة للعلوم الزراعية مثل الكيمياء والفيزياء لاسيما المرتبطة بالضوء والالحرارة والرياح وغيرها. يتضمن المجلد الواحد حالياً اكثر من 75 بحثأ حيث يتضمن العدد الواحد بين 20-25 بحثاً بحسب عدد الابحاث المقبولة في كل عدد

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معلومات الاتصال

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2011 المجلد: 42 العدد: special issue

Article
USING THE DRAINAGE WATER FOR IRRIGATION OF COTTON GROWTH
استخدام مياه الصرف الزراعي في ري القطن

المؤلفون: Jawad A. Falah جواد علي فلاح
الصفحات: 1-12
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الخلاصة

This investigation was carried out in Sir-Dariya research Center, South of Tashkent, capital of the republic of Uzbekistan( USSR) . This area suffers from the shortage of irrigation water especially during dry seasons and from the declination of the production because of the salinity. Therefore, the effect of using drainage water as source of irrigation water on the yield of cotton which grows in gray medium to light loam soil and the possibility of using this drainage water in leaching these soil from salts were studied. Results indicated the possibility of producing cotton economically by using drainage water for irrigation .The results shows that it is possible to produce 1631 kg.h-1 cotton by using river water for first irrigate and the rest irrigation by using drainage water of 5.0-5.5 g.l-1 salt, also the possibility of producing 1580 kg.h-1 by using drainage water of 265-3.00 g.l-1 salt as a source of irrigation water only. and producing 1578 kg.h-1 by using drainage water of 5.0-5.5 g.l-1 salt . We used crops programming or programming of agricultural production in the process of mathematical analysis of the results based on the data collection to build upon the design parameters we can apply that experience to get the highest rents agricultural under the circumstances. Mainly we got the models from which to determine the amount made in each transaction so that we can predict the amount of the crop (mathematically), as well as determine the level of ground water and the salt content to get highest cotton production in the harm of salt conditions. The results indicated that in order to get the above results, soils should be leached by using 2500-3000 m3/h-1 water of 2.6-3.0 g.l-1 salt during autumn.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
PREDICTION OF SOME SOIL WATER CONTENT PARAMETERS USING REMOTE SENSING & GIS TECHNIQUES
التنبؤ عن بعض معايير المحتوى المائي للتربة باستخدام تقانات الاستشعار عن بعد ونظامالمعلومات الجغرافية

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الخلاصة

Water content of the surface horizon & root zone is a main key for any agriculture, hydrological & environmental issues, for this reason, big concern has been dell with statues & amount of soil water by many different ways, which remote sensing technique is one of it. To know the possibility of using remote sensing to investigate soil water parameters, relationships between remote sensing data taken by landsat satellite (ETM+) and some soil water content parameters has been studied for ten soil units selected from north Kut project located at the left of Tigris river, which showed different soil status. The aim of this study was to build statistical models to predict some soil water content parameters using Remote Sensing & GIS techniques. The results showed that there were significant relationships between remote sensing data and the field data of each of available water “as volume θv & mass θm percentage”, water saturation percentage θs and field soil moisture for the surface horizons of the tested sites with coefficient of determination (R2) values: 0.986; 0.989; 1.000 and 0.962 respectively. Fittings (R2) values for predicted and tested parameters were: 0.923; 0.889; 0.998; and 0.946 respectively which revealed that it is possible to use remote sensing data to predict soil water content parameters because of the direct effect of soil water on electromagnetic energy reflection from soil surface. Its a good chance to produce digital soil water content maps with high coverage area that can use in the geospatial software’s to predict and build many water relations for the soil – plant – atmosphere continuum.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
MONOCULTURE AND DICULTURE CROPPING OF SALT TOLERANT CROPS IN SALT AFFECTED SOILS
الزراعة الاحادية والثنائية للمحاصيل المتحملة للملوحة في الترب المتأثرة بالاملاح

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الخلاصة

يحتاج استصلاح الترب المتأثرة بالاملاح الى كميات متزايدة من مياه الغسل يصعب توفيرها في ظروف شحة المياه في الوقت الراهن مما يعني وجود حاجة ملحة الى تقنيات موقعية كالاستصلاح الحيوي Phytoremediation.اجريت تجربة لدراسة الاستصلاح الحيوي للملوحة في تربة كلية الزراعة - ابو غريب.صنفت تربة الدراسة الى مستوى تحت المجاميع العظمى TypicTorrifluvent. تم استخدام تصميم القطاعات الكاملة المعشاة بثلاث معاملات وكل معاملة كررت اربع مرات المعاملة الاولى :- زراعة محصول احادي متحمل للملوحة -الذرة البيضاء.ويرمز لها S1¬.المعاملة الثانية :- زراعة محصول احادي متحمل للملوحة -الدخن ويرمز لها S2. المعاملة الثالثة :- زراعة محصولين متحملين للملوحة - الذرة والدخن ويرمز لها S3. اظهرت النتائج انخفاض في متوسطات قيم الايصالية الكهربائية بعد الزراعة لكافة المعاملات والاعماق الا ان الانخفاض في العمق الاول كان الاعلى مقارنة مع بقية الاعماق اذ بلغت قيم متوسطات الايصالية الكهربائية للمعاملات S1 وS2 وS3 قبل الزراعة للعمق الاول9 و9 و8.5 ديسي سيمنز.م-1 على التوالي ثم انخفضت عند الحشة الاولى 5.5 و4.8 و4.8 ديسي سيمنز.م⁻¹وعند الحشة الثانية 3.8 و3.4 و2.8 ديسي سيمنز.م⁻¹ بالترتيب . اما كمية الاملاح المزالة بواسطة المحاصيل المتحملة للملوحة فقدتفوقت المعاملة S3 في ازالة الملوحة وكمية الاملاح المزالة 506.6كغم .هـ-1 وبزيادة معنوية لمجموع الحشتين مقدارها 19.3 و187.1% عن المعاملتينS1 وS2على التوالي مما يؤكد كفاءة الزراعة الثنائية وزيادة حاصل الكتلة الحيوية في ازالة الاملاح من التربة.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF WATER IRRIGATION QUALITY AND MULCHING ON SOME SOIL PHYSICALPROPERTIES UNDER DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM
تأثير نوعية مياه الري والتغطية في بعض خصائص التربة الفيزيائية تحت نظام الري بالتنقيط

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted in Al-Raid Experimental station, Ministry of Water Resources, 20 km west of Baghdad, during autumn season 2008, in silt clay loam soil classified at Typic torriflvent, to study the effect of water irrigation quality, soil mulching on some physical properties under drip irrigation system. The Experimental design was Factorial Experiment with RCBD in three replicates. The study includes two factors: 1- Water quality, which includes three factors: a- Irrigation with river water (WR) ( 1.1 ds. m-1). b- Irrigation with saline water (WS) ( 4.5 ds. m-1). c- Alternate irrigation (WA).2- Soil mulching includes two factors: a- Soil mulching with black polyethylene (M). b- With out mulching (W). The results can be summarized as follows: The irrigation treatments effected the soil physical properties at 0-20 cm depth. It was found that the MWD decreased to 0.603, 0.476 and 0.303 mm for all treatments respectively compared with the value of 0.65mm at the beginning of the experiment. Soil bulk density was effected by alternate and saline water treatments, the values were 1.33 and 1.39 Mgm . m-1 respectively compared with the value of 1.30 Mgm . m-1 at the beginning of the experiment, while the bulk density of the river water treatment was not effected.The saturated hydraulic conductivity effected by the irrigation treatments, it was 3.263 , 2.547 and 1.677 cm . hr-1 for all treatments respectively compared with 3.30 cm hr at the beginning of the experiment. The soil penetration effected by irrigation treatments. It was found that the values were 1.61, 1.82 and 1.93 Kg . cm-1 for all treatment at 25% moisture level compared with the value 1.40 Kg . cm-1 at the beginning of the experiment. Mulching did not appears any significant difference in mean wet diameter, hydraulic conductivity and density, but significant difference in penetration .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE EFFECT OF IRRIGATION WATER QUALITY , ORGANIC MATERIAL AND PHOSPHORUS ON SOME SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND YIELD OF CULIFLOWER
تأثير نوعية مياه الري والمادة العضوية والفسفور في بعض خصائص التربة الكيميائية وحاصل القرنابيط

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted in Al – Raid Experimental Station, Ministry of Water Resources,20Km west of Baghdad in silt clay loam texture soil classified to sub under great group Typic- Torriflovent. Randomly complete Block Design (RCBD) was used with three replicates away of split split experiment unit to study the effect of irrigation water quality, organic matter and phosphate fertilizer and their interaction on some of soil characteristics and Cauliflower yield .The study includes three factors:-The main plots was irrigation water quality which includes three levels of saline water (1.4 , 3.0 and 4.5 dS . m-1) ,sub plots tow levels of organic fertilizer (0 and 20 Mg.ha-1) and sub sub plots three levels of phosphate fertilizer (DAP 21%P) (0 ,45 , 90 Kg P.ha-1) . Cauliflower transplanted (megha) Prassica oleracea. at 20-9-2009 . All treatments reseived adequate amount of N and K at the rates of 250 Kg N.ha-1 and 80 Kg K.ha-1 form of urea (46%N) and potassium sulfate (41.5%K) respectively. All treatments were irrigated to field capacity when 50% of available moisture was lost. Soil samples were taken at flowering stage for analysis of some soil chemical characteristics ECe , pH , OM and SAR , yield of flower disk were also determined.The results showed that increased irrigation water salinity caused significant increase in some of Soil chemical characteristics ECe , SAR and OM while it caused decrease in soil pH values . It caused a significant decrease in yield of flower disk . Addition of organic sheep manurs to soil caused significant reduce in Ece , SAR and Soil pH , and increase in yield of flower disk. Increasing rates of P fertilizer caused significant increase in yield of flower disk by 45% and 73% for 45 and 90 Kg P.ha-1 respectively compared with 0Kg P.ha-1, while it has no effect on soil chemical characteristics tested. The interaction effect of irrigation water quality, organic matter and phosphate fertilizer caused a significant icreased in on some of soil characteristics and yield of flower disk.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT THE ALTERNATION OF SURFACE AND DRIP IRRIGATION METHODS AND IRRIGATION WATER SALANITY ON THE SOIL PROPERTIES AND PLANT GROWTH IN CLAY SOIL
تأثير التناوب بالري السيـــــــــحي والتنقيط وملوحة ماء الري على خصائص التربة ونمو النبات في تربة طينية.4- التوزيع الملحي افقيا وعموديا في مقد التربة

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الخلاصة

The study has been conducted in the field of Agricultural college university of Basrah,inKarmat- Ali during the spring season 2007 on clay texture soil in order to investigate the effect of alteration between drip and surface irrigation systems, Using saline water 7.0 – 8.5 dSm-1 and low saline water 2.5 – 3.0 dSm-1, under irrigation level of 100% EP and Leaching requirement of 20% , on soil properties.The experiment was designed by Randomized Complete block design (R.C.B.D) with three replication.The results of this study may summarized as follows: 1. Using saline water by alternation of drip and surface irrigation system in trio cycles starting by drip irrigation and ending by surface irrigation,use low saline water (Ds.Df.Sf – DsDf.Sf – Df.Ds.Sf) gave high efficiency in preventing salinity from using single method (Df- Sf) 2. Soil salinity increased horizontaly from the water drip sources and the largest value of electrical conduction was in the surface depths.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF ALTERNATION IN DIFFERENT SOURCE OF IRRIGATION WATER ON SOME PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LOAMY AND SANDY SOILS AND GROWTH OF CORN
تأثير تناوب الري بمياه مختلفة المصادر في بعض الصفات الفيزياوية والكيمياوية للترب الرملية والمزيجية الطينية نمو الذرة الصفراء

المؤلفون: Khalel Sh. Khalel خليل شاكر خليل
الصفحات: 75-85
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الخلاصة

The Experiment was carried out in wire house at private farms near Mussayab Technical Institute during the autumn growing season 2009-2010 for corn crop Zea mays L . The study included eighteen treatments are consisting of the compatibility between two factors. First, was two kinds of soils: sandy and loamy clay soil . second was nine levels of irrigation water(1- river water, 2- drainage water collected in winter season, 3- drainage water collected in summer season, 4-one irrigated from drainage2 followed with one river irrigated, 5- two irrigated from draing2 followed one river irrigated, 6- two irrigated from draing2 followed two river irrigated,7- one irrigated from drainage3 followed with one river irrigated, 8- two irrigated from drainge3 followed one river irrigated, 9- two irrigated from draing3 followed tow river irrigated . The RCBD with three replicate was used and the means was compared by L.S.D 0.05. The treatments of loamy soil was best than sandy soil in physical properties (bulk density, porosity and WHC) by 9.93, 27.07, and 56.61 % respectively. The treatments irrigated by river water has the best quality in this properties followed by the treatments irrigated by river water with draing2 water. The treatments of loamy soil shows an affect on chemical properties ( Ec , Ph and CEC) compared of sandy soil by 9.26 , 1.57, 35.31% respectively . Also the treatments irrigated by river water and by river water with draing2 water lead to increased the Ec and CEC and decreased the pH . The treatments planted in loamy soil showed superior qualities of the vegetative mass (germination ratio, area of leafs and dry vegetative weight) by 9.06, 4.9, 12.38 % respectively. The treatments irrigated by river water has the best quality in this properties followed

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF NATURAL CLAY DEPOSIT AND THE QUALITY OF IRRIGATION WATER IN SOME WATER CHARACTERISTICS OF SANDY SOIL
تأثير رواسب الطين الطبيعية ونوعية مياه الري في بعض الخصائص المائية لتربة رملية

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الخلاصة

An experiment was carried out in the greenhouse (Department of Soil and Water Resources - College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad) for the purpose of revealing the impact of fresh (tap) and saline irrigation water (Well - Faculty of Agriculture - University of Baghdad) in the viability of sandy soil on water retention with different rates of natural clay deposits added (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%) available in the banks of the Tigris and placed in plastic cylindrical columns of 5 cm in diameter and 36 cm in height. Natural clay deposits were added to a depth of 5 cm from the surface of the column material mixed with sand, and the application of the fresh and saline water continued at the level of the field capacity weekly, and the daily evaporation was calculate the for a period of four weeks from the beginning of the experiment. Results showed that the irrigation of sandy soil with saline water has led to a decrease in its ability to retain water and to an increase in the daily and cumulative evaporation with the existence of natural clay deposits compared to fresh water irrigation treatment. The rate of 2% was the best rate of the natural clay deposits added to the surface layer (0-5cm) to decrease the cumulative evaporation in the sandy soil columns irrigated with fresh and saline water. Results showed that the penetration resistance of the soil has increased significantly when saline irrigation water added (0.26 kPa), as compared with the fresh irrigation water (0.23 kPa). The relative swelling rate of sandy soil was increased with increasing rates of added natural clay deposits when irrigated with saline water compared with fresh water, and the percentage increase in the rates of addition of natural clay deposits in comparison with the control .Treatment was 170%, 395%, 637%, and 1025% When saline irrigation water added and 68%, 220%, 415%, and 805% when fresh irrigation water added, respectively. Results showed that irrigation of sandy soil with saline water affected its ability to water retention compared with fresh water for all treatments.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF SOIL AND SPRAY APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT AMINO ACIDS ON GROWTH OF TOMATO IN DESERT ZUBAIR SOIL
تأثير طرائق اضافة مستويات مختلفة من الاحماض الامينية في نمو نباتاتالطماطة المزروعة في تربة الزبير الصحرواية

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الخلاصة

A field study was conducted in Berjesia experiment station at winter season 2009-2010 in loamy sand texture soil classified as Typic quartiz pasament . Split-split plot and methods of application in RCBD design was used. The aim of the experiment was to test the different levels of amino acids on decreasing the stress of water salinity (well water) and growth of tomato plant c.v. Al- Hutoof hybrid. The field experiment consist of 30 treatments :the main factor was method of application amino acids by spray or with irrigation water ; the secondary factor type of amino acids (Tyrosine ،Proline ، Arginine) and their combination in mono , di or triple mixture and three levels of amino acid (0 100 ، 200 ،) mg L-1 was used . Results indicated the significant effect of all amino acid with different level on decreasing the stress effects of salinity.The best result for all grow parameters of tomato plant when three amino acids were mixed and sprayed in200 mg l-1 comparing with control treatment . It increased the plant height by 27.2%; leaf area by 17.3% ; dry weight of shoot by 19.8%; dry weight of roots by 55.8% and dry wt. of root and root to shoot ratio

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF IRRIGATION INTERVAL , LEVEL OF IRRIGATION WATER AND EMITTER DISCHARGE ON INFILTRATION RATE IN CLAYEY SOILS
تأثير فترة ومستوى الري وتصريف المنقط على معدل الغيض في الترب الطينية

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was performed to study the effect of irrigation interval, irrigation level and emitter discharge on infiltration rate in clayey soil, which was planted with okra by using drip irrigation system. The study was designed as a factorial experiment within split-plot design using RCBD in three replicates, A(irrigation interval) was put in main plots and combination between B(irrigation level) and C ( emitter discharge) was put in sub-main plots. The results showed a decrease in infiltration rate and accumulative infiltration at the end of growing season in all treatments in comparison with infiltration rate and accumulative infiltration before planting. Decreasing ratios were 58.7% - 63.7 and 60% - 64% for 3 days and 5 days irrigation interval treatments, respectively. The values of cumulative infiltration were15.5 – 17.3 cm and 14.9 – 16.7 cm for 3 days and 5 days irrigation interval treatments , respectively . the results showed a decrease in the infiltration rate (i) of 5 days irrigation interval in comparison with 3 days irrigation interval . Bulk density of soil profile (0 – 50 cm deep) increased at the end of growing season for all treatments in comparison with their values before planting. Increasing ratios of bulk density for treatments irrigated every three days (3 days irrigation interval) were 10.2% - 12.4% . On the other hand, the increasing ratios of bulk density of soils of the treatments irrigated in 5 days interval, were 11.7% – 14.6%. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) (as soil profile depth average) decreased in treatments of 3 and 5 days irrigation intervals in comparison with hydraulic conductivity of soil profile befor planting. The decreasing ratios of Ks were 64.7% - 68.9% and 66.6% - 69.9 for both irrigation intervals, respectively. Mean weight diameter decreased at (0 – 30 cm deep) of soils treatments in comparison with MWD values befor planting. The decreasing ratios ranged from 4.4% - 19.6% and 8% - 36.1% in irrigation intervals of 3 days and 5 days, respectively . The values of sorptivity (S) were 0.194 – 0.243 cm min -½ and 0.177 – 0.233 cm min -½ for 3 days and 5 days irrigation interval treatments . The results showed a decrease in (A) values in comparison with Ks .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
DETERMINATION OF WATER TABLE CONTR IBUTION TO ACTUAL VAPOTRANSPIRATION FOR BREAD WHEAT
قياس مساهمة الماء الأرضي في الأستهلاك المائي لحنطة الخبز

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الخلاصة

To determine the contribution from a shallow water table to the evapotranspiration process over the growing season or wheat under different depletion rates and Irrigation depth, a field study was carried out during 2008/2009 at the field of the College of Agriculture Baghdad. Three levels of depletion rates %50, %70, and %90 from available moisture and three Irrigation depths of the effective root zone, 0-30 cm from planting to the end of growing season, 0-30 cm from planting to flowering stage then 0-60 cm from flowering stage to the end of growing season and 0-60 cm from planting to the end of growing season. Amount of Irrigation water was applied to satisfy water depletion in soil over the grawing season. 'Water content deficit was determined by gravimetric method. Calculated water content deficit was based on measurements of soil water content by gravimetric method. Contribution from the water table during each Irrigation was calculated from changes in water content and hydraulic head measured before and after Irrigation for each layer between the end or root zone and the water table. Flux calculation was based on Richard equation and similar to Salim(2003) approach. It was found that at %50 depletion rate from available moisture water table contributed 78, 69, 25 mm during growing season which consitituted %17.6 , %14.5 , %4.7 from the total evapotranspiration for the 0-30 cm, 0-30 then 0-60 cm and 0-60 em irrigation depths, respectively. At (%70 depletion from available moisture water table contributed 87, 74, 33 mrn which consitituted %J20.0, % 15.8, %6.4 from total evapotranspiration for 0-30 cm, 0-30 then 0-60 cm and 0-60 cmirrigation depths, respectively. At %90 depletion (rom the available moisture water table contribution 93,79, 37 mm which consititutcd %20.8, %17.0, %7.2 of the total evapotranspiration for 0-30 cm, 0-30 then 0-60 cm and 0-60 cm irrigation depths, respectively. Results of this study showed that contribution of the water table increased with increased depletion rate of the available water in the root zone. Higher contribution from the water table occurred under 0-30 cm irrigation compared with 0-30 cm, 0-30 then 0-60 cm and 0-60 cm irrigation depths. Lower matric suction values were obtained at 0-30 cm due to evaporation and transpiration process resulting in higher gradient values.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
WATER USE EFFICIENCY UNDER MINERAL AND ORGANIC- BIO FERTILIZERS OF POTATO
كفاءة استخدام المياه تحت التسميد المعدني و الحيوي- العضوي للبطاطا

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الخلاصة

Three field experiments were conducted on a fields at Babylon Governorate in a silty clay loam soil to study the effect of integrated application of mineral and organic-bio fertilizers under different irrigation systems (furrow , sprinkler , and drip irrigation) on potato tuber productivity and water use efficiency ( WUE) .Treatments included three rates of mineral fertilizers 0,50,and 100% of (300 KgN.ha-1+100 Kg P. ha-1) ,10 Mg ha-1 organic fertilizer (organo fert.), 950 Kg ha-1 bio fertilizer(Al-Muaferbio), organic+ bio fertilizers, and control treatment(without neither organic nor bio.). Results indicated that 100% rate of mineral fertilizers +organic-bio gave the highest tuber yield and and WUE. Mineral fertilizer (100%) increased tuber yield by 38,47, and 49% compared to the control (0 mineral) for furrow, sprinkler and drip irrigation systems respectively. Besides, this treatment (100% rate of mineral fertilizer) resulted in WUE of 7.17, 10.81, and 24.39 Kg m-3 for furrow, sprinkler and drip irrigation systems, respectively.Organic fertilizer , bio fertilizer and bio +organic fertilizers increased tuber yield productivity by (32.9,56.0,&78.8% ),(29.3,50.3,&73.8% ) and (27.6,46.5,&64.7%) for furrow, sprinkler and drip irrigation systems , respectively. Furthermore, Bio + 50% mineral fertilizer or organic fertilizer application gave potato tuber yield similar to 100% rate of mineral fertilizer. Therefore, it can be concluded that bio or organic fertilizers can partly substitute mineral fertilizers.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
MODELS TO PREDICT UNSATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY WITH THE USE OF RETC CODE
نماذج للتنبؤ بالايصالية المائية غير المشبعة باستخدام برنامج RETC

المؤلفون: Ali J. Kadhim علي جواد كاظم
الصفحات: 150-164
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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT
The soil hydraulic characteristics , the soil water content and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity are essential to many agriculture and environmental applications. There are many important methods to estimate the soil water content and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K), and used this technique to predict the equation parameters (θr ,θs , α ,m ,n). Three models( van Genuchten – Mualem m= 1-1/n , van Genuchten – Burdine m=1-2/n and Brooks & Corey n→∞) were fitted with soil moisture retention data using RETC Code .The RETC code was developed at US salinity laboratory and it used world –wide in many papers at now. Method this program allows to compare three models from the input of moisture retention curve data. In this study , calculated three relationship water content vs pressure head , relative unsaturated hydraulic conductivity with water content and pressure head respectively .And , used various closed – form analytical models for predicting the hydraulic conductivity. Van – Genuchten derived equation Mualem (1976) with a new model for predicting from the soil water retention curve . Equation Mualem's derivation leads to a simple integral formula for predicting the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The three model gave an excellent description of soil moisture data with van Genuchten , Mualem model (m=1-1/n) being superior over the other models having the highest coefficient of determination R2 =0.9843 and lowest sum of squares of residual SSQ = 0.0031 .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF WATER MAGNETIC TREATMENT AND DEFICIT IRRIGATION ON PLANT PRODUCTIVITY AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF CORN (ZEA MAYS L.)*
التاثيرات المتداخلة لمغنطة الماء والري الناقص في انتاجية وكفاءة استخدام المياه لمحصول الذرة الصفراء

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT
A maize (Zea mays L.) field experiment was conducted in Sulaimania Governorate, Iraq to study the influence of water magnetism under full and limited irrigation schemes on actual evapotranspiration ETa, growth and yield of corn. Drip Irrigation system was used to apply water for all treatments to bring the soil moisture content of the 0-90 cm layer up to the field capacity. Three different irrigation treatments (I0, I1 and I2) were applied depending on soil water depletion replenishments. Symbols I0, I1 and I2 refer to treatments receiving 100%, 75% and 50% soil moisture depletion successively which were applied right after the emergency stage. The results showed that the growth and productivity of corn were increased by water magnetism under both full and limited irrigation. Both of water use efficiency WUE and irrigation water use efficiency IWUE increased when irrigation water was magnetized particularly under water deficit condition. The growth and productivity parameters of corn were directly proportional to actual ET starting from the minimum values of ETa up to maximum ET (ETm) level. Maximum WUE and IWUE were obtained when ETa/ETm ratio were between 0.65-0.85. Average values of crop ET (ETc) calculated by Blaney-Criddle and Hargreaves equation can be used to estimate the amount of applied irrigation water because of the closeness of ETc values from ETa values. Crop response factor for corn decreased when magnetized water was used for irrigation. The best magnetic flux density was 50-100 mT to give the best response for corn crop. Most measured physical and chemical properties of water were slightly affected by magnetism.

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