Table of content

Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences

مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان

ISSN: 20731213
Publisher: Tikrit University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Precise semi-annual scientific journal concerned with research publishing related to dental sciences

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Phone Number : 07481411928
e-Mail : tikjdentsci@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2011 volume:1 issue:1

Article
The Effect of Salivary Zinc Concentration inDental Caries Experience
تأثير تركيز الزنك اللعابي على تسوس الاسنان

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Abstract

This study was aimed to investigated the relationship between caries experience and Zinc concentration in salivary supernatant.
Materials and methods: This study was done on Forty healthy-looking dental students in Tikrit University, with age range between 19-24 years, stimulated mixed saliva were collected from them and the supernatant part of it were subjected to analysis by Atomic Spectrophotometer in analytical center of chemical engineering college/ Tikrit University, to estimate Zinc concentration. Assessment of caries prevalence was carried out by clinical examination using DMFT and DMFS indices. Zinc concentration and dental caries experience took place in relation to gender.
The result showed that the Zinc level in saliva of caries experience group was 76.6±20.6 ng/ml, while that of caries free group was 72.6±32.3 ng/ml. The total mean of saliva Zinc concentration in saliva of males in both groups was higher than females.
Saliva zinc concentration was higher in individuals with caries free when compared with individuals having caries experience. The severity of dental caries was associated with the increasing salivary zinc concentration. There was significant differences between the salivary zinc concentration in both sexes. Males in both groups having higher salivary zinc concentration than that in females.

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Article
Comparison Between High- Resolution Ultrasonography and Conventional Radiography in the Diagnosis of Nasal Bone Fractures

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Abstract

Objectives to describe the diagnostic findings of ultrasonography in nasal bones fractures and to determine the validity of classical clinical practice assisted by radiography in the diagnosis of nasal bone fractures and compared it to the value of ultrasonograp-hy. A total sample of 53 patients (11 females and 42 males) at age range (14-40) years, with a differential diagnosis of nasal fracture based on history of nasal trauma and physical signs and symptoms of nasal bone fracture. All subjects had a true lateral soft tissue profile view of the face and high resolution ultrasonography in addition 8 patients had an occipitomental view based on physician request. The radiographs and ultrasound images of each subjects were analyzed and reports were recorded as either “positive” or “negative” according to the existence of nasal bone fracture with other details about the fracture if present (number of the fracture lines detected, the type of the fracture, its location and assessment of the soft tissue swelling and hematoma). The results were analyzed by various statistical testing methods (for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and accuracy). The sensitivity to established clinical diagnosis (based on crepitation and mobility) in diagnosis of nasal bone fracture was 76.6% (23.4% false – ve rate). This figure is increased to 89.4% (10.6% false – ve rate) when clinical decision is aided by radiography. Such a practice however is associated with low specificity (33.3%). Using ultrasonography will increase both sensitivity and specificity to 100%. The conclusion of this study is the ultrasonography in diagnosis of nasal bone fracture is superior to radiography and it is recommended to shift the classical clinical approach from radiography to ultrasonography in this context.

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Article
Mandibular Bone Height Measurements for Tooth Implantation by Using Film and Digital Panoramic Radiograph

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Abstract

An important objective of the preoperative radiographs evaluation of the implant is to determine the height and width of the bone available for implant insertion. The aim of the study is to confirm the ability of film and digital panoramic radiographs by measuring the distance from the crest of alveolar bone to the roof of the mandibular canal, also compare each type of radiographs using with the tracing chart reading which is a standard measure for both implant length and diameter that supply with the implant system.In this study thirty nine patients needing implants in the lower premolars and molars region in both sides were included. Digital panoramic radiograph were examined by using computerized analysis by software of dimax system , by measuring the distance from the crest of alveolar bone to the roof of the mandibular canal , while in film panoramic radiograph, a ruler was used to measure the distance from the crest of the alveolar bone to the roof of the mandibular canal with the utilization of a viewing box. it was found that film panoramic radiograph had higher value than digital panoramic radiograph in all sites of the teeth specially in the molar region.

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Article
Effect of Different Tea in Remineralization of Artificially- Induced Initial Enamel Caries of Human Teeth (Study in Vitro)

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Abstract

One of the beneficial effects of consumption different types of tea is preventing tooth decay that attributed to their mineral contents.
Purpose: to investigate the microscopical changes of different types of tea ; Camellia sinensis (black and green), Mentha spicata and Ocimum basilicum on artificially- induced initial enamel caries. Initial enamel caries-like lesions were introduced in 30 sound extracted human 1st premolar teeth using pH cycling procedure. Teeth were divided into 6 groups to test 4 types of tea ( black, green, Mentha spicata and Ocimum basilicum) and 2 control solutions (0.05%NaF and de-ionized water as positive and negative control respectively )for enamel re-mineralization, using polarized microscope. The concentration of calcium, inorganic phosphorous and fluoride ions in all tea solutions were also measured.
Results revealed that green tea produced the best enamel remineralization, while black tea and Mentha spicata were coming next and result in different mode of re-mineralization. On the other hand, teeth treated Ocimum basilicum showed mild evidence of re-mineralization.The chemical analysis indicated that both Mentha spicata and Ocimum basilicum had the highest calcium and phosphorous ions levels (higher than their fluoride concentration). Green tea had nearly equal concentration for the 3 tested ions, which were less than its counterpart black tea.
All selected tea solutions were effective in remineralizing of initial enamel caries, in the following sequence: green tea, black / Mentha spicata , then Ocimum basilicum.

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Article
The Inhibitory Effect of CW CO2 Laser on Carieslike Lesion Initiation on Sound Enamel: an In Vitro Study

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Abstract

Abstract
Although CO2 laser irradiation can decrease enamel demineralization, it has still not been clarified which laser wavelength and which irradiation conditions represent the optimum parameters for application as preventive treatment. One of the important applications of the laser is as a caries inhibition treatment of the sound dental tissues. This study aimed to assess the caries preventive potential of various CW CO2 laser parameters, and to explore the effect of laser power density, and the exposure time on the caries inhibition activity. Eighty one extracted human premolar teeth were irradiated with three output power: (1, 2, and 4) W, three spot diameter: (2, 2.83, and 4) mm, and three exposure times: (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8) sec of 10.6ىm CW CO2 laser. Three teeth were used as a control group. All teeth were subjected to carieslike lesion formation by 3.5 pH lactic acid solution for 21 days. The teeth after that were sectioned into ground cross sections and the lesion depths were measured under polarizing microscope. The lesion depths of experimental samples were compared with those of the control samples. A single exposure to CW CO2 laser irradiation was found to be resulted in reduction of the carieslike lesion depths. These reductions were up to 61%. The inhibition activity was related directly to the power density and inversely to the exposure time of CW CO2 laser radiation. The optimal parameters were 33W/cm2 power density and 0.2 exposure time. These finding should be reinforced with more laboratory, animal, and human studies with and without fluoride before clinical applications.

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Article
Evaluating the Sealing Ability of MTA as a Root Canal Sealing Material

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Abstract

This study was to evaluate the potential of using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as a root canal sealing material via comparing its apical sealing ability with that of the most commonly used root canal sealer (Dorifill) zinc oxide based sealer , twenty-eight extracted human single rooted teeth were selected for use in this study . All teeth were prepared in standard manner using hand instruments, randomly divided into two groups of twelve teeth each and a control group of four teeth. Root canals in the two experimental groups were filled laterally condensed gutta percha and either MTA or zinc oxide based (Dorifill) sealer. After sealers had set, the root surfaces were coated with nail varnish except 1 mm at the apex of the root . Positive controls had no root filling and were coated with nail varnish in the same manner, while the negative controls were sealed only entirely with nail varnish. The teeth were immersed into 1% methylene blue dye for 72 hours. The teeth were cleared and the linear extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope. Group (MTA) showed significantly less apical dye penetration than group 2 . Positive controls had total leakage and negative controls had no leakage. The study demonstrate that MTA provide an apical seal that is superior to that of zinc oxide based root canal sealer (Dorifill).

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Article
Dental and Alveolar Arch Widths in Normal Occlusion and Class II Division 1 Malocclusion

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Abstract

This study was to evaluate and compare dental arch and alveolar widths of patients with Class II division one malocclusion with group of untreated normal occlusion subjects. This study was performed using measurement on dental casts of 30 normal occlusion and 30 Class II division 1 malocclusion of Iraqi sample aged 15-22 years. T-test was applied for comparing the groups , the finding of this study indicated that maxillary interpremolar width, maxillary canine, maxillary premolar and maxillary first molar and mandibular premolar and molar alveolar widths were found significantly narrower in the Class II division 1 group when compared with the normal occlusion sample (P<.001). The maxillary and mandibular intermolar and mandibular intercanine alveolar widths were statistically significantly larger in the Class II division 1 group ( P<.01) . Maxillary molar teeth in subjects with Class II division 1 malocclusion tend to incline to the buccal to compensate the insufficient alveolar base therefore rapid maxillary expansion rather than slow maxillary expansion should be considered during treatment of Class II division 1 patients. The results of our study suggested that transverse discrepancy in Class II division one malocclusion originated from upper posterior teeth and maxillary alveolar base.

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Article
Clinical Study on the Effect of Sodium Fluoride Mouthrinse /Gel and Toothpaste in Combination with Chlorohexidine Mouth Wash on Plaque and Gingivitis in Orthodontic Patients .

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Abstract

This study is to examine which one is most effective the use of NaF mouthrinse and toothpaste with chlorohexidine mouthwash or the use of NaF gel with Naf toothpaste and chlorohexidine mouth wash on the plaque and gingivitis of maxillary anterior teeth that occurs in orthodontic patients during the treatment of fixed appliance. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study with 60 orthodontic patients (16 males and 44 females, average age from 15 to 25 ) was designed . All the patients were instruct to brush with NaF tooth past three times in the day and to use chlorohexidine mouth wash at night . Visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were recorded on the six maxillary anterior teeth at bonding and after one, two and three months and evaluated with t tests .Then the patients that began to have plaque and gingivitis were divided into two groups A and B , In group A they were instruct to use NaF gel (1500 ppm) in addition to NaF(1450ppm) toothpaste and 2% chlorohexidine mouth wash while group B used Naf (250 ppm) mouth rinse in addition to NaF toothpaste and chlorohexidine . There was a significant differences(P<0.05) between bonding and debonding after 3 months recorded for VPI and there was also a significant difference between group A and B for the VPI and for the GBI after six weeks of the treatment . It was concluded that the combined use of an NaF toothpaste/gel and chlorohexidine mouthwash had a slightly more inhibitory effect on the development of , plaque and gingivitis on maxillary anterior teeth during fixed orthodontic treatment compared with NaF mouth rinse / toothpaste with chlorohexidine mouthwash .

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Article
Dental Arch Perimeter and Dimensions in Kurdish Sample Aged 14-25 Years with Class I and Class II Malocclusion

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Abstract

The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the arch perimeter, arch width and vertical arch length in class I normal occlusion and class II malocclusion (division 1 and division 2) in a Kurdish sample of young adults aged 14–25 years. These measurements were taken on 100 study models (50 cases of class I normal occlusion and 50 cases of class II malocclusions). The results showed that (1) Upper and lower arch perimeters of class I normal occlusion were significantly shorter than class II division 1 [at p value= 0.000 , 0.016 ] subsequently ,whereas, no significant difference were found comparing with class II division 2 group[ p value= 0.59 , 0.61] subsequently (2) No differences were found in upper intercanine width in the two different groups of class II malocclusion [p=0.136] and with class I normal occlusion at p> 0.05, (3) upper intermolar width in Class II division 2 were significantly smaller than that in class I normal occlusion [p= 0.000] (4) Lastly, the vertical maxillary arch length in Class II division 1 was significantly larger than Class II division 2 at p<0.05 .

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Article
Coloring the Teeth for Duplicate Denture Using a Sectional Mold Technique

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Abstract

This study describes a method of coloring the teeth to give natural appearance by using interchangeable flasks for duplicate denture by using a sectional mold technique.

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Article
The Effect of Clinical Examination and Kennedy Classification on the Design of Removable Partial Dentures

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Abstract

The success of RPDS* depends greatly on it's design, (which means acrylic, ch-co**, and fixed).But unfortunately many dentists delegate their responsibility of RPDS design to the dental technician for one reason or another, this study was done to confirm the effect of kennedy classification and clinical examination on the RPD design, and to identify the changes between design of group (A) dental technician and group (B) the dentists, and to be solved in future.The result show 36% of the cases were modified and changed according to the cases related variables this high and significant number of modification reinforces the position that RPD design should be decided and guided by the dentists. The study conducted the effects of kennedy classification and clinical examination on the RPD design by comparing between designs group of Dental technician without clinical examination and designs marked by the dentists after providing the clinical examination, the change of design was clearly proved that the clinical examination played a very important role in changing the RPD designs.

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Article
Effects of Gingivitis During Pregnancy on Incidence of Low Birth Weight Baby in Al-Dour City, October 2009 - March 2010

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It has been suggested that gingivitis during pregnancy could have a causal relationship with low weights for newborns. The objective of this study is to estimate the effect of gingivitis during pregnancy on the birth weight of newborns. Pregnant women were randomly selected and whom their gum had inflamed were contained in Group 1 (or G1); and this sample size was 50 subjects. This group was compared with a control group of 50 pregnant women whom presented with healthy gums and contained in Group 2 (or G2). Mothers were examined by a dentist who was not informed of the group classified. A probe was used to measure extent and severity of gingivitis. The extension index (EI) and severity index (SI) of gingivitis were determined.Both groups of mothers were near in terms of maternal age, parity, weight, height, skin color, obesity, socioeconomic status, parity, antenatal care, abortion, bacteriuria, nutritional status, diabetes mellitus, previous hypertension, and preeclampsia. The characteristics of the newborns were: birth weight: G1 = 1854±590 gram and G2 = 3175±610 gram; gestational age: G1 = 34±6 weeks and G2 = 38±3 weeks; duration of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit: G1 = 1.8±0.6 days and G2 = 0.7±0.4 days. Average EI: G1 = 84.663±11.634 and G2 = 69.010±18.122 (p<0.05). Average SI: G1 = 1.217±0.623 and G2 = 0.705±0.404 (p<0.05). The study analysis indicated a marked relation between gingivitis and low birth weight. Our data suggested that gingivitis during pregnancy may be a risk factor for low weight at birth.

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Article
The Influence of Nystatin and Argon Laser Combination on Candida Albicans and Actinomycetes Isolated from Oral Cavity of Children.

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The present study has been undertaken to illustrate the effect of argon laser and nystatin on isolated candida albican and Actinomycetes from oral cavity of children. Out of 20 samples, positive cultures were 26 bacterial samples and 12 fungus samples, the isolated bacteria included Staphylococcus aureus ,klebseilla pneumonias ,and streptococcus viridans .The isolated fungi included candida albican and Actinomycetes. The present study shows that determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations of nystatin ranged from 1-12 i.u./ml in sabroud agar plates were prepared and cultured with tested fungi ,incubated at 25 oC for 24-48 hrs.The candida albican and Actinomycetes fungi exposed to argon ion (Ar+) laser after focal with a lens of (15) cm after focal point for periods of time (1,1.5,2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16)min, and shows the effect of combination between nystatin and laser light.The result showed that the minimal inhibitory concentrations of nystatin for candida albican were 1-12 i.u./ml but the minimal inhibitory concentrations of nystatin for Actinomycetes were 3-12 i.u./ml .Also it is found that candida albican completely killed after exposure to argon laser for 12-16 minutes. While Actinomycetes completely killed after exposure to argon laser for 10-16 minutes.The combination between laser and nystatin were more effective,all candida albican isolated from oral cavity were killed after exposure to (argon laser light , nystatin combination) for 10 minutes / 7 i.u./ml, while all Actinomycetes killed after exposure to (argon laser light ,nystatin combination) for 6 minutes/5 i.u./ml .The widly uses of laser in oral and dental treatment encourages to further investigations . Recent advances has shown the save and destructive results by using laser open the hopes to introduce laser strongly in treatment of oral and dental diseases.

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Article
Microbiological Studies on Bacteria Associated with Several Oral Disease And Dental Caries

Authors: منى جلال علي
Pages: 83-88
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Abstract

A total of (80) swabs were collected from mouth of patients suffering from dental and oral disease of both sexes and their ages ranged from 1-60 years which are ( referred) to consult the dental clinics and specialized centers of dental in AL-Hawija city from 2009.12.1 to 2010.4.30 ,In order to isolated and identified the causative agents that associated with oral disease and its antibiotics sensitivity against some antibiotics in addition to study the some factors that a effected and aided the occurrence and prevelance of these agents in mouth. Gram positive bacteria were ahigh number especially Streptococci – viridans which get of (4) species , form it the more important it’s the Streptococcus mutans (20) isolats and in rate 25% , then S. sanguis (14) isolates 17.5% , S.mitis ( 13 isolates ) 16.3% and S.salivarius (12 isolates)15% .For the Staphylococci were isolated Staphylococcus epidermidis (8 isolates) rate 10%,for the Lactobacillus ,two species were isolated (6 isolates ) in rate 7.5% for L. acidophilus, the other species L. casei (5 isolates) 6.2% , the most other Gram positive bacteria were rare in isolation and at defferent(2 isolates ) rates 2.5% Actinomyces viscosus.The ability of some bacteria to tolerate different salt concentrations & PH level . It was found that Staph. epidermidis was capable of toleration of the highest salt concentrations( 10%) while L. acidophilus was sensitive for all of the utilized concentrations, but it showed its high capability to grow on acidic medium (PH=4) more than other bacteria . The antibiotic sensitivity test for isolates against (9) antibiotics showed that the Cefotaxim was the best antibiotics and have higher effect on bacterial isolates ,then Ciprofloxacin and Amikacin .While the antibiotics Trimethoprim, Ampicillin and Amoxicillin were less effect on these isolates.

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Table of content: volume:1 issue:1