Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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Contact info

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2011 volume:42 issue:5

Article
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEED POSITION 0N THE COB, N LEVEL AND HARVESTING DATE IN MAIZE SEED QUALITY
علاقة موقع البذرة على العرنوص وجرعة النايتروجين وموعد الحصاد بجودة بذور الذرة الصفراء

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Abstract

To investigate the effects of seed position on the cob (lower and upper third),seed harvested at physiological and one month later and 200 and 400 kg N/ha when grown in spring and fall of the next year, using seeds of maize synthetic B-106. The experiment was conducted for four seasons on the farm of Field Crop Research Station/College of Agric./Univ. of Baghdad during spring and fall of 2009 and 2010. Results showed that seeds produced in the spring and fertilized with 400 kg.ha-1 gave higher seeds.plant-1 (343 and 601)and grain yield.plant-1 (78 and 124 g.plant-1)as compared to 200 kg.N.ha-1 which gave lower grain.plant-1 (64 and 112)for both seasons, respectively. Late harvest of spring grown seeds gave higher plant leaf area (0.608 m2), crop growth rate (2.3 and 4.5 g.m-2.d-1) and plant dry matter (229 and 283 g.plant-1),that increased seed yield (78 and 120 g) as compared to early harvest which gave lower plant seed yield (69 and 108 g), both seasons, respectively. Accordingly, to produce maize seeds of high agricultural quality, we should take spring grown seeds fertilized with 400kg.N.ha-1 , and harvested one month after physiological maturity. However, to have high seed yield for industry or feed, we recommend fall grown seeds taken from lower third of ear, and fertilized with 400kg.N.ha-1. Lower third seeds grown in the fall gave plant growth rate (2.2 and 4.2 g.m-2.d-1), plant dry matter (205 and 374 g),ear seed number (322 and 601) and plant grain yield (73 and 128 g) as compared to lower plant yield of upper third seeds which gave (67 and 108 g.plant-1),for both seasons, respectively. Genetic contamination was higher in lower or upper third of ear when foreign pollinator pollens available, early or late, in the seasons,respectively.

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Article
PREDICTING PERCENT OF PLANTS IN THE FIELD GIVING CULTIVAR MEAN GRAIN YIELD AND UP( + Ẍ) BY VIGOROUS SEEDLINGS EMERGED FROM SAND (SE/96h)
التنبؤ بمعدل حاصل الصنف فأكثر( Ẍ+ ) للذرة الصفراء في الحقل بالبادرات النشطة البازغة في الرمل (h SE/96)

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Abstract

The experiment was carried out to test if the percent of vigorous seedlings emerged from sand in the laboratory will good fit with percent of plants grown in the field giving mean grain performance and up ( + Ẍ). The seeds used were of synthetic maize B-106. The experiment was conducted for two seasons on the farm of Field Crop Research Station/College of Agric./Univ. of Baghdad during spring and fall of 2010. Zinc metal containers with dimensions of 24.5×24.5×5 cm were prepared. Silica pure sand was used in these containers of 4 cm deep. These were watered, then a special wooden finger (100 fingers) were pressed on sand of containers to have 100 holes for planting. Seeds of R-106 maize cultivar were planted and watered. Percent of vigorous seedlings were taken after 72h and each 12h. Same seeds were planted in the farm and grain yield of twenty replicates were recorded. Data of lab and field were tested by t-test, and the prediction of performance of seed lot was fit. This imply that we can test any maize seed lot for the percent of ( + Ẍ) performance plants by percent of vigorous seedlings emerged from sand(SE/h96). However, this test could be used for other crops in the future.

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Article
RESPONSE OF YIELD COMPONENTS AND YIELD OF COTTON FOR MAGNETIZED WATER AND WEED CONTROL WITH TRIFLURALIN
استجابة مكونات حاصل وحاصل القطن للماء الممغنط ومكافحة الأدغال بمبيد الترايفلورالين

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Abstract

A field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, Department of Field Crop Sciences - College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad, during summer season of 2008 and 2009 to investigate the response of yield components and yield of cotton to magnetized water and weed control with trifluralin herbicide. A randomized complete block design arranged according to split-plot was used with three replicates. The study included four levels of magnetic water strength (0, 500, 1000 and 2000 Gauss ) as main plot treatments and five application rates of trifluralin (0, 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 and 3.6 l.ha-1), and weed free as sub plot treatments. The results showed significant effect of magnetic water on almost all characters studied. Magnetic water of 500 Gauss caused greater percentage of weed control at 30 days after planting in both seasons and recorded 66.90% as compared with 39.10% for normal water treatment in 2008 season and 57.17% as compared with 47.14% in 2009 season. Closer impact resulted between lower application rate of herbicide (1.2 l.ha-1) and highest application rate (2.4 and 3.6 l.ha-1) on weed control percentage. Also significant interaction effects between magnetic water of (500 Gauss) and application rate (1.2 l.ha-1) of trifluralin were observed on weed control percentage which recorded 85.00% and 55.63% as compared with 31.30% and 42.55% when same application rate of herbicide was used with normal water respectively. These results reflected positively on cotton yield and yield components. Yield of lint cotton, increased to 1346.16 and 1600.19 kg.ha-1 as compared with 848.38 and 802.58 kg.ha-1 obtained with normal water treatment, that gave increased percentage of 36.97% and 50.42% respectively. It was concluded that magnetic water technique could be used to improve yield of cotton. Also magnetized water may increase efficiency of lower application rates of trifluralin herbicide which may lead to reduced the cost of this herbicide and the environmental pollution.

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Article
GROWTH AND SEED YIELD OF SOYBEAN UNDER PLANTING DATES
نمو وحاصل فول الصويا بتاثير مواعيد الزراعة

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Abstract

المستخلص
نفذت تجربة حقلية في تربة ذات نسجه مزيجه طينية خلال الموسم الصيفي 2008 و 2009 في محافظة الانبار , بهدف دراسة تأثير مواعيد الزراعة في نمو وحاصل ثلاث اصناف من محصول فول الصويا اسيوية الاصل DH4 , M103 , MV1 . طبقت تجربة عامليه بتصميم القطاعات الكاملة المعشاة بثلاثة مكررات .تفوق الصنف MV1 معنويا في ارتفاع النبات وأعطى 90.3و 80.5 سم في السنتين بالتتابع. تفوق الصنف M103 معنويا في صفة الحاصل ومكوناته فأعطى أعلى عدد قرنات بالنبات بلغت 79.89 و 73.99 قرنه بالنبات, واعلى عدد بذور بالقرنة وحاصل بذور بلغ 2.495 و 2.380 طن / هـ للسنتين بالتتابع. في حين اعطى الصنف MV1 أعلى معدل وزن 100بذرة بلغ15.50و 15.96 غم للسنتين بالتتابع . اثرت مواعيد الزراعة تاثيرا معنويا في صفة ارتفاع النبات واعطى الموعد الاول في منتصف مايس اعلى ارتفاع للنبات 78.78 و74.67 سم بينما اعطى الموعد الثاني في بداية حزيران اقل ارتفاع للنبات 68.00 و 64.44 سم في السنتين على الترتيب . اثر موعد الزراعة معنويا في صفة عدد البذوربالقرنة واعطى موعد الزراعة في بداية حزيران 2.27 و 2.31 بذرة بالقرنة في السنتين على الترتيب . تفوق موعد الزراعة في منتصف مايس معنويا في وزن 100 بذرة في سنة 2008 فاعطى 14.95 غم , ولم يكن لموعد الزراعة تاثير معنوي على وزن البذرة في السنة الثانية. كما لم يؤثر موعد الزراعة معنويا في حاصل البذور في كلا السنتين . اثر التداخل بين الاصناف وموعد الزراعة معنويا في عدد قرنات النبات فاعطى الصنف M103 مع موعد الزراعة في بداية حزيران اعلى عدد قرنات في النبات واعلى حاصل بذور بلغ 2.504 و 2.467 طن / هــ في السنتين على الترتيب. الصنف MV1 مع موعد الزراعة في 15 – 6 اعطى اعلى معدل وزن 100 بذرة . ومن هذا البحث نوصي بالزراعة المبكرة لمثل هذه الاصناف لكي تستغرق مدة اطول في مرحلة النمو الخضري والذي قد تستفادة منه في تجميع المادة الجافة في مراحل النمو التكاثرية وزيادة حاصل البذور .

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Article
PHYTOREMEDIATION OF SALINE SOILS USING SOME SALT TOLERANT CROPS*
الاستصلاح الحيوي للترب الملحية باستخدام المحاصيل المتحملة للملوحة

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Abstract

The current water scarcity scaling up desertification and salinization hazard led to urgent necessity for in situ techniques such as phytoremediation. The experiment was conducted at the college of Agriculture field, Abu-Graib district in Baghdad. The soil classified as Typic Torrifluvent. A randomized complete block design was used with three replicates. Each treatment with plot area 3×4 m was repeated three times. The treatments tested were: S1- planting one salt tolerant crop-sorghum (monoculture). S2- planting one salt tolerant crop-millet (monoculture). S3- planting two salt tolerant crops: sorghum and millet (diculture). The results showed that sodium concentration in stems for S3 treatment was 1.27% and decreased significantly at the first harvest comparing with S1 and S2. Sodium concentration in leaves was 1.09% for S3 and decreased significantly comparing with S1 and S2. Concentration in leaves was 0.49% for S1 at second harvest which was significantly decreased comparing S2 and S3. S1 showed a significant decrease in sodium concentration in grains comparing with both S2 and S3. Statistic analysis results indicated a significant increase in chloride concentration in stems for S1 was 2.47% at first harvest comparing with S2. At second harvest, S1 became 1.70% and showed a significant increase of chloride concentration in stems comparing with S2. Salt uptake by millet at the first harvest was less than the second harvest due to the lake of salt avoidness ability of the crop. Phytoremediation led to decrease of sodium and chloride concentrations in soil layers comparing with their levels before plantation. Increasing of salt tolerance for sorghum led to an increase in total yield in both mono and diculture.

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Article
REDUCING CHOLESTEROL AND OXIDATIVE DETERIORATION OF IRAQI BEEF PASTIRMA INOCULATED BY LACTIC ACID BACTERIA
خفض نسبة الكولسترول وتقليل عمليات الأكسدة في البسطرمة العراقية المصنعة من لحم البقر والملقحة ببكتريا Lactobacillus casei

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Iraqi pastirma was manufactured from beef and abdominal fat in the ratio of 3 meats: 1 fat. The percentage of moisture, protein, fat and ash in the sample of raw meat were 73.21, 21.64, 3.15 and 1.22% respectively, and the amount of total cholesterol was 127.0 mg/100gm. The percentages of chemical components of mixture were 60.50, 13.47, 21.56 and 1.56%, respectively. The amount of cholesterol in mg/100gm was 190.90 while the peroxide value was 0.69 meq. O2/kg sample and thiobarbituric acid number was 0.86 mg malonealdehyde /kg sample. Fermentation process was conducted at 37 C˚ and 80-85% relative humidity for 48 hours for treatments which inoculated with Lactobacillus casei In both percentages 2.5% and 5% of the mixture after adding sugar and salt. Added the other materials used in the pastirma manufacture including spices and garlic. Then mixture of pastirma packaged in natural casings (from cleaned cow small intestine then sterilized in 15% NaCl with 1% Acetic Acid). Pastirma samples were matured at 15-17 c˚ and 75-80% relative humidity for 4 weeks. It was found that cholesterol percentage in pastirma with 5% of Lb. casei decreased more than 40% while in pastirma with 2.5, 5% of Lb. casei, the peroxide and thiobarbituric acid numbers were low in comparison with control.

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Article
PERFORMANCE OF CHISEL PLOW UNDER TILLAGE DEPTHS AND TRACTOR SPEED
أداء المحراث الحفار تحت أعماق حراثة وسرع الجرار

Authors: Firas J. Taha فراس جمعة طه
Pages: 68-73
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Abstract

This study was conducted in the field of Al-Musaib Technical Institute, Foundation of Technical Education, at 2010 , at Massy Ferguson ( MF- 399) tractor with chisel plow in the various tillage depths as well as effect of tractor speeds in clay loam soil .The experiment was studied two factors: - included tillage depths (12.5,17and24 cm). Three ground speeds of tractor included 3.06,4.68 and 6.66 km/hr , The properties which were studied including fuel consumption, soil penetration resistance , slippage percentage and practical productivity .The research was performed by applying the factorial experiments according to the completely randomized design with four replications and data were analyzed statisticalyl. Mean values of each treatment were compared using LSD at the 0.05 level of confidence to test significance. The results showed the following : increasing of tillage depths from 12.5 to 17 and 24 cm caused an increasing in fuel consumption, Soil penetration resistance and slippage percentage, and decrease in the practical productivity ,Tillage depth 12.5 cm indicated significant superiority up on tillage depths 17 and 24 cm in achieving lower fuel consumption, Soil penetration resistance and lower slippage percentage while tillage depth 24 cm achieving higher practical productivity, Increasing ground speeds of tractor from 3.06 to 4.68 and 6.66 km/hr caused an increasing in fuel consumption. Soil penetration resistance and slippage percentage and practical productivity, Ground speed of tractor 3.06 km/hr achieved lower fuel consumption, and lower slippage percentage, while ground speed of tractor 6.66 km/hr indicated significant superiority up on 3.06 and 4.68 km/hr in achieving higher practical productivity in tillage depth 12.5 cm .

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Article
AN ESTIMATION OF SUPPLY RESPONSE FOR BREAD WHEAT IN IRAQ FOR THE PERIOD 1991-2002
تقدير استجابة عرض محصول القمح في العراق للمدة 1991-2002

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Bread wheat is an important food crop on the world level. The main problem in Iraq is the deficit in wheat production.The objective of this study was to estimate the supply response function in Iraq for the period. 1991-2002 to determine the most effective factors in supply. This work has two functions , one for rainfed area and the other for irrigated area.The important factors affecting the supply response of rainfed area were , the cultivated area with wheat for the previous year , absolute price of wheat for previous year , absolute price of barley for previous year , and precipitation and production risk . On the other side the important factors affecting the supply response of irrigated area were , the cultivated area with wheat for the previous year , wheat price , barley price as a competitive crop for previous year , irrigation water and production risk . The results showed that the estimated own price elasticity of wheat in the short run was 0.0566 and for the long run was 0.176 in irrigated area , and short run elasticity was 0.665 and long run elasticity was 1.095 in rain fed area . The cross elasticities were -0.0545 and -0.169 -for short and long run in irrigated area and -0.0233 and 0.038 for short and long run for rain fed area ,respectively. The main conclusions are the producer response to price changes were a mixture of prices and government policy. Also the price elasticity of wheat in rain fed area more than that in irrigated area which indicates the importance of the first region . Also there were some non price factors which affected in supply response of wheat more than the price factors

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USING "EXTENSION MEANS" IN PROCESS OF DISSEMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES FROM VIEWPOINT OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH SOME RELATED FACTORS.
أستخدام الوسائل الإرشادية في عملية نشر التقانات الزراعية من وجهة نظر المرشدين الزراعيين وعلاقتها ببعض العوامل

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The theme of “extension means” is one of the important subjects in the extension work as one of the main tools for the success of any process of dissemination of agricultural technologies to a wide audience of guidance. This research therefore seeks to detect the use of extension means in the process of dissemination agricultural technologies from the viewpoint of agricultural extension workers in the General Authority for extension and agricultural cooperation as well as illustrate the relationship between the usage level of these means and some independent factors of the guides. This study was done on a random sample of 67 agricultural extension workers, representing about 46% from agricultural extension workers who work at the headquarters of the Commission as well as the workers in the training center refers to the body. For the purpose of gathering information, the researcher developed a questionnaire consisting of three parts the first part represents the measurement of independent factors (sex, age, academic achievement, address, job specialization, years of service in agricultural extension exclusively, previous training in the use of extension means, direction towards the extension) in represents the second part measuring the level of use means guidance, as well as its importance in the process of dissemination of agricultural technologies, which contained 22 as a means of 13 as a means indicative visual and 4 The means of guidance audio and 5 The means of guidance audio visual. Finally, the third part represents the question open face of the guides to see the problems and constraints they face in the process of guiding the use of means. Shows the results of research and there is a clear disparity in the degree of use means indicative studied as it was clear that the computer and movies of agricultural and pictures and posters is the highest means indicative of the degree of use while occupied maps, cinema agricultural, charts, and animated films silent ranks four years. As it turns out that the guides believe that means guiding mission, in the transfer of agricultural technologies are: computer, movies, agricultural, and the Internet, posters, models, and bands data Show, and the real stuff, and pictures, samples, and telephone or mobile device. Have found significant positive correlation positive correlation at the level of significance 0.05 with each of the variable of years of service exclusively in agricultural extension, and variable pre-service training in the use of extension means. Accordingly, the research recommends the need for attention to training workers in the field of agricultural extension as well as the use of means of interest of the feedback from them, and that contributes to the improvement and development of guidance and development means used in the dissemination of agricultural technologies.

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Article
EFFECT OF SOIL STERILIZATION ON PHOSPHORUS AVAILABILITY AND pH OF DIFFERENT SOIL TEXTURES
تأثيرتعقيم التربة في جاهزية الفسفور وألأس الهيدروجيني لترب مختلفة النسجة

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To evaluate using sterilized soils as treatment within other treatments in agriculture experiments and/or using of sterilized soil as control treatments in biological experiments and to know about changes happened to the soil materials according to the soil type and soil characteristics under study due to sterilization process which take place on these soils which used in biological studies used microorganisms as ( bacteria , fungi , mycorrhiza ) as inoculants added to the soil . The experiment was conducted to study the effect of soil sterilization on 121 centigrade , and pressure 1.2kg/cm2 lasted for 20 minutes , on soil phosphorous availability and soil pH . For surface ( 0- 30) cm depth and subsurface (30 – 60) cm of four different sites in soil present land use , vegetation and surface soil texture . The obtained results showed an increase of soil phosphorus availability , and soil pH in Sterile surface soils comparative with unsterilized surface soils .The results also indicated to a decrease 0.05 level in soil phosphorus availability of 3 subsurface sterilized soil sites from the 4 sites used in the study . And a high differences in depression 0.05 level in soils pH for interaction between soil type or site and sterilization and also between all three factors which is : soil site , depth and sterilization according to previously mentioned sterilized procedure .

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