Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2017(57) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2012 volume:9 issue:1

Article
Effect of alcoholic extract of Adhatoda vasica leaves on some biological performance of Ceratitis capitata larvae
تأثير المستخلص الكحولي لاوراق نبات حلق السبع الشجيري Adhatoda vasica في بعض جوانب الاداء الحياتي ليرقات ذبابة البحر الابيض المتوسط Ceratitis capitata

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Abstract

Many biological tests were done to study the effect of the crude alcoholic leaves extracts on the biological characteristics at the larvae fruit fly Ceratitis capitata with different concentrations of the extracts exposed 1,2,3,5 and 7.5 % at constant laboratory conditions includes the temperature and the relative humidity (27±2C0&70±5 % respectively). The results of the experiments showed that the alcoholic extracts of the plant effected the growth and the development of the larvae and pupae according to the concentrations . The alcoholic extracts proved to have the highest mortality tend to 66.76 % in larva treated with alcoholic at concentration 7.5 % the result also showed that, there was no signifecant differences on the perid of larva pupation that treated with the different concentration.


Article
The effect of crude alcoholic extracted for the Seeds and Leaves of Apium graveolens Var dulce. In the level of some female hormones in albino Mice.
تأثير المستخلصات الكحولية الخام لبذور واوراق الكرفس var Apium grveolens dulce على مستوى الهرمونات الانثوية في الفئران البيض

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Abstract

The quantitative determination of the estrogen E2, Progestron P4 & follicle stimulating hormones FSH in the serums of Albino mice used in the experiments & treated by crude alcoholic extracted 95% of the seeds & leaves of Apium graveolens was a significant increase in the concentration of estrogen of different kinds of the extracted in comparison with the values of the coefficient of the control group, that is the study recorded a significant increase of the concentration of estrogen; it was the highest in the mice which was administrated by the methanolic extracted 95%, then it was less in the mouse which was administrated by the ethanolic extracted., and it was the least in the mice which were administrated by the crude ethanolic-methanoloic extracted of the seeds of Apium graveolens; while the increase of the concentration of estrogen of different crude alcoholic extracted leaves of Apium graveolens was the highest than the extracted of the seeds, & it was less concentration in the mice which were administrated by the methanolic extracted 95%, & then it was the least in the mice which were administrated by the crude ethanolic-methanolic extracted leaves of Apium graveolens in comparison with the values of the control group. Further, the plant extracted created a significant increase of the concentration of progestron P4; the statistics analysis recorded that the concentration of progestron was the highest in the mice which were administrated by the methanolic extracted 95%, then it was less in the mice which were administrated by the ethanolic extracted 95%, and the least in the mice which were administrated by the crude ethanolic-methanolic extracted of the seeds of apium graveolens whereas, a significant increase of the concentration of progrstrone was recorded in the leaves of Apium graveolens as follows: it was the highest in the mice which were administrated by the ethanolic extracted 95%, then it was less in the mice which were administrated by the crude methanolic extracted 95%, and it was the least in the mice which were administrated by the crude ethnolic-methanolic extracted in comparison with the coefficient of control group. The study also proved that there was a significant increase of the concentration of the follicle stimulating hormone FSH whose greatest concentration in the mice which was administrated by the crude ethanolic-methanolic for the seeds of Apim graveolens, it was less concentration in the mice which was administrated by crude methanolic extracted 95% of the seeds, and it was the least in the mice which was administrated by the methanolic extracted 95% of the leaves of Apium graveolens in comparison with the concentrations of the coefficient of the control group. While, the results recorded a significant decrease of the FSH in the mice which was administrated by the crude ethanolic extracted of the seeds & leaves of Apium graveolens a highest decrease, it was less concentration in the mice which was administrated by the crude ethanolic-methanolic extracted of the leaves of apium graveolens, in comparison with the concentration in the control group.


Article
Detection of Some Active compounds and Vitamins Increasing in Aloe vera Callus culture
التحري عن زيادة بعض المركبات الفعالة والفيتامينات في كالس نبات الصبار Aloe vera

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Abstract

This study was aimed to use plant tissue culture technique to induce callus formation of Aloe vera on MS. Medium supplied with 10 mg/l NAA and 5 mg/l BA that exhibit the best results even with subculturing. As the method of [1] 1g. dru weight of callus induced from A. vera crown and in vivo crown were extracted then injected in HPLC using the standards of Ascorbic acid (vit. C), Salysilic acid and Nicotenic acid (vit. B5) to compare with the plant extracts. Results showed high potential of increasing some secondary products using the crown callus culture of A. vera as compared with in vivo crown, Ascorbic acid was 1.829 μg/l in in vivo crown and increased to 3.905 μg/l crown callus culture . Salysilic acid raised from 3.54 μg/l in in vivo crown and reached to 25,487μ g/l and the Nicotenic acid was 19.391 mg/l and decreased to 7.438 μg/l.


Article
Evaluation of cellular immune response in Golden Hamsters experimentally infected with Leishmania donovani comparing with cellular immune response against chicken Red Blood Cells.
تقييم الاستجابة المناعية الخلوية في الهامستر الذهبي المخمج تجريبيا باللشمانيا الاحشائية و مقارنته بالاستجابة المناعية الخلوية تجاه مستضد كريات الدم الحمر للدجاج

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Abstract

The Evaluation of the immune response in Golden Hamsters experimentally infected with Leishmania donovani was determined in this study, particularly, the cellular immune response. Follow up has maintained to determine the Delayed Type of Hypersensitivity using skin test both in infected and control lab animals. Chicken red blood cells were used as a parameter to evaluate the immune system; they are dull and have the ability of immunization. Two concentrations of chicken R.B.C were examined to determine which gives the higher titration in Hamsters and those were 1.5 X 109 cell/ml and 3 X 109 cell/ml , the second concentration gave the maximum titration where then used in this work. After sensitization with Chicken R.B.C for both infected and control groups, delayed type of hypersensitivity has been used against Leishmania donovani antigen and 4 days of follow up were adopted and they were (14, 30, 60, 90) day after infection. Results showed that skin test against both antigens ( L.donovani and chicken R.B.C) was significantly higher than normal at the first day of follow up ( day 14) then gradual decreasing were noticed till the last day of follow up (90). This can indicate that the infection with L.donovani activated the immune response at the beginning of infection, then leads to cellular immune suppression against both L.donovani antigen and chicken R.B.C., so that this immunosuppression is not specific.


Article
Replication and attenuation of foot and mouth disease virus in chick embryo
إكثار وتضعيف فايروس الحمى القلاعية بتمريره في أجنة الدواجن

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Abstract

This study includes replication and attenuation of foot and mouth disease virus type O which isolated from infected calves. Many passages for the virus in chick-Embryo were established as a substitute method to the tissue culture which is highly caustic in contrast to the chick embryo. The virus passed ten consequent passages which lead to the reduce of the titer of the virus from 106.53 TCID50/ 0.1 ml in cattle testis tissue culture to 103 TCID50/ 0.1 ml. the pathogenecity of attenuated FMD virus were also studied in both chick-embryo and guinea pigs. Using agar gel diffusion test precipitation antibodies was detected in guinea pig serum after 14 and 21 days post exposure to the attenuated virus. The inoculated guinea pig group with the chick-embryo attenuated virus appear resistance to the challenge virus. The result suggested the efficacy of attenuation of foot and mouth disease virus by using chick-embryo system for immunization against this disease on the level of laboratory Animal.


Article
Isolation and identification of the Myxobacterium Myxococcus fulvus from the Farms and study the inhibitory effect of cells and filtrates against pathogenic fungi
عزل وتشخيص البكتريا الهلامية Myxococcus fulvus من الحقول الزراعية ودراسة التأثير التثبيطي لخلاياها ورواشحها على الفطريات الممرضة

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The study was performed to isolate and identify the Myxococcus fulvus from the one hundred samples of soils of farms. Special growth conditions had been used to support the growth of M.fulvus local isolates and suppressed the growth of other microorganisms like (Drying , High Temperature , High concentration of antibiotics and specific growth media ) M.fulvus isolates had been subjected to the morphological, cultural , biochemical examination for identification , as well as , study the inhibitory activites of cells and filtrates of localized isolates against some pathogenic fungi include (Trichophyton mentagrophytes , Microsporum gypseum , Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxyporum ) by using three methods :- Cup assay , well diffusion and mixed culture , Results obtaind could be summarized as follows :- 1. (20) out of (100) soil samples , M.fulvus isolated as fruiting bodies depending on baiting technique by bacterial bait. 2. The media casiton – yeast extract agar was suitable for obtaind the best growth of vegetative swarms as pure culture . 3. (8) local isolates were showed inhibitory effect against all of the tested pathogenic fungi . 4. The concentrated filtrates of (3) local isolates were showed highly inhibitory effect than their unconcentrated filtrates against all of the tested pathogenic fungi .


Article
Improvement of the blood characteristics of the broiler chickens by addition tryptophan acid supplement levels in ration
تحسين بعض الصفات الدمية لفروج اللحم بأستخدام نسب مختلفة من الحامض الاميني التربتوفان في العليقة

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Abstract

This study were implemented on (60) broiler chick with one day age divided into three equal groups , first one was given basal diet while group two and three given adiet contain 0.01% ,0.02% tryptophan respectively for 7 weeks . The results show that the chicks recevd the tryptophan have asigneficant increasment in hemoglobin concentration, red blood cells count, packed cell volume and increased the level of globuline concentration and lymphocyte % which mean that the addition of tryptophan improve blood picture charactores and the immunity of the broiler chickens and this evident from the good health state and decrease the mortality among birds .


Article
Levels of Elements in Milk and Yoghurt
مستوى العناصر الثقيلة في الحليب واللبن الرائب

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This study aimed to know the concentration of elements content in dairy products. Nine samples collected from the local market in Baghdad, two samples of milk and seven of yoghurt.The results were followed: The ratio of Aluminum In Aluminum cans That is used for storage milk and industrialize yoghurt is about 95.5% ,this ratio is against [1] which said that pureness of Aluminum used in Aluminum cans should not be less than 98-99% . and the ratio of Cadmium reached to 0.001% which is also against [1] which assure that the Aluminum cans should be clean from that element, mean while the concentration of Iron, Copper and Zinc were within the standard level. The highest concentration of Iron was in treatment B2(canon yoghurt)it was 9.95 mg/L while the lowest concentration 4.1 mg/L was in treatment B1 (lab yoghurt). The highest concentration of Copper appeared in treatment B5 it was 4.63 mg/L while the lowest concentration 0.21 mg/L was in treatment B7. The results of this study illustrate that the increase of Zinc in all treatments. The highest level reached to 17.27 mg/L in B3 treatment (Al-washash yoghurt) and 5.18 mg/L as a lowest concentration in B1 treatment (lab yoghurt). The analytic results showed that all of the treatments were cleaned from lead. The highest concentration of Cadmium reached to 0.070 mg/L in B5 treatment (dragh yoghurt) and the lowest concentration reached to 0.023 mg/L was in B4 (Arbeel yoghurt) while treatment B1(lab yoghurt) and B7(kadmiaa yoghurt) were clean from Cadmium concentration when receipt.


Article
Effect of Fat Replacement with Tahena on the Quality Properties of Shortened Cake
تأثير الطحينة بديلاً للدهن في الخواص النوعية للكيك المقصر

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The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of replacing fat(shortening) with different percentages of tahena on the quality properties (physiochemical and sensory ) of shortened cake.The percentages of moisture,protein ,fat and ash of cake increased significantly(p<0.05) as the replacement was increased .The highest increase percentages were 10,48,5,and 90 %,respectivly, at 100% replacement .Carbohydrate,however,decreased by 10%at 100% replacement .these findings may indicate improvement of cake nutritional value.Standing height,as an indicator of cake volume, also increased significantly by 4% at the 50% replacement then it decreased by 4% 100% replacement level. Basic formula (control) has significantly revealed the highest scores in all sensory properties as compared with all replacement formulae except the 25% which was the best among all replacement treatment ,However,all cakes made of different replacement formulae were generally acceptable.


Article
Land Magnetic survey along a profile from Akaz to Rutba town and its applications
مسح مغناطيسي أرضي على مسار من منطقة عكاز إلى مدينة الرطبة و تطبيقاتها التكتونية

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Abstract

A land magnetic survey was carried out along regional profile, which is located at the north part of the Iraqi western desert. It starts from al –Qaam City (at north) toward Rutba City (at south) with a total length of 238km. The survey was carried out along the paved road between the two cities, About 113 measuring points were done with inter-station distance of 2 km (for 198 km) and 2 to 5km (for 40km). Two proton magnetometers were used in this survey. One of them is used for base station monitoring, which was fixed as of Salah Aldin field (Akkas). Its readings were used for diurnal corrections. All magnetic measurements were corrected for normal and topographic corrections. The readings were reduced to a certain base level. The resulted magnetic anomalies show a good correlation with those of Arial - magnetic survey anomalies conducted by (C.G.G, 1974). This is true for those anomalies with wavelength more than 50km. While the land magnetic survey has shown more small anomalies which may reflect near surface sources. In addition, there is a considerable difference between the magnetic intensity values of both surveys. The downward continuation method was used in this study for detecting the depth of magnetic anomaly source. But before applying this method the total magnetic field was converted to its vertical component using computer program packages. The 2.5 mathematical modeling techniques were used for interpreting magnetic anomaly. Several models were suggested according to the geological and geophysical surface and subsurface data. These models clearly suggest that the tectonic of the studied area may be completely affected by deep faults that could reach the basements or even cut it. These faults resulted in tectonic blocks with relative movements that could happen through the geological time, and they may be responsible for the tectonic features of the western desert. These faults could also responsible for the lateral and vertical variations that are noticed in subsurface rocks of the studied area. The subsurface lateral susceptibility variation between the different blocks could result from the variation in physical parameter of the rocks (like porosity, fracture density…) and there is a possibility that rocks beneath 18km (lower crust) still possess some magnetic properties.


Article
Phase transformation study of Iraqi Bentonite with Al2O3 and MgO as additions at high temperatures
دراسة التحولات الطورية للبنتونايت العراقي مع الومينا ومغنيسيا بوصفهما اضافات في درجات حرارة عالية

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Iraqi bentonite is used as main material for preparing ceramic samples with the additions of alumina and magnesia. X-ray diffractions analyses were carried out for the raw material at room temperature. The sequence of mineral phase's transformations of the bentonite for temperatures 1000 ,1100 ,1200 and 1250 ºC reflects that it finally transformed in to mullite 39.18% and cristobalite 62.82%. Samples of different weight constituent were prepared. The effect of its constitutional change reveals through its heat treatments at 1000,1100,1200,1250and 1300ºC .The samples of additions less than 15% of alumina and magnesia could not stand up to 1300ºC while the samples of addition more than 15% are stable .That is shown by analyzing of X-ray diffraction pattern after heat treatments of the samples. The growth of mineralogical phases like cordierite, anorthite ,mullite, cristobalite wollastonite with highest percentage ratio of anorthite 87.53%,cordirite77.35% and wallostonite 62.35% .So the presence refractory materials in the obtained samples highly support the possibility of using the bentonite with additions in the ceramics industry for high temperatures.


Article
Double Stage Cumulative Shrunken Bayes Estimator for the variance of Normal distribution for equal volume of two sample
مقدر بيز المقلص التجميعي بمرحلتين لتباين التوزيع الطبيعي ولحجوم متساوية للعينتين

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In this article we study the variance estimator for the normal distribution when the mean is un known depend of the cumulative function between unbiased estimator and Bays estimator for the variance of normal distribution which is used include Double Stage Shrunken estimator to obtain higher efficiency for the variance estimator of normal distribution when the mean is unknown by using small volume equal volume of two sample .

Keywords


Article
Frequency of HLA Antigens in a Sample of Iraqi Brucellosis Patients
تكرار مستضدات خلايا الدم البيض البشرية لعينة عراقية من مرضى داء البروسيلا

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Fifty one patients with serologically confirmed brucellosis and 70 healthy controls were phenotyped for HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ antigens by using standard microlympho-cytotoxicity method, and lymphocytes defined by their CD markers (CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD19). The results revealed a significant (Pc = 0.001) increased frequency of HLA-DR8 (41.18 vs. 10.0%) in the patients . A significant increased percentage of CD8+ lymphocytes was also increased in the patients (25.15 vs. 22.0%; P = 0.006), while CD3+ lymphocytes were significantly decreased (75.1 vs. 79.4%; P = 0.02).

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Brucellosis --- HLA --- CD markers


Article
The genetic inhibition of some pathogenic bacterial isolates related to Enterobacteriaceae by using Different leaves extracts of Cider (Nabag) Zizyphus spina-christa
التثبيط الوراثي لبعض الممرضات البكترية التابعة للعائلة المعوية Enterobacteriaceaeبا ستخدام مستخلصات اوراق نبات السدر (النبق) Zizyphus spina-christa

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The plant Zizyphus spina-christa grows wildly in the middle and southern of Iraq locally named Nabag. In this study the antibacterial activity of several different plant extract (alcoholic hot and cold extract 80%, aqueous hot and cold extract) was tested against some gram negative bacteria that related to Enterobacteriacea as follow; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherchia coli Proteus mirabilis, Serratia mercesence,. Aeromonas sp, Klebsiella pneumoniae ,Shigella sp, Salmonella enteritidis (134), S. typhi(97), S. typhimurium (300) , S. typhi, . The results showed that efficient method of extract was alcoholic hot extract from other extract methods that are used in this study. The detection of active compound in crude extracts of the leaves showed positive reaction for alkaloids, flavonoides, saponin, peptides, tannins and carbohydrates , while the aqueous hot and cold extract did not give any reaction against terpenes ,resins and coumarins . Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the ethanolic hot extracts of plants was determined and the results showed that MIC of S.typhi was 25 mg / ml and 250 mg/ml aganist Klebsiella pneumoniae Serratia mercesence , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , while other isolates showed variety in their inhibitory action. the ethanolic hot extracts of plants did not show any bacteriocidal effect against all bacteria that included in this study within concentration that used except S. typhi in concentration 50 mg/ml . The effect of Sub – MIC of the ethanolic hot extract of plant on the production of some virulence factors from selective isolates S. typhi ,showed an inhibitory effect on production of H2S but no effect on others characteristic such, mannitol and glucose fermenter at 20 mg / ml . The electrophoresis of plasmid DNA isolated from bacterial cell treated with, alcoholic hot extract at sub-MIC concentrations had a curing effect on the plasmid of S. typhi .Using infrared spectroscopy spectrum indicates the possible effect of alcoholic hot extract on the conformation of the DNA molecules affecting some of its biological functions.


Article
Allelopathic potential of Myrtle, Myrtus communis L. Upon some crops
التأثير الاليلوباثي لنبات الياس ضد بعض المحاصيل

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Many experiments were achieved to determine the allelopathic potential of the plant Myrtle parts in which it may affects other plants, like: volatile substances which released from the Myrtle leaves , and its effect examined on the germination (GE) and growth (GR) of the selected crops ; Chickpea ( C ) , Wheat(W) , and Lentil (L)., the aqueous extract of the leaf and the root of the plant examined to test its effect on the (GE) and (GR) of the selected crops ; (C) , (W) , and (L)., also plant residue of (M) and its effect tested on the (GE) and (GR) of the selected crops ; ( C ) , (W) , and (L) . Experiments proceeded on Spring 2007 in the greenhouse conditions , and main results which found were that; the effect of the volatile substances released from the Myrtle plant was so great and reached significant levels in all cases and with all tested crops .Whereas, the effect of the other pathways were only in an obvious states and only in the following cases reached a significant levels which were; - the case of the effect of the plant residue on the(GR) of root , shoot , and seedlings of the selected crops ; ( C ),(W) ,and ( L) .-the case of the effect of the plant residue on the (GR) of (W) seeds. The case of the effect of the aqueous extract of the root of the Myrtle plant on the (GE) of the (C ) seeds β- And finally, the case of the effect of the aqueous extract of the root on the (GR) of the root, shoot, and the seedlings of (L).


Article
C-Reactive Protein and Cholesterol level In Male Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
مستوى C-Reactive Protein والكولسترول في المرضى الذكور المصابين بداء السكري نوع 2

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Elevated C-Reactive Protein (CRP) level in serum is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes ,this relationship is likely to be the cause it means elevated CRP leads to T2D in future . Our objective was to examine CRP in male Type 2 Diabetes(T2D) patients in different age ,we studied 120 male subjects divided to two groups according to their age. First group A age (31 - 40) year old ,60 person )30 control & 30 T2D patients(,3 person for each same age: second group B age (41 – 50) years old ,60 person )30 control & 30 T2D patients(,3 person for each same age. We examined blood sugar ,cholesterol and CRP in each group. and we toke the mean of samples in the same age in each data in all the 4 groups. Our data shows that CRP raised significantly P≤0.05 in group A(T2D) and in group B(T2D) comparing with control group of each .And cholesterol levels, and sugar levels raised significantly P≤0.05 in group A(T2D) and in group B(T2D) comparing with control group of each. CRP ,Cholesterol and sugar are higher in group B(T2D) than in group A(T2D),and in group B (control) than in group A (control). CRP level can predict diabetes but not causal, diabetes may cause a kind of inflammation (showed by high CRP) by its effect on body and this effect (inflammation) may cause rising CRP level.


Article
The use of laurylamine hydrocholoride CH3(CH2)11 NH3 –Cl for secondary oil recovery
استخدام كلوريد أمين لوريل لاستخراج النفط الثانوي

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Laurylamine hydrochloride CH3(CH2)11 NH3 – Cl has been chosen from cationic surfactants to produce secondary oil using lab. model shown in fig. (1). The relationship between interfacial tension and (temperature, salinity and solution concentration) have been studied as shown in fig. (2, 3, 4) respectively. The optimum values of these three variables are taken (those values that give the lowest interfacial tension). Saturation, permeability and porosity are measured in the lab. The primary oil recovery was displaced by water injection until no more oil can be obtained, then laurylamine chloride is injected as a secondary oil recovery. The total oil recovery is 96.6% or 88.8% of the residual oil has been recovered by this technique as shown in fig. (5). This method was applied in an oil field and it gave approximate values close to that obtained in the lab.


Article
Oilfield Produced Water Management: Treatment, Reuse and Disposal
أدارة المياه المنتجه من الحقول النفطيه:المعالجه وأعادة الاستخدام والتخلص

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Produced water is accompanied with the production of oil and gas especially at the fields producing by water drive or water injection. The quantity of these waters is expected to be more complicated problem with an increasing in water cut which is expected to be 3-8 barrels water/produced barrel oil. Produced water may contain many constituents based on what is present in the subsurface at a particular location. Produced water contains dissolved solids and hydrocarbons (dissolved and suspended) and oxygen depletion. The most common dissolved solid is salt with concentrations range between a few parts per thousand to hundreds parts per thousand. In addition to salt, many produced waters also contain high levels of heavy metals like zinc, barium, chromium, lead, nickel, uranium, vanadium and low levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). This study will highlight the main aspects of the different international experiences with the produced water treatment for subsequent reuse or disposal. These different treatment methods vary considerably in effectiveness, cost and their environmental impacts. Samples of produced water from Al-Mishrif formation in ten wells belongs to five fields southern Iraq were taken and analyzed chemically to define the basic features of these waters and to have guide lines for the best strategy that required handling the increased water cut in these fields.


Article
Using fuzzy logic for estimating monthly pan evaporation from meteorological data in Emara/ South of Iraq
استخدام المنطق المضبب لتقدير التبخر الشهري من المعلومات المناخية في العماره/ جنوب العراق

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Evaporation is one of the major components of the hydrological cycle in the nature, thus its accurate estimation is so important in the planning and management of the irrigation practices and to assess water availability and requirements. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of fuzzy inference system for estimating monthly pan evaporation form meteorological data. The study has been carried out depending on 261 monthly measurements of each of temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and wind speed (W) which have been available in Emara meteorological station, southern Iraq. Three different fuzzy models comprising various combinations of monthly climatic variables (temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity) were developed to evaluate effect of each of these variables on estimation process. Two error statistics namely root mean squared error and coefficient of determination were used to measure the performance of the developed models. The results indicated that the model, whose input variables are T, W, and RH, perform the best for estimating evaporation values. In addition, the model which is dominated by (T) is significantly and distinctly helps to prove the predictive ability of fuzzy inference system. Furthermore, agreements of the results with the observed measurements indicate that fuzzy logic is adequate intelligent approach for modeling the dynamic of evaporation process.


Article
Effect of Temperature on Reliability and Degradation of 0.63μm Laser Diode
تأثير الحرارة على الموثوقية والتقادم الثنائي ليزر 0,63مايكروميتر

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The reliability of optical sources is strongly dependent on the degradation and device characteristics are critically dependent on temperature. The degradation behaviours and reliability test results for the laser diode device (Sony-DL3148-025) will be presented .These devices are usually highly reliable. The degradation behaviour was exhibited in several aging tests, and device lifetimes were then estimated. The temperature dependence of 0.63μm lasers was studied. An aging test with constant light power operation of 5mW was carried out at 10, 25, 50 and 70°C for 100hours. Lifetimes of the optical sources have greatly improved, and these optical sources can be applied to various types of transmission systems. Within this degradation range, the device life for system application is estimated to be more than 100 h at 70 ºC at a constant power of 5mW.


Article
A proposed Mathematical Expression for Computer Design of Electrostatic Mirror
اقتراح تعبير رياضي لتصميم حاسوبي لمرآة كهروسكونية

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A computational investigation has been carried out on the design and properties of the electrostatic mirror. In this research, we suggest a mathematical expression to represent the axial potential of an electrostatic mirror. The electron beam path under zero magnification condition had been investigated as mirror trajectory with the aid of fourth – order – Runge – Kutta method. The spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients of mirror has computed and normalized in terms of the focal length. The choice of the mirror depends on the operational requirements, i.e. each optical element in optical system has suffer from the chromatic aberration, for this case, it is use to operate the mirror in optical system at various values of chromatic aberration to correct it in that system.


Article
Adsorption Study for Trifluralin on Iraqi α –Alumina
دراسة امتزاز مبيد الترفلان على طين الفا- الومينا العراقي

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Abstract

Equilibrium adsorption isotherm for the removal of trifluralin from aqueous solutions using α –alumina clay has been studied. The result shows that the isotherms were S3 according Giels classification. The effects of various experimental parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dosage, effect of pH and temperature of trifluralin on the adsorption capacities have been investigated. The adsorption isotherms were obtained by obeying freundlich adsorption isotherm with (R2 = 0.91249-0.8149). The thermodynamic parameters have been calculated by using the adsorption process at five different temperature, the values of ∆H, ∆G and ∆S were (_1.0625) kj. mol-1, (7.628 - 7.831) kj.mol-1 and (_2.7966 - _2.9162) kg. k-1. mol-1 respectively. The kinetic study of adsorption process has been studied depending on three kinetic equations: 1- Allergen equation 2- Morris –weber eguation 3- Reichenberg eguation. In general, the result shows the isotherm were on α- alumina according to Giels classification. α –alumina and thermodynamic

Keywords

Trifluralin --- adsorbent


Article
Biochemical and Kinetic Studies on Alkaline Phosphatase and other Biochemical Features in Sera of Patients with type 2 Diabetes
دراسة كيمائية حياتية حركية لانزيم الالكلاين فوسفتيز وبعض العوامل الحياتية في امصال المرضى المصابين بالداء السكري النوع الثاني

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Abstract

Background :Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was a widely used marker for skeletal and hepatobiliary disorders, but its activity was also increased in atherosclerosis and peripheral vascular disease. Several study has showed that ALP activity was increased in the sera of diabetic patients. The current study was conducted to evaluate ALP activity in type 2 diabetic patients and optimum conditions for enzyme activity in their sera. Methods: This study was carried out at in AL-Yarmok hospital(diabetic center) between February /2009 and April /2009. Fifty two patients with type 2 diabetes have been enrolled. Besides BMI, WHR, serum fasting blood glucose, ALP, HbA1C,uric acid and lipid profile levels have been performed .The relationship between ALP and other biochemical factors have been studied. Results: From a total 52 cases, FBG, HbA1C and ALP were significantly elevated P value < 0.01 while Uric acid, Cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL,VLDL and LDL/HDL were significantly different P value < 0.05 in diabetic patients when compared with that found in control group . ALP was significantly associated with LDL (P < 0.05) and significantly negative correlation with HbA1C (P <0.05) in diabetic patients. There was different in pH optimum, Incubation time, Temperature, when determination of them in diabetic patients and control. Conclusions: The current study suggested that the different in ALP kinetic may be referred to another isoenzyme in sera of diabetes patients, and the present study suggested to seperate and characterize of ALP isoenzyme by using electorphoretic purification of enzymes.


Article
Synthesis of New Mannich Bases from Indole Derivatives
تحضير قواعد مانخ جديدة من مشتقات الاندول

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Abstract

This work includes two steps of synthesis, the first one is the synthesis of indole which was prepared according to literature of the reaction of phenyl hydrazine with acetaldehyde in glacial acetic acid afforded phenyl hydrazone of acetaldehyde , this product was fused with zinc chloride to give the indole.Reaction of cyclohexanone with phenyl hydrazine using the same procedure for the preparing giving 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydrocarbazole. Second step involved synthesis of a series of (17) of mannich bases derivatives of indole and 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydrocarbazle. Mannich reaction involves the condensation of aldehyde usually formaldehyde with different secondary amine and with compound containing an activated hydrogen.The reaction illustrated by the following equation : R2NH+HCHO+RH→R2N-CH2-R+H2O These compounds were characterized by U.V , FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectra for two compounds. The secondary amines that used to prepare mannich bases are: N-methyl –N-phenyl amine, N,N-dimethyl amine, N,N- diphenyl amine, N-ethyl –N- phenyl amine, N,N-di-n-propyl amine, pyrrolidine, morpholine, N- methyl pipyridine, N,N-dibenzyl amine, N,N-di –n-butyl amine and N,N-di ethyl amine.


Article
Synthesis and Spectral Studies of ZnII,CdII and HgII Complexes with 5-(2-Benzoic acid azo)-8-hydroxy quinoline Ligand
تحضير و دراسة طيفية لمعقدات الزنك (II) والكادميوم (II) والزئبق (II) مع ليكاند 5-(2-بنزويك اسد آزو )-8-هيدروكسي كوينوين

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Abstract

Coupling reaction of 2-amino benzoic acid with 8-hydroxy quinoline gave bidentate azo ligand. The prepared ligand has been identified by Microelemental Analysis,1HNMR,FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. Treatment of the prepared ligand with the following metal ions (ZnII,CdII and HgII) in aqueous ethanol with a 1:2 M:L ratio and at optimum pH, yielded a series of neutral complexes of the general formula [M(L)2]. The prepared complexes have been characterized by using flame atomic absorption, (C.H.N) Analysis, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods as well as conductivity measurements. The nature of the complexes formed were studied following the mole ratio and continuous variation methods, Beer's law obeyed over a concentration range (1× 10-4- 3 × 10-4 M). High molar absorbtivity of the complex solutions have been observed. The stability constant of the complexes has also been studied.

Keywords

Azo-dyes --- synthesis --- azo complexes

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