Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2011 volume:42 issue:6

Article
SPECTRAL CORRELATION OF LANDSAT IMAGE FOR SOME SOIL PROPERTIES IN DIYALA GOVERNORATE.
كفاءة بعض معادلات تحليل التداخل الوراثي × البيئي

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Abstract

Yield and other quantitative traits of crop plants, are among the most important in studying genotypes grown in multi-environments . In this kind of studies , it is important to differentiate the best genotype in term of performance and stability across environments . For the minor and multi- genes controlling quantitative traits, the traits of genotypes will be different from environment to another .Modern agriculture requires determining the stable and high performance genotype. Such kind of studies requires analyzing data according to a specific equation or model. In this article, ten known equations were applied on simulated data of 13 genotypes grown in eight environments. These equations were of those published and well –known in literature . There were three important attributes defined in this article . The first, is defining the Ideal genotype as the one of highest performance and 100% stability, the second is the Optimum genotype : the one gets closer to the Ideal in performance and stability, and it was given clear values to be visually identified, and the third is next Optimum genotype that comes after the Optimum . The simplest equation to identify stable genotype was: while only two equations succeeded to identify high performance and high stability genotype 1- Genotypic Resultant (GR) = ( 1- S.D / i.) × ( i. / ..) , 2- AMMI : Yger=μ + αg + βe + ∑λnζgn ήen + ρge + εger . Other equations, either faild to identify the Ideal or the Optimum, or next genotype to Optimum. Accordingly, the equations of Shukla, Wricke, Eberhard and Russell, Lin et al , and others, were of stat istical approaches that do not fit G×E interaction analyses.

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Article
TILLERING OF GRAIN SORGHUM AS AFFECTED BY CULTIVAR AND PLANT POPULATION DENSITY
التفريع في الذرة البيضاء الحبوبية بتأثير الصنف والكثافة النباتية

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A factorial experiment was conducted at the experimental farm, Dept. of Field Crop Sciences, College of Agriculture/Abu-Ghraib-University of Baghdad during the spring and fall seasons of 2009. The aim was to investigate the effect of plant population density27600, 53300, 107600 and 213300 plant. ha-1 Inqath, Rabeh, and Kaffir on the tillering characteristics and its relationship with grain yield and its components. Cultivars were significantly different in their tillers number during the life cycle in both seasons. Kaffir was superior in this character in each plant population density with the highest tiller number. The first plant density (27600 plant. ha-1) gave the highest average of produced tiller number. plant-1 compared with the fourth density (213300 plant. ha-1) which produced the lowest tiller number. plant-1 in both seasons. The cultivars were not significantly different in their grain yield. plant-1 in both seasons, but Kaffir was superiror in its grain yield only in the fall season.The first density (27600 plant. ha-1) gave the highest grain yield. plant-1 (88.32 and 92.38 g. plant-1) compared with (37.50 and 42.19 g. plant-1) for the fourth density in both seasons, respectively. However, the latter density gave the highest grain yield. ha-1 (8.00 and 9.00 t. ha-1) compared with (2.44 and 2.53 t. ha-1) for the former density. This was due to the highest number of plant. ha-1 in the highest fourth density. The contribution percentage of the main stems and tillers in the grain yield and biological yield plant-1 were different as cultivars and plant population densities differ.The contribution percentage of the main stems in Inqath Cultivar (96.84 and 98.93%) and the lowest contribution of the tillers for the same Cultivar (3.16 and 1.07%)in both seasons, respectively. By contrast The contribution of main stem of Kaffir was the lowest but the contribution of tillers was increased in both seasons, respectively. The performance of cultivars and plant densities in the trend and amount of the main stems and tillers contribution in the biological yield. plant-1 was similar as in the grain yield. It is concluded that the tillering of all cultivars in this study was limited with very low percentage of contribution in the grain and biological yields. Therefore, it is recommended to find either monoculm cultivars of sorghum as in maize through breeding programmes or growing sorghum in clumps to restrict tiller formation.

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Article
RELATION OF IRRIGATION WATR SALINITY TO OLIVE LEAVES CONTENT OF PROLINE AND MINERAL NUTRIENTS
علاقة ملوحة مياه الري بمحتوى اوراق الزيتون من البرولين والعناصر المعدنية

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Abstract

experiment was conducted in the lath house, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Universityof Baghdad. to study the influence of water salinity levels on chlorophyll, proline and nutrient elementscontent in olive leaves .Olive seedlings two years old were planted in containers with capacity of 18 kg growing media. the experiment included 36 treatment .with two experiment of factors , fours levels of water salinity 2,4,6,8 dsm-1 and three cvs., Khudari ,Sorrani and Kassi. The influence of these two factors and their interaction on chlorophyll ,proline and nutrient elements content in the leavesof olive seedling were studied. Chlorophyll content in olive leaveswas increased by 22.1 when Sorrani variety was irrigated with saline water at 2 dsm-1 while the lowest chlorophyll of 18.1 was found when Khudri variety were irrigated with 8 dsm-1salinity levels .the salinity levels also significantly influenced proline content in the leaves. The highest increment in proline content of 1075 found when Sorrani cv., were irrigated with water at 8 dsm-1 salinity level, while the lowest increment of 91.40 found when Khudarri cv. was irrigated with 2 dsm-1 water salinity. The salinity level of irrigation water significantly influenced the nitrogen, phosphorus ,potassium, calcium amagnesium content in olive leaves .Irrigation with water at 2 ds. m-1 salinity level gave significantly highest increment of 54.4,64.1,230.7,49.4 and 107.6 respectively in the Sorrani cv. ,while water salinity of 8 ds.m-1 gave the lowest increment of thes parameters 36.0, 39.0,69.7,0.518 and 33.0 respectively in the Khudari cv. .The water salinity levels significantly influenced sodium and chloride content in olive leaves the highest increment of 111.2 and 122.0 were found when water salinity of 8 ds.m-1 was used to irrigated Khudari cv. seedling while the lowest increment of 52.6and 54.9 were found when seedling of Sorrani cv. were irrigated with 2 ds.m-1 water salinity respectively.

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Article
RELATION OF IRRIGATION WATER SALINITY TO SOME VEGETATIVE CHARACTERS OF OLIVE
علاقة ملوحة مياه الري ببعض صفات النمو الخضري للزيتون

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Abstract

This experiment was conducted in the lath house , Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad to investigate the influence of wat salinity levels on the vegetative character of three olive seedlings Khudari ,Sorrani and Kassi,the highest of plant,the diameter of the stem ,number of branches,number of leaves, leaf area , fresh and dry weight of the vegetative part and the roots. two years old were planted in a containers with 18 kg growing media ,Three cvs. , Khudari , Sorrani and Kassi with five levels of water salinity 2,4,6,8 dSm-1 . The water salinity of 2 dSm-1 significantly increased the vegetative characters , while the levels 4,6,8 dSm-1 significantly decreased these characters ,there were significant differences between olive cvs.. The salinity level of 2 dSm-1 significant induced average height and diameter of main stem up to 91.13 cm and 1.48 cm for the characters respectively ,while the salinity levels of 8 dSm-1 gave the lowest valuesof 49.0 cmand 0.19 cm respectively in the khudari cv.Irrigating the Sorrani cv.with 2dSm-1water salinity significantly overcome the Khudari variety when irrigated with 8 dSm-1 level of salinity in the following characters the averages of the number of branches/plant ,number of leaves . leaf area , the fresh weight of the vegetative parts and roots increment of 1313.9%, 178.55% ,726.19%, 13.28% and 23.30% respectively. And conclude from the study attributes vegetative of olive varieties under study differ significantly in the degree of tolerance to salinity because of the variability in genotypes and possess different mechanisms to bear the stress of saline. On this basis, we recommend inour study to the growing class Sourani in soils affected by salinity because it is classified tolerant to salinity.

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Article
IMPROVING YIELD AND STORAGE LIFE OF OYSTER MUSHROOM USING MINERAL AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS
تحسين القابلية الإنتاجية والخزنية للفطر ألمحاري باستخدام المغذيات المعدنية والعضوية

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This study was conducted at the mushroom Production unit, Dept.of Hort. Univ.of Baghdad in the first of Nov. / 2010.Oyster mushroom P.ostreatus spawn was imported from Jordan . Mushroom spawn at arte of 5% added to sterilized and moist wheat straw and incubated at 25± 2C°, transferred to propagation room after one month at 25 ± 2C° at, RH 80-90 % and light intensity 400 Lux. Two kind of mineral fertilizers were, King Life and Nap nutria.King Life as powder, used at the following concentrations, 0,10,20,40 g/l .The second fertilizer was used at(The concentrations,0,10,20,40ml/l. ) The organic fertilizers Pow humus and Liq humus were used at following concentrations , 0,1,10,20 ml/l .the fertilizer was injected inside each bag. with 50 ml of each concentration using plastic syringe at the end of incubation period .The results showed that there were no significant effects of the mineral fertilizers on the yield and the biological efficiency of mushroom .While the organic fertilizers increased yield and biological efficiency at 20 ml/l to 864g/kg and 135.85 g/kg of substrate and 86.43% , respectively .when Pow humus was used . While Liq humus gave 639.77 gm/kg and 101.90 gm/kg of substrate and 63.90 %, respectively.It was concluded from these results that oyster mushroom has asignificant response to organic fertilizer.Thus we recommend using organic fertilizers when producing this species of mushroom .

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Article
PERFORMANCE AND HERITABILITY OF SOME TRAITS OF INTRODUCED BARLEY CULTIVARS.
أداء وتوريث بعض الصفات لأصناف من الشعير المدخلة

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To evaluate the productivity performance of some introduced Australian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes for the mid- region of Iraq. Field experiments were conducted at the Grain Crops Experimental Station / Ministry of Sciences and Technology at Toweatha District. Ten genotypes (C/50, C/63, D/21, D/24, D30, CA2-38, CB2-38, B3-38, A2-40 and B3-40) with the control cultivar Arivat were evaluated for two seasons (2009-2010, and 2010-2011). The experimental design was a RCBD with three replicates. The characters studied were plant height, number of spikes / plant, number of seeds per spike, seed weights (weight of 1000 grain), grain yield/plant, and grain yield kg. ha-1. The results showed that some genotypes showed superiority in some characters, the genotype B3-38 gave higher plant height (109, and 112 cm) for both years respectively, while the genotype B3-40 gave higher number of spike/plant (10.1 and 9.2) , and higher number of seeds/plants (380,and 367 seeds/ plant)for both years respectively. The genotype C/63 significantly produced more seed weights per plant (14.4 gm) in 2009-2010, and genotype D/30 produce 13.52 gm/plant in 2009. The genotype D/30 was significantly higher than other genotypes in the weight of 1000 seed for both years. For seeds yield, the genotype C/63 gave higher grain yield of 3800 kg ha-1in 2009-2010, and genotype D/30 (2920 kg. ha -1) in 2010-2011. The results indicate that most of the introduced genotypes were better than local variety in most of the characters studied. Thus, This suggest that use of these genotypes in multi-location trials for identification of the wide and narrow adapted genotypes then we have to prove their yield productivity and their tolerance for the new environments and the resistance to the pathogenesis . the higher broad sense heritability were 0.97 and0.98 for number grain per plant and weight thousand respectively these parameters used for improving introduced cultivars, because of higher genetic variance and lower environment variance .

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Article
DETECTION OF FUSARIUM SECTION LISEOLA THE CAUSAL OF MAIZE KERNEL ROT
الكشف عن أنواع الجنس فيوزاريوم قسم لاسيولا المسببة لمرض تعفن حبوب الذرة الصفراء

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This study has been carried out to detect Fusarium sction liseola specie which were associated with maize seeds ,determine their percentage of existence and test their pathogenicity. The results of isolation and identification of fungi from seed in six fields and stores in Baghdad, Babylon and Wasit governorates showed that there were 15 species of fungi associated with seeds, the identification of five species belong to section liseola (F.nygami, Fproliferatum ,F.subglutinans ,F.thapsinum and F. verticillioides) were considered the first record on maize seeds in Iraq. The existence of these species in samples was variable, F.proliferatum and F.verticillioides were the most frequently encountered with frequency percentage of 28 and 54% respectively. Preliminary test to detect the pathogenic isolates of Fusarium species(F.culmorum ,F.nygami, Fproliferatum ,F.subglutinans ,Fthapsinum and F. verticillioides)by soaking injured and un injured seeds in spore suspension of 20 isolates of Fusarium showed that all tested isolates significantly reduced seed germination compared with control treatment. The isolates were different in their pathogenicity, F.proliferatum (FPH20)and F. verticillioides (FVH19) isolates showed the highest percentage of reduction in injured and uninjured seeds Results of treatment of pot soils with spore suspension of ten pathogenic Fusarium species isolates under glasshouse conditions showed that all the isolates significant reduction in percentage of germinated seeds and in shoot and root length and dry weight of maize seedlings compared with control treatment. The two isolates of F.verticilloides (FVH19) and F.proliferatum (FPH20) were the most virulent.

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Article
KNOWLEDGE LEVEL OF POTATO FARMERS IN CROP MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND ITS RELATINSHIP TO SOME FACTORS IN AL – HAFRIAH COMMUNITY IN WASIT PROVININCE
المستوى المعرفي لزراع البطاطا لعمليات خدمة المحصول وعلاقته ببعض العوامل في ناحية الحفرية

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This research was conducted to study the knowledge level of potato farmers in agricultural practices of crop and considers the key point in preparing and planning of programs and conducting the successfull extension activity in the field of potato crop practices . This field has an important and active effect for increasing the productivity of the crop, The objectives of this study were identify the knowledge level of potato farmers at Al- Hafriah county for agricultural practices and to identify the knowledge level of potato farmers in all aspects of crop management ,represented by (tillage , seeds quantity , time of planting, fertilizers , planting method , irrigation , sequences , crop protection ,harvesting and marketing ), as well as discovering the relationship between the knowledge level and each of the independent factors: age ,educational study , years in planting practice , area planted with potato ,productivity average , contribution of potato cultivation in annual income and sources of in formation .The community of this study included 240 potato farmers a random sample of 60 (25)%farmers were selected to measure the knowledge level of potato farmers which consisted of 66 items divided into10 axis by giving on degree for corrected item and zero for the wrong item .which it means the highest degree was 66 and the lowest degree was zero. The results of the study showed that the knowledge level of potato farmers were below the mid to low level, There was a significant relationship between knowledge level and each of : age, educational study , years in potato planting practice ,area planted ,productivity average and contribution of potato cultivation in annual income and non significant relationship with in formation sources .The conclusion of this study the shortage of the activity given to the farmers had negatively affected the knowledge level of potato farmers , which result in lower productivity as compared with neighbunrhaod countries.The research recommend to intisify the extensional activity, and giving full support to farmers and encouraging the local production .

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Article
INFLUENCE OF ADDING WATER TO TRACTOR'S REAR WHEELS TO RAINSING MOLD BOARD PLOW'S PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY
أثر إضافة الماء للعجلات الخلفية للجرار لزيادة كفاءة أداء المحراث المطرحي

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Article
AVAILABILITY OF PHOSPHORUS UNDER APPLIED PHOSPHATE AND PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA
جاهزية الفسفور بأضافة الفوسفات والبكتريا المذيبة له

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The aim of this experiment was to improve phosphate solubilizing activity of Bacillus megaterium which applied to the soil as inoculant , and its response to different phosphate fertilizer compounds , due to existence of the phosphorus in an unavailable and fixed form state . That stress to apply further quantity of soil phosphorus fertilizer to obtain of maximum production . Also to evaluate of the agronomic efficiency of phosphate fertilizers in a known ecological situation and to obtain maximum yield , especially when applied P-fertilizer differ in ratio and kind . The aim of this evaluation is to appropriate choice of a convenient P-fertilizer ,which can take place due to large number of new sources which have appeared on the market . The study was undertaken to measure the efficiency of mentioned genus of Bacteria to solubilize phosphate from the modern phosphate fertilizer source exist in the market which consist of N P K and minor elements and from an ordinary known P fertilizer ( KH2PO4 and T S P ) , by consecutive measuring P- available in the soil .The results showed a significant increase in phosphorus availability in both , fertilized and inoculated in Bacillus megaterium treatments of KH2PO4 , T S P as compared to treated with a newly modern P fertilizer Sangrad which didn’t show positive effect in soil phosphorus availability , under sandy soil texture and natural environmental incubation which lasted 50 days after inoculation .

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Article
EFFECT OF NITROGLYCERIN ON IN VITRO MATURATIONOF SHEEP OOCYTES
تأثير النايتروكليسرين في انضاج بويضات الاغنام مختبرياً

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ABSTRACT
This Study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations of nitroglycerine (NTG) (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.3 AND 0.5 µM) supplied with two types of culture media (Roswell Park Memorial Institute – 1640; RPMI- 1640 and simple medium for assisted reproductive technology; SMART on in vitro maturation (IVM) of sheep oocytes. This study was executed in the laboratories of the Institute of Embryo Research and Infertility Treatment / AL- Nahrain University during the period from December, 2009 to June, 2010. The ovine ovaries were used as a source of oocytes. oocytes were collected using aspiration technique. One thousand and three hundred and twenty four oocytes were collected from 844 ovaries obtained from local abattoir. Most of recovered collected oocytes were immature (1139 oocytes). A significant ( p< 0.05) increase in IVM oocytes with using 0.05 and 0.1 µM of NTG supplied with RPMI – 1640 as compared with control and other treated groups . On the other hand, using of SMART in comparison with 0.05µ M NTG lead to an obvious (p < 0.05) increases in IVM oocytes as compared with the control and remaining treated groups. In conclusion, using 0.05 and 0.1µM of NTG within RPMI-1640 medium produces improvement in the percentages of IVM as well as Enrichment 0.05µM of NTG to SMART medium produced increases percentages of IVM, while supplemented 0.5 µM of NTG to RPMI-1640 and SMART media produced decreases percentages of IVMP

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Article
THE EFFICACY OF FOUR SEED POWDERS ON SOME BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MORTALITY OF KHAPRA BEETLE
تأثيرمساحيق اربعة بذور في بعض الاوجه الحياتيه وموت خنفساء الخابرا

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ABSTRACT
The seed powders of four plants; harmal Harmal peganum L., black pepper Piper nigrum L., radish Raphanus sativus L. and celery Apinum graveolens L. were tested at the concentrations 2%, 4% and 6% to evaluate their effects on some biological aspects and mortality of Trogoderma granarium Everts. The results indicated that the seed powders had toxic effects. They had significant effect on adult mortality. There were significant differences between treatments, concentrations and periods of exposure at 5%. The highest mortality was 96.6, recorded in celery treatment at concentration of 6 % and 6 days of exposure, followed by pepper 83.3% , radish 76.6%, and harmal 73.3%. Seed powders had also moderate repellent action against adult insects. There were significant differences between treatments and concentrations at 5%. The highest repellent percentage was 40%, occurred in celery treatment at concentration of 6% and period of exposure of 24 hours, followed by pepper 34.6 %, radish 33.3% and harmal 30%. No repellency and mortality noticed in control. Seed powders had also significant effect on decreasing average number of F1 progeny. There were significant differences between treatments, concentrations at 5%. The number of F1 progeny found in celery treatment at concentration of 6% was zero, followed by pepper 23, radish 31 and harmal 56. Whereas in the control was 78. The seed powders disrupted the life cycle of the insect resulting in prolonging the period of F1 adult appearance; the periods were 20 days for control, 26 days for harmal and radish, no adult appearance in pepper and celery even after 34 days. The result showed that the seed powders had significant effect on mortality, repellency and reduction of progeny. Thus more studies on these plant species are needed to establish their potential sources which might used for stored product protection.

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