Table of content

Journal of the Faculty of Medicine

مجلة كلية الطب

ISSN: 00419419
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access


Journal of the Faculty of Medicine – University of Baghdad

A peer- reviewed journal published Quarterly by the college of medicine –Baghdad University

ISSN: 0041-9419

E-ISSN 2410-8057

The Journal interested in publication of clinical and basic medical research.

The first issue of this Journal was published under the name of (Journal of the Royal Iraqi Medical College) in April /1936, approved by the council of the College as a general journal dealing with the news of the college and few scientific articles to encourage the teaching staff for research publication. The journal was published randomly and ceased during World War II due to financial difficulties.
In 1946 Prof. Dr. Hashim Al Witri, the college dean, assigned republication of the journal and urged the teaching staff to participate and publish their research in the journal. Despite his effort the journal remained irregular in publication. In 1959 Prof. Dr. Faisal Al-Sabih became the Editor in Chief of the journal when he returned from the United Kingdom and appointed on the teaching staff, restructured the journal and changed its name to (The Journal of the Faculty of Medicine) and used new scientific system for publication of articles.
The first issue of the new series started in June 1959. The journal continued to be published on a regular basis since then without interruption in (four issues during the year). The journal became registered the international number (ISSN) in 2000 and entered in many important international indexes.
After 2003 the journal continued despite the difficulties involved in every aspect of the country and by the beginning of 2004 the journal progressed through a series of changes to reach a level that can be recognized internationally.
After 2010 the journal became published electronically of the same edited issues.
Recently the journal became recognized by the (Index Copernicus) and publicised internationaly.

Contact info

Table of content: 2008 volume:50 issue:2

Congenital coronary anomalies in Iraqi adult population


Background: Geographic variations in the incidence of different congenital coronary
anomalies are well known, but infrequently studied in the Iraqi population.
Recognition of coronary anomalies is important in patients undergoing coronary
arteriogrphy; coronary interventions and cardiac surgery .Variation in the frequency
of primary congenital coronary anomalies may possibly have a genetic background.
Patients and methods: Three thousands adult patients underwent diagnostic
coronary angiography at two cardiac centers in Baghdad between January 2003 to
March 2006. Their angiographic films were reviewed by at least two experts in
coronary angiographic study.
Results: Among 3000 adult patients who underwent diagnostic coronary
angiography, 28(0.93%) patients (16 males, 12 females) had anomalous coronary
artery. The mean age was 46±8 years (range from 28-73 years).Twenty four patients
(85%) had anomalies of origin and distribution, while the remaining four (15%) had
coronary artery fistulae. Abnormal origin of the left circumflex was the most common
anomaly, seen in 17(60%) patients. Coronary artery fistula was seen in four patients;
from the left anterior coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk in two cases and from
the right coronary to the pulmonary trunk in the other cases. Left main stem was
absent in four cases (15%).While abnormal origin of the right coronary artery from
the left circumflex was seen in two cases. Abnormal origin of the right coronary
artery from the pulmonary artery was seen in just one case (3.5%). Atherosclerotic
plaques in the anomalous artery were seen in four cases (15%) much less than overall
case of coronary artery disease in those who underwent coronary angiography (60%).
Conclusion: Isolated congenital coronary anomalies in adult is rare and there does
not appear to be an increased risk for development of atherosclerosis in anomalous
coronary arteries.

Acute renal failure in children under two years of age

Authors: Nariman Fahmi Ahmed
Pages: 139-144

Background: Acute renal failure (ARF) in children is a catastrophic, life -threatening
Aim of the study: the aim of the present study is to find out the etiology and outcome
of patients with acute renal failure below two years of age admitted to the hospital.
Patients and methods: A prospective study was carried out on children below 2
years of age (with exclusion of neonatal period) presented with acute renal shut down
admitted to Children Welfare Teaching Hospital during the period from Jan. 1st
Results: the study group included 100 patients with acute renal failure, 69 males and
31 females with M/F ratio 2.2:1.Age range was between (2 months - 2 years).
Prerenal ARF was the commonest type seen in 67(67%) patients and hypovolemia
due to (gastrointestinal loss) was the prominent etiology it was found in 53(53%)
cases. ARF due to renal and post-renal causes found in 21(21%) and 12(12%) cases
respectively, six (6%) patients only presented with non-Oligouria.
Forty four patients (44%) required peritoneal dialysis, while(56)patients improved on
conservative management only and most of them (53 %) were the pre-renal group.
Ninety two (92%) patients had either complete or partial recovery of their renal
function, eight (8%) patients died from ARF.
Conclusion: prerenal ARF particularly hypovolemia secondary to gastrointestinal
loss was the most common causative group of ARF in our patients, with good
prognosis for the recovery of renal function in most patients. To evaluate and validate
markers of acute kidney injury more prospective clinical studies required.



Background: Bronchiolitis is the first episode of wheezing associated with low grade
fever, rhinitis, tachypnea, and increasing respiratory effort in a previously healthy
infant during the winter months, and it is the most common lower respiratory tract
infection in infancy.
Objectives: This study is designed to analyze the clinical signs and symptoms alone
or as combinations as possible predictors of severe hypoxemia in infants with
Patients and methods: This is a prospective study, which was carried out on 96
infants with a mean age of 7.74 ،ہ3.72 months who were admitted to Children
Welfare Teaching Hospital in Medical City-Baghdad with bronchiolitis during the
period from 1st
October 2006 to the 15th
March 2007. They are divided into two
groups: group one 46 cases (oxygen saturation (SaO2<90) and group two, 50 cases
(SaO2،ف90).Complete history taken from care taker and full examination done for each
patient. A portable oximeter was used to measure oxygen saturation.
Results: Forty nine (51%) of patients were males and 47 were females (49%), with
male to female ratio of 1.04:1. The mean age was (7.745،ہ3.7) months. The mean
oxygen saturation was (90%), with a median of (84.7%) and a range of (76%-89%) in
group one (SaO2<90), while it was (95.32%) with a range of (90%-99%) in group two
Conclusions: Reduced ability to feed, sleep disturbances, hypotonia and clinical
signs as suprasternal retractions, continuous nasal flaring, tachypnea, grunting, head
nodding and cyanosis appeared to be statistically highly significant in this study as
predictors of severe hypoxemia. Combinations of signs and symptoms that showed
statistically significant association with severe hypoxemia were: grunting or head
nodding, cyanosis or head nodding, tachypnea or sleep disturbance, tachypnea or
suprasternal retractions, and tachypnea or head nodding (p.value <0.0001) for all
mentioned combinations, So we recommend to use these combinations of signs and
symptoms as significant predictors of severe hypoxemia especially when pulse
oximetry is not available.

The Effect of Omeprazol in the Treatment of LaryngealManifestations of Gastro-oesophageal Reflux


Background: Reflux laryngitis has gain a lot of attention in the last three decades as
a possible explanation of idiopathic laryngeal problems.Acid suppressive therapy can
be of use in both the therapeutic and the diagnostic fields.The use of Omeprazole has
proved to be of benefit in the diagnosis and treatment of reflux laryngitis.The
response to 12weeks course of Omeprazole is considered by many authors to be one
of the diagnostic tooles of reflux laryngitis.
Aim: Is to study the effect of Omeprazole in the treatment of laryngeal
manifestations of gastro-oesophageal reflux
Patients and methods: This is a prospective study of 37 patients attending Al-
kadhimiyah teaching hospital,department of otolalyngology during the period from
April 2005 to April 2006,complaining of symptoms suggestive of reflux
laryngitis.The chief compliant of each patient was taken as a reference for the
improvment.Complete clinical examination was done for each patient as well as
videolaryngoscopy.Oesophagogastroscope was done at the department of
According to the findings seen in those patients,a course of Omeprazole 20mg bid
was given for 12 weeks.Re-examenation including videolaryngoscopy was done at
weeks of treatment.Oesophago-
gastroscopy was repeated at 12th
week of treatment.
Resultst: There was symptomatic improvement in the chief complaint and
improvement in the videolaryngoscopic findings in 29patients(78.38%)at the end of
treatment course with omeprazole.
Conclusion: We found that Omeprazole is effective in producing symptomatic relief
in the chief complaint in 78.38% of patients at the end of treatment course.

Effect of hypertension on diabetic peripheral neuropathy

Authors: Ihsan M. Ajeena
Pages: 160-165

Back ground: Two groups of diabetic patients ((the first include 20 patients
complaining from diabetes mellitus alone, and the second include patients that
complain from both hypertension and diabetes mellitus)) were included in this
study. These patients were chosen((from a large number of patients, with a proved
diagnosis, that are referred to the neurophysiology unit from the department of
medicine)) to be of the same age group and gender, so that any of these two factors
can no longer be a source of any possible error in the results.
Patients & methods: The electrophysiological tests that were done to all of our
patients include: sensory latency and sensory amplitude for the ulnar and sural
nerves, also the distal motor latency, motor conduction velocity and motor
amplitude for both ulnar and common peroneal nerves.
Results: The results show that the second patient group is affected more by the
peripheral neuropathy and their neuropathy was widely spread and its underlying
cause is the worse.
Conclusions: results indicate that hypertensive disease increase the deterioration of
the peripheral nerve function in diabetic patients.

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Eye Problems among 20-65Years Old Iraqi Diabetics Patients


Background: Diabetes is a chronic illness that requires continuing medical care to
prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complication. Eye
diseases are the most feared complication of diabetes. The main disorders include
diabetic retinopathy, cataracts and glaucoma. Early detection of these conditions is
important to avoid risk of vision affection or even blindness.
Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors for eye
problems among 20-65 years old diabetics' patients.
Methods: We studied 2540 diabetic patients selected from the Specialized Center for
Endocrinology & Diabetes and the National Center for Treatment & Research of
Diabetes in Al-Mustanseria Collage of Medicine from the 1st
of January, 2004 to the
of December, 2005. Structured questionnaires, full ophalmological examination
were used to determine the prevalence of eye problems with their risk factors.
Results: It was found that the prevalence of eye complications in the study sample
was 45.4%, 30.2%, 14.6 and 3%, for reduction in visual acuity, retinopathy, cataract
and glaucoma respectively. These ocular manifestations are common and cause a
significant deterioration in the vision. Age, family history, duration of diabetic
disease, smoking, and presence of chronic diseases (hypertension&or ischemic heart
disease), were found to be the main risk factors for the above complications which in
turn lead to reduction in the visual acuity in diabetic patients.
Conclusions: These ocular manifestations are common in diabetic patients and cause
a significant deterioration in the vision. Regular ophthalmology, including slit-lamp
examination, fundus examination and regular measurement of the intraocular
pressure, are necessary for the early detection and management of potential

Prevalence of hydatid cyst in human and animals in Sulaimaniyacity and Saedsadq distract


Background: Hydatid disease is widespread and considered endemic in the Middle
East and the Mediterranean, Iraq is one of the countries with a high endemicity of this
Objectives: The aim of this study is to diagnose hydatidosis and to identify the
prevalence in human and animals in two different areas Sulaimaniya governorate
which include Sulaimaniya city and Saedsadq district.,
Methods: Seroepidemiological survey was conducted by using enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Indirect Haemagglutination IHA to detect anti
Echinococcus granulosus antibody in random blood samples (536) of different sex,
ages, and occupation out patients, in Sulaimaniya and Saedsadq. In the animal study
inspection and examination of the internal organs (liver, lungs, spleen and heart)
Results: The Seropositivty in Saedsadq was higher( 3.7% )than in Sulaimaniya(
2.5%), and in female (2.8%, 6.4%) were higher than in male (1.6%, 1.2%)
respectively both in Sulaimaniya and Saedsadq. In animal study results revealed that
In Sulaimaniya infection rates were (1.5% of sheep, 0.5% of goats and 0.2% of
cattle), less than in Saedsadq (7.5%, 2.8% and 1.7%) respectively,
Conclusion: The seropositive was higher in Saedsadq than Sulaimaniya , and higher
among females than males in all age groups. The prevalence and fertility of hydatid
cysts in sheep is higher than goat and cattle, sheep. Liver is the main involved organ.

Effect of Hemodialysis On Plasma Osmolarity In Patients WithChronic Renal Failure


Back ground: The study was conducted on fifty patients (27 males and 20 females)
with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD), at
artificial Kidney unit, Al- Hakeem Hospital / Najaf, during the perioed from April
to June 2008.
Patients & methods: Plasma osmolarity ( Posm), plasma creatinine (P cr ) plasma
urea (P urea)>plasma sodium (P Na)and plasma potassium ( P k )were measured for
all patients before and after dialysis.
Results: The paired t -test was used to compare the pre-dialysis values with the
post dialysis values and simple linear correlation to study the relation between (P
Na), and ( Posm), p values less than 0.05 considered not significant. The result of
study showed a significant decrease in the means of P Na , P k, P cr, P urea and Posm
after dialysis in comparison with the pre-dialysis values ( p<0.0001). There was
also a significant positive correlation between P Na and Posm (r=0.30,p<0.05)
Conclusions: HD had a significant regulatory effect on body fluids and electrolytes
ratio,Posm and removal of uremic toxins in patients with CRF, the study also reviled
that Posm may be another useful indicator of body fluids and electrolytes status
among these patients

Analysis of Data Obtained From Chromosomal StudiesPerformed During the Period from 2000-2007A Retrospective Study

Authors: Bassam Musa Sadik ,
Pages: 187-193

Generally, genetic disorders are a leading cause of spontaneous abortion, neonatal
death, increased morbidity and mortality in children and adults as well. They a
significant health care and psychosocial burden for the patient, the family, the
healthcare system and the community as a whole. Chromosomal abnormalities
occur much more frequently than is generally appreciated. It is estimated that
approximately 1 of 200 newborn infants had some form of chromosomal
abnormality. The figure is much higher in fetuses that do not survive to term. It is
estimated that in 50% of first trimester abortions, the fetus has a chromosomal
Aim of the study:
This study aims to shed some light on the results of chromosomal studies
performed during 7 year-period as these represent a sample of the only registered
data available on genetic disorders in Iraq.
Patients and Methods:
For the period extending from Jan. 1st
, 2000 till Jan. 1st
, 2007, among all cases
referred to the Genetic Clinic, Consultation Clinic, Medical City in Baghdad, Iraq,
only those cases indicated for chromosomal study for diagnosis and then genetic
counseling were included in this study; they were grouped and then subgrouped
During the study period, 1720 cases needed chromosomal study for the sake of
genetic counseling out of around 5000-8000 cases referred to the clinic during the
same period. Mothers having an abnormal child or adverse pregnancy outcome
constituted 30.79% of all cases included, followed by the group of children with
multiple congenital abnormalities (20.14%), and then cases with primary
amenorrhoea (13.97%) and ambiguous genitalia (13.5%). The overall positive
findings in the chromosomal studies were 217/1720 (12.61%).
Genetic disorders have a great impact on the practice of medicine in all specialties
in Iraq. There is a need for a new policy for indications of karyotyping, especially
at times of stress.

creation Of Inter Implants / Inter Dental Papillae After Scalloping Of Crest Bone Of The Jaws (New Technique)

Authors: Munther M. Radhi
Pages: 194-198

Background: The aims of this study is to determine the success of creating an inter implant / inter dental papillae after scalloping the crest of the jaw bones before placement of dental implant and compare this new technique with other techniques for creation of inter dental/inter implant papillae MATERIALS AND METHODS: A fifty five dental implantation were carried out for twenty one patients . Two stage dental implantation technique was done for all the patients .In this new technique scalloping of the bone was carried out before placement of the dental implant . RESULTS: The results of the present study indicates that the scalloping of the crest bone is consider as a best method for creation of inter implant / inter dental papillae and achieving an esthetically satisfying result before placement of the dental implants.. CONCLUSIONS: Scalloping of the crest bone make a good foundations that are essential for maintaining/creating papilla.


Influence of Removable Orthodontic Appliance Dr. Saba Fouad Jaburon Oral Microbiological Status

Authors: Saba Fouad Jabur
Pages: 199-202

Background: the placement of orthodontic appliances creates a favorable
environment for the accumulation of microbiota, therefore this study is to assess
the relationship between removable orthodontic appliance and oral microflora.
Materials and methods: a sample 45 patients who come to orthodontic
department at the collage of dentistry/Baghdad university, divided into 3 groups:
group 1 (15) without appliance, group2 (15) with appliance for 2 weeks-2 months,
and group 3 (15) with appliance for 2 -4 months, then examine the oral microflora
and compared between the 3 groups.
Results: the result showed eleven types of microorganisms appear in group 3 then
followed by seven types in group 2 but only three types of microorganisms in
group 1.
Conclusion: there is need to educate the patients who received orthodontic
appliance about their oral hygiene because oral microflora were changed among
orthodontic patients.

Kala-azar in Qadisiah : A clinicoepidemiological descriptive study

Authors: Mohammed
Pages: 203-210

Subject and Method : study involved sixty five children with kala-azar who were admitted to the maternity and children teaching hospital in Diwaniah during a one year period , 1999. The clinical and epidemiological criteria of the disease were discussed. The majority of these patients were under the age of 5 years ( 97% ) and were from rural areas ( 86% ) Result : The symptoms and signs of the disease were fever (100% ), splenomegaly (100% ), anaemia ( 100% ), hepatomegaly ( 92% ), anorexia ( 62% ), bleeding tendency ( 46% ) and jaundice ( 31% ). Our patients had high incidence of bleeding tendency , jaundice , edema and relatively high mortality in comparison with patients elsewhere


Evaluation of cryoprecipitate as part of The qualityassurance in the Iraqi National Blood Transfusion Centre

Authors: Saad Shawqi Mansoor
Pages: 211-218

Background:- Cryoprecipitate (CRYO) is the cold- precipitated concentration of factor VIII , it is prepared from fresh frozen plasma (FFP) by rapid freezing within six hours of collection and thawed slowly between 1 - 6 Cº and removed from the supernatant . The product contain most of F VIII and part of fibrinogen from the original plasma as well as F XIII Von Willebrand (vWF) and fibronectin Aim of the study: -This study is conducted to provide more information about significant contents of cryoprecipitates in regard to factor VIII, fibrinogen, and von Willebrand factor as part of the quality assurance in blood transfusion centers and to provide competent and efficient therapeutic materials to patients with bleeding disorders. Materials and Methods: -In this study 98 samples were taken from the Iraqi blood donors at National Blood Transfusion Centre ( NBTC ) within 9 months from October 2005 to the end of June 2006. The samples were arranged in two groups. Group I; 56 random samples of CRYO of different blood groups (before modification) were used , of them 28 bags were used for FVIII and 22 bags for fibrinogen measurement . Another 25 bags were used for to measure vWF before and after processing . Group II-A :- 16 random plasma bags were pooled together and divided into 15 bags each containing 200 ml of plasma which were frozen and thawn at ( 1-6 Cº ) after 21, 22, and 23 hours. Group II-B :- Another 25 random samples of cryoprecipitates were taken from NBTC after thawing the plasma for 22 hours and using plasma volume above 150 ml (after modification). The statistical methods used were independent sample T – test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: - In group I (n=28 ) only 6 bags (21.4 % ) contain more than 70 units of FVIII which did not meet the COE criteria , while 18 bags (81.8 %) contain more than 140 mg of fibrinogen per bag which met the COE criteria. In group II A (n=16) thawing after 22 hours was the optimal time for separation of FVIII (P=0.027). In group II B (n=25), FVIII and fibrinogen level separated from 200ml and 170 ml of plasma respectively were significantly more than those separated from less than 200 and 170 ml respectively (P=0.015). Moreover FVIII and fibrinogen separated from group II Bsamples were significantly more than those separated from group I. (P=0.001, P=0.027 respectively).


The role of Bcl-2 protein, Bax protein and there ratio in peripheral bloodlymphocytes of asthmatic patients

Authors: Haider S. Kadhim --- Musaab H Ali --- Israa F. Jaffar
Pages: 219-222

Background: Asthma is an inflammatory airway disease; this inflammatory response can
be attributed to reduced lymphocyte apoptosis in peripheral blood and in airway tissues.
The mechanism behind this could be attributed to decreased Bcl2 protein and increase
Bax protein in peripheral blood lymphocytes of asthmatic patients.
Aim: to explore the mechanism behind decreased lymphocyte apoptosis in peripheral
blood of asthmatic patients at cellular level.
Method: Ninety four subjects; (44) control and (50) patients were included in this study
during the period from (2003) to (2004). The aspirated lymphocytes for each individual
were prepared and stained by immunocytochemistry to study the percentage of anti-
apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, pro-apoptotic Bax protein and their ratio.
Results: Our results showed that the percentage of Bcl2 protein in peripheral blood
lymphocyte of asthmatic patients were significantly higher than control (33.23±11.56,
The percentage of Bax protein in peripheral blood lymphocyte in asthmatic patients was
significantly lower than the control (21.43±6.88, 24.89±4.8) (P-O.0323). Bcl2/Bax ratio
was positive in asthmatic patients there was significant difference in comparison with the
control (1.68±0.57, 0.87 ± 0.17) (P=<0.00001).
Conclusion: This study clarifies the role of these 2 proteins in the process of reduction of
apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes of asthmatic patients.

Viral hepatitis markers screen in children with cute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Authors: Mazin F. Al-Jadiry
Pages: 223-230

Background: Patients treated for pediatric malignancy are at high risk of parenterally transmitted viral hepatitis. Objectives: To detect the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C viral infections in children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia & identify some variables that could affect its prevalence in these patients. Patients and Methods: One hundred fifty pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, presented to Children Welfare Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, during the period from March 11th 2007 to July 31st 2007 were enrolled in this study; they were 103 males, 47 females, aged (2.25 months- 16 years). Sera of these patients were investigated for hepatitis markers including HBsAg and Anti HCV antibody. Results The majority of patients were from Baghdad 104 (69.33%). Almost all children received 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine according to the national Iraqi vaccination schedule & 111 (74%) of them received another course of vaccination during their admission to the oncology unit at CWTH. Screening for hepatitis B virus infection was positive in 54 (36%) of cases while for hepatitis C virus infection was positive in 4 (3.25%) of cases. Conclusion Multiple blood transfusions and prolonged duration of observation of patients showed significant statistical impact on the incidence of HBV infection.

D4 is the measles virus which caused the measlesoutbreak in 2004 in Iraq


Background: no previous study is done in Iraq about the isolation and the
identification of measles virus although the outbreaks were continuous in the previous
Aim of the study: To identify our local strain of measles virus, which had caused
measles outbreak in the year 2004.
Patient and methods: About (55) Urine samples and (80) throat swabs were
collected from 88 measles suspected patients all over the country during measles
outbreak of the year 2004. Serological (ELISA) and virological test were used for this
Results: Measles virus was isolated successfully in 16 patients who had symptoms of
measles infection from mid and south of Iraq. These isolates were obtained on B95a
and Vero Slam cell line in 2004. Measles isolates was identified in WHO RRL as D4
Conclusion: The study shows that Vero Slam is batter than B95a for measles
isolation and this is the first attempt to get measles isolates on B95a cell line in
comparison with using Vero Slam cell line. In addition to that it was the first study
had identified the endemic strain of measles virus (D4) in Iraq.


Correlation between some immunological parameters and clinicalpresentation in RA patients


Background: Complement (C) & CRP in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis
(RA)'could be trigger disease activity.
Aim: To study the correlation between C, CRP, IgM,, IgG, IgA & some clinical
presentation in RA patients.
Methods: Latex agglutination test(AG) & single radial immunoassay(SRIA) were
used to asses CRP, IgMJgGJgA,, C, in 74 patients with RA.
Results: IgA & IgG were significantly increased, while the mean ofC3, C4 were
slightly elevated in RA patients .
Conclusion: There is correlation between IgG and IgM with joint deformity and joint
swelling respectively, while C3 was showed statistically significant P<0.01 with joint
stiffness, joint swelling and Rheumatoid nodule, where as CRP was statistically
significant P<0.01withjoint swelling.. Key words : RA.C.CRP, IgM, IgG, IgA, SRI A,


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the
mysterious autoimmune diseases which is still
unresolved characterized by inflammation of
synovial membrane, principally affecting
peripheral joints in a symmetric fashion,
commonly leads to cartilage destruction, bone
erosion and joint deformities; extra-articular
manifestations such as vasculitis and
subcutaneous nodules can also occur, hence
it's course is quite variable (1 -3).


The role of sex hormones, waist circumference, BMI andLeptinemia in patients with acute renal failure.


Background: Acute renal failure is characterized by impaired excretory endocrine
homeostatic and metabolic functions of the kidneys.
Objective: The aim of this study is to look for the role of sex hormones, waist
circumference and leptinemia in patients with acute renal failure.
Subjects and Methods: 55 subjects were involved in this study, 30 had acute renal
failure and the remaining 25 subjects were normal healthy individuals who served as
a control. The age range of the patients was between 25 and 45 years with a mean of
37±8.2 years.
Five mls of blood were withdrawn from each subject by vein puncture. Enzyme
linked immuno assay (ELISA) was used for the measurement of serum leptin level.
Radio immuno assay (RIA) technique was used for the measurements of testosterone
and estradiol levels.
Data were expressed as mean±SD. Results were evaluated using the student t-test for
paired data. Conventional methods were used for the correlation and regression
Results: Patients with acute renal failure show a significant increase in leptin level,
BMI and waist circumference than healthy group. On the other hand, testosterone
level shows significant decrease while estradiol serum level shows a significant
increase when compared with the healthy group in both genders although more
significant in females.
Females with acute renal failure have significantly higher level of leptin than in males
with acute renal failure as well as the anthropometrical measurements (BMI & waist
Conclusion: Increased level of serum leptin and estradiol in acute renal failure is a
reflection of increased waist circumference of the patients and the effected renal
parenchyma which make the ability of the kidney for biodegradation very poor. On
the other hand testesteron has a significant effect on serum leptin levels as can be
seen through its positive effect in males rather in females.


Effects of AL-Qutub (Tribulus terrestris) on the Spermatogenesis of theMouse Testis: Histological, Histochemical and Morphometrical Studies


Backgrounds: Tribulus terrestris is one of the traditional herbs that have a
revolutionary breakthrough in the management of erectile dysfunction and
have become world –wide as an “instant treatment”
Materials & Methods: Tribulus terrestris was given daily to mature male
mouse in a dose of 2 mg /kg body weight for 14 days .10% formalin fixed
paraffin sections were performed for histological, histochemical and
morphometrical studies.
Results: Histological and histochemical studies demonstrated a considerable
increase in the number of spermatocytes, spermatids and sperms in parallel
with an increase number of interstitial (Leydig) cells. Morphometrically, the
thickness of seminiferous tubule is significantly increased together with a
significant increase in the number of interstitial cells.
Conclusions: Tribulus terrestris increases the number of Leydig cells, and the
androgens produced by these cells are directly responsible for enhanced
Key Words:

Estimation of Serum Copper, Manganese, Selenium, and Zinc inHypothyroid Patients


Background: Decreased thyroid hormone synthesis and low levels of circulating
thyroid hormones result in clinical and biochemical changes in hypothyroidism. As
deficiency of thyroid hormones causes many metabolic processes to slow down,
therefore; the maintenance of optimal health requires an adequate supply of
carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, and macronutrients, micronutrients, and trace
Objective: Study the effect of the changing in serum level of the trace elements;
Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se in hypothyroid patient.
Patients and Method: Thirty seven hypothyroid patients and fifteen normal
healthy control persons were participated in this study.
Serum zinc and copper were determined using flame atomic absorption
spectrophotometer. While determination of manganese and selenium were done
using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
Results: Serum Zn and Se level were significantly decreased in hypothyroidism,
while there was significant increase in serum Mn level as compared with control
group. Furthermore there was no significant difference in serum Cu level between
Conclusion: the results of this study suggest that the metabolism of Zn, Mn, and Se
is abnormal in hypothyroid patients.

Effect of Nigella sativa seeds' extract Treatment on Neutrophils count

Authors: Batool A. Al-Haidary ,
Pages: 261-270

Background: Nigella sativa seeds have been frequently used in folk medicine
for treatment of various diseases such as inflammatory disease. The aim of this
study is to show the effect of this herb on Neutrophils count as the main anti-
inflammatory cells. Materials & Methods: Aqueous & oil extract ofNigella
sativa seeds have been applied for treatment of 30 blood samples of apparently
healthy individuals. Blood count has been performed after different incubation
Results & Conclusions: This study revealed that treatment of blood samples
with herbal extraction results in highly significant elevation of Neutrophils'
count with time passing particularly the aqueous one and after 6 hrs.
incubation period (P < 0.001). Our conclusion, that Nigella sativa aqueous
extract can be used against bacterial infections which required recruitment of Neutrophils.


Ocular Acanthamoebiasis in Iraq


Free – living or limax amoebae are
small free-living protozoans which exist in
fresh water and soil environment. These
amoebae were found infective to man causing
a fatal disease affecting the central nervous
system. Fowler and Carter were the first to
report four fatal human cases of acute
pyogenic meningitis caused by free-living
. The genera Naegleria and
Acanthamoeba are incriminated in such
. Swimming in contaminated water
has been frequently postulated as the way of
infection through the intranasal mucosa. Since
that time more than one hundred cases of
primary amoebic meningoencephalitis were
reported from different parts of the world. On
the other hand, the free-living amoebae of the
genus Acanthamoeba are known to cause eye
infection and keratitis
. The discovery of
progressive corneal ulceration due to several
species of Acanthamoeba were reported in
many parts of the world6,7
. We describe here
the first reported case of ocular
acanthamoebiasis in Iraq due to the infection
with Acanthamoeba sp.


Table of content: volume:50 issue:2