Table of content

Journal of the Faculty of Medicine

مجلة كلية الطب

ISSN: 00419419
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Journal of the Faculty of Medicine – University of Baghdad

A peer- reviewed journal published Quarterly by the college of medicine –Baghdad University

ISSN: 0041-9419

E-ISSN 2410-8057

The Journal interested in publication of clinical and basic medical research.


The first issue of this Journal was published under the name of (Journal of the Royal Iraqi Medical College) in April /1936, approved by the council of the College as a general journal dealing with the news of the college and few scientific articles to encourage the teaching staff for research publication. The journal was published randomly and ceased during World War II due to financial difficulties.
In 1946 Prof. Dr. Hashim Al Witri, the college dean, assigned republication of the journal and urged the teaching staff to participate and publish their research in the journal. Despite his effort the journal remained irregular in publication. In 1959 Prof. Dr. Faisal Al-Sabih became the Editor in Chief of the journal when he returned from the United Kingdom and appointed on the teaching staff, restructured the journal and changed its name to (The Journal of the Faculty of Medicine) and used new scientific system for publication of articles.
The first issue of the new series started in June 1959. The journal continued to be published on a regular basis since then without interruption in (four issues during the year). The journal became registered the international number (ISSN) in 2000 and entered in many important international indexes.
After 2003 the journal continued despite the difficulties involved in every aspect of the country and by the beginning of 2004 the journal progressed through a series of changes to reach a level that can be recognized internationally.
After 2010 the journal became published electronically of the same edited issues.
Recently the journal became recognized by the (Index Copernicus) and publicised internationaly.

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Contact info

e-mail:iqjmc@comed.uobaghdad.edu.iq
mobile:+96407709826825

Table of content: 2009 volume:51 issue:2

Article
Detection of the Early Cardiac changes of hypertension by Echocardiography

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Background: Hypertension causes changes on the cardiac performance, and this effect is more profound on the LV where systolic high pressure is present. Patients and Methods: We studied 30 patients (14 females and 16 males of average age of 54.8±13.5) with hypertension and 20 normal individuals, the control group (age range 45.6±17.8, 11 females and 9 males). Measurements of early filling velocity E, late filling velocity A at atrial contraction and ejection fraction were taken, also isovolumetric relaxation, and contraction times and ejection times were taken. MPI myocardial performance index was calculated. Results: Results shows a significant increase in the isovolumetric relaxation time IRT (30%),were IRT for the patients group was(105.4±20.8)compared to(73±6.86) for the normal group. The late velocity A (42%), were A for the patients group was (89.28±18) compared to (51.1±18) for the normal group. Ejection time ET (26%), were ET (438.2±88) for the patients group compared to (324±34) for the normal group. And the ratio A/E (41%), were A/E for patients group (1.33) compared to (0.78) for the normal group. While no significant change was observed on ejection fraction (EF %), isovolumetric contraction time (ICT), early velocity E, and myocardial performance index (MPI). Conclusion: Diastolic function impairment was found to occur earlier than systolic function impairment in hypertensive patients.


Article
Prevalence of Fibromyalgia in Iraqi Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease

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Background: Fibromyalgia has been associated with physical and emotional trauma including invasive medical procedures. Both Fibromyalgia and ischemic heart disease have been linked with depression. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome in patients with ischemic heart disease.Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was done in the Iraqi Center for Heart Disease. One hundred patients, angiographically proved to have ischemic heart disease, were subjected to rheumatologic examination by another physician, and compared to hundred healthy individuals as a control group. Diagnosis of fibromyalgia was based on 1990 American College of Rheumatology Classification criteria for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia.Results: Eighteen (18%) patients with ischemic heart disease fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia syndrome in comparison to only 6(6%) of the controls, and this difference is statistically significant (P-value = 0.009).There were statistical significant effects of gender, age, and number of coronary vessels on the prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome. Conclusion: fibromyalgia occurs with high frequency (18%) in patients with ischemic heart disease.


Article
Bacteraemia Following Different Orthodontic Treatment Procedure

Authors: Mustafa M. Al-Khatieeb* BDS, MSc
Pages: 130-135
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Background: since the occurrence of transient bacteraemia is fatal following different dental procedures in patients at-risk of bacterial endocarditis, the purpose of this research was to estimate the percentage and nature of bacteraemia following four orthodontic treatment procedures which were: an upper alginate impression, separator placement, band fitting or placement, and arch wire adjustment on a fixed appliance.Materials and methods: the study group consisted of 40 patients (25 females and 15 males) ranging from 17-25 years of age attending Orthodontic Department in the College of Dentistry/Baghdad University, and out patients department from private clinic. The 40 patients were divided into four groups (10 patients each). A cannula was inserted into either the left or right antecubital fossa using an aseptic technique. A 5ml of blood was taken immediately before orthodontic treatment procedure and a second 5ml sample was taken 1-2 minutes after the procedure.Results: the blood samples showed a percentage of bacteraemia of 50%, 40%, 30%, and 20% in cases of post-band placement, post-separator placement, post-arch wire adjustment, and post-alginate impression procedures respectively.Conclusion: this investigation demonstrated that the placement of separator and fitting of band procedures could cause a significant bacteraemia, thus these procedures for patients at–risk of bacterial endocarditis should be placed in consideration, and prescribe the necessarily antibiotic coverage.


Article
Bone Mineral Density Status in 48 Iraqi Hyperthyroid Patients

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Background: Bone disease of hyperthyroidism is a type of high-turnover osteoporosis. In many patients with hyperthyroidism, there is excessive bone resorption, occasionally marked in degree and far exceeding that in the usual patient with osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) in hyperthyroid patients in a controlled study.
Patients and Methods. The study group consists of 48 patients with hyperthyroidism who were seen at Specialized Centre for Endocrinology and Diabetes, and at Rheumatology Clinic and Osteoporosis Clinic in Baghdad Teaching Hospital. In all patients, measurement of BMD at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machine was done.
Results: The BMD was reduced in 40 patients (83.33%). Seventeen postmenopausal women, 2 premenopausal, and 2 men have osteopenia. Fourteen postmenopausal women and 2 premenopausal women have osteoporosis. Osteoporosis was not reported in men.
Conclusion: When compared with control group, the prevalence of osteopenia in hyperthyroid patients was statistically significant in postmenopausal women only (p = 0.013).
Key words: Bone Mineral Density, Iraqi, Hyperthyroid

Keywords


Article
A study of 54 cases of cerebellar Astrocytoma (In paediatric age group)

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Background: cerebellar astrocytroma is the commonest paediatric posterior fossa tumor.Patients and method: 54 patients taken from the neuro-surgical unit in the specialized surgical hospital from Aug 1995 till March 2003, all patients studied thoroughly age, gender, Presentation, Radiological diagnoses, surgery, additive therapy & final outcome including 5 years survival & conclusion is reached.Results and discussion: the results show that more than half of the patients were at age 5-7 years with very slight male predominance, most cases diagnosed by CT, some with MRI or MRI alone.Surgery was done for all cases & 16 patients' preceeded by VP shunt. The final out come is compared with other similar studies.Conclusion: cerebellar astrocytoma acommon post fossa pediatric tumor if diagnosed early & proper surgery is done early, good prognosis can be gained.


Article
Evaluation of the incisive papilla as a guide to the maxillary central incisors and canine teeth position in Iraqi and Yemenian samples

Authors: Hanan A. Khalaf* BDS, MSc
Pages: 146-150
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Back ground: This study was conducted to estimate the relation ship of the incisive papilla to the antero posterior arrangement of the maxillary anterior teeth in a two different groups (Iraqi and Yemenian groups), because incisive papilla is considered as a reliable and relatively stable anatomic land mark.Materials and Methods: Maxillary and mandibular stone casts were collected from 100 dental students, (50) of Iraqi dental students in Baghdad university and (50) of Yemenian dental students in Ibb university at the 3rd and 4th classes. Age ranged from 21-25 years. Alginate impression, dental stone, stock trays were used. Photographic technique was used to measure anatomic land marks located on dental casts. A computerized digital caliper (CDC) tool was used in the measurements which were made on scanned images of dental casts .The distances from midpoint and posterior point of incisive papilla were measured .The area on the incisive papilla where the inter canine distance passed was noted , paired t- test and chi-square test were used to analyze the data.Result: the data obtained suggested that the distance from the labial surface of maxillary central incisors was ranged from 8.9 to 9.92 mm from the midpoint of incisive papilla, this measurement was 8.9 mm in Iraqi sample and 9.92 mm in Yemenian sample. Also the distance from the from the labial surface of maxillary central incisors was ranged from 11.33 to 12.34 mm from the posterior border of incisive papilla , this measurement was 11.33 mm in Iraqi sample and 12.34 mm in Yemenian sample The mean distance of the inter canine line joining the canine cusp tips was 31.9 mm in Iraqi sample and 35.66 mm in Yemenian sample. The differences between Iraqi and Yemenian scores (distance from the labial surface of maxillary central incisors to the mid point and posterior border of incisive papilla in addition to the scores of inter canine distance) were statistically significant (p<0.05). Gender had no significant effect on the relationship of the incisive papilla to the maxillary anterior teeth in both Iraqi and Yemenian samples.Conclusion: These results suggested that there is a relation ship between the maxillary central incisors, canines and incisive papilla aiding in their antero posterior position. Gender did not affect the measurements. Furthermore, these measurements showed a statistically significant difference between Iraqi and Yemenian samples .The clinical revelance of this study lies in application of incisive papilla as a starting point in the preliminary location of maxillary incisors and canine teeth during construction of dentures.


Article
Assessment of shear bond strength of glass ionomer cement reinforced by different amounts of Hydroxyapatite

Authors: Mohammed R. Hameed* BDS, MSc, PhD
Pages: 151-154
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Background: This study was done to assist bond strength of glass ionomer cement reinforced by different amount of Hydroxyapatite Materials and methods: In this study a hydroxyapatite materials were added to glass ionomer cement at different ratios; 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% (by weight) and the bond strength was detected by construction a cylinders from these mixed materials, constructed on exposed dentine of human extracted premolar teeth and by Zwick’s universal testing machine the bond strength were detected for these mixed materials.Results: Results showed that the glass ionomer cement reinforced by hydroxyapatite has higher bond strength than conventional glass ionomer cement and the hydroyapatite powder to glass ionomer cement powder ratio by weight best to be 25%. Conclusion: The addition of hydroxyapatite to conventional glass ionomer cement increased its bond strength to dentine.


Article
The Impact of Implementing the Self Finance System on Hospital Utilization Indicators in Baghdad City

Authors: Batool A.Gh. Yassin* FICM-CM
Pages: 155-158
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Background: Ministry of Health, since its establishment, adopted the policy of central financing system and free medical services in all health facilities. The sanction and the decline in per capita spending affect the health financing system, thus in 1997 a new financing policy was adopted as pilot in seven specialized hospital called “self–finance” system in which the cost of care was shifted to the patients, i.e. the funds obtained came from user charges at the health facilities. This system was extended (with some modifications) to all hospitals in 1999 and PHC centers in 2001 and implemented until 2003 when it was discontinued.Materials and Methods: During the second half of 2004, a review of hospital records was performed to compare some hospital utilization indicators for a five months period before and after implementing the Self Finance System (October 1998 – February 1999 and October 1999 – February 2000 respectively).A convenient sample of eleven hospitals from the three Health Directorates in Baghdad city were chosen, excluding seven hospitals in which a special form of self finance system was adopted, and the indictors (Bed Occupancy Rate, Hospital Stay Rate, Inpatient Fatality Rate) among each directorate were measured from the hospitals of each directorate before and after implementing the self finance system.Results: The study showed that after implementing the self finance system, the Bed Occupancy Rate in the general wards of both the Medical City and AL-Yarmouk Health Directorates were increased, and decreased in the private wards, the opposite was true for Baghdad Health Directorate, where as the Hospital Stay Rate in the private wards of all Health Directorates and the general ward of Baghdad Health Directorate were higher after implementing the self finance system. Inpatient Fatality Rate increased in all Health Directorates.Conclusions: The implementation of the self finance system affects the utilization of hospitals in many ways, and it has both positive and negative impacts on both the patients and the health professionals.


Article
Meningitis in Baghdad 1993 – 1998Part 1: Acute Bacterial Meningitis

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Background: There is a need for a periodic review of acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) since the pathogens responsible for infection vary with time, geography and patient's age. This study was carried out to describe the epidemiology of different types of meningitis and variables affecting the outcome (improvement, complication and death) Patients and Methods: All the cases of meningitis diagnosed and treated at Ibn- Al-Khateeb Teaching Hospital for the period Jan. 1993 to Dec. 1998 were included in this study. The collected data were age, sex, occupation, date of admission, date of discharge, type of meningitis and outcome of the disease.Results: Out of the total cases, 73.3% were ABM. High rate of ABM was among children < 5 years of age and a significant (p = 0.01) high rate was observed among male (60%) (p = 0.01). Predictors of outcome of meningitis were age, sex, residence, duration of hospitalization and type of meningitis.Conclusion: ABM was predominantly observed in children. The high case fatality rate reported in this study was attributed to the deterioration of health services due to wars and sanctions in 1990s.


Article
Case Report and review of literaturesCommon Carotid Artery Aneurysm and Subclavian Arterio-Venous Fistula

Authors: Waleed M. Hussen* FIBMS (ThCVS), MS
Pages: 162-164
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Vascular injury is still common in countries such as Iraq where both military and urban violence are endemic.
This is a report of a thirty eight year old civilian patient who had been inflicted with shrapnel injury during the 3rd. Gulf war, which had caused two different types of vascular injury with minimal evidence of vascular injury with evidence of only two small wounds in the neck and upper chest at the time of injury but presented few months later with a pulsatile neck mass and palpable thrill across the right supraclavicular area and upper chest.
Preoperative investigations were done including Doppler study and angiography which confirmed the presence of right common carotid artery aneurysm and right subclavian arterio- venous fistula.
Surgical treatment performed sixteen months later by combined trap-door approach and cervical incisions and by the use of scrubner's shunt (which is used for emergency haemodialysis in renal failure patients) as a carotid shunt due to the unavailability of carotid shunt in Iraq to maintain cerebral perfusion during common carotid artery clamping .
Excellent recovery occurred without any neurological sequel.
The report will include also a review of literatures about these rare vascular injuries.

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Article
Enteral intake of Aluminum Sulphate in acidic medium enhancesabsorption and alters tissue content of other trace elements in male albino rats

Authors: Omer A. M. Al-Habib --- Mehdi I. Hilmy*
Pages: 169-173
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Background: Aluminium (Al) intoxication was recognised as a causal agent in patients undergoing haemodialysis and then was linked to Alzheimer's disease. Nevertheless, environmental pollution with Al is mainly via drinking water, particularly when acidic rain falls on Al containing soil and bedrock. In addition, aluminium utensils are widely used for cooking. Therefore, an increasing concern is emerging for the role of pH in the absorption of aluminium from ingested food.
Materials and methods: The objective of this study was to establish the effect of acidification with1 ml/dL of concentrated acetic acid on the absorption of aluminium from a 5 mM aluminium sulphate solution taken orally in albino rats. Levels of Al, Ca, Cu, and Fe in plasma. brain, kidney, and liver were measured by atomic absorption.
Results: The results indicate that acidification of Al salt solution with acetic acid enhances its absorption. Increased plasma Al level (p<0.05) was associated with increased deposition in all tissues and a reduced overall body mass (p<0.05) and mass of cerebral hemispheres (p<0.01) relative to the controls. The increased plasma levels of Al correlated positively with increased Al deposited in the kidney (r =0.790) liver (r = 0.967), and brain (r=0.955) despite the blood brain barrier. Increased Al also correlated negatively with levels of Ca, Cu, and Fe in all tissues except in brain in which there was a positive correlation with Ca deposition.Conclusion: The study shows an increased absorption and deposition of Al in the tissues from rats ingesting acidified Al solution with acetic acid.


Article
Knowledge of Secondary School Students on HIV/AIDS in Kirkuk Province / Iraq.

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Background: The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disorders caused by cellular and humoral immune dysfunction from infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV 1 and HIV 2).Patients and Methods: The study was carried out in Kirkuk governorate on 5090 secondary school students from different localities of the city, for the period from the beginning of October 2005 to the end of March 2006. A special questionnaire was applied for each student containing age, sex, class, parent’s education, mode of transmission & methods of prevention.Results: There was no significant difference between male and female regarding the etiology of AIDS.The knowledge of secondary school students was not related to parent's education.Conclusions: It is concluded that educational lectures increased the knowledge of students.


Article
Detection of human cytomegalovirus genome in malignant gliomas by in situ hybridization technique

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Background: Human Cytomegalovirus ( HCMV ), lies dormant in the glial cells , and can be reactivated under conditions of inflammation and immunosuppression. In vitro, the virus can transform cells and dysregulate many cellular pathways involved in oncogenesis. This study was conducted to detect HCMV matrix-protein mRNA using In Situ Hybridization technique in glial brain tumor tissues compared to normal brain tissues and the presence of cytomegalic inclusion bodies in brain tumor tissues.Patients and Method: Thirty eight of glial tumor specimens were obtained in paraffin blocks compared to eight normal brain autopsy specimens which were age and sex matched with the study group as a control group. ISH was conducted tissue sections using a biotinylated Long DNA Probe for CMV Matrix Protein together with in-situ hybridization (ISH) detection kit.Results: The biotinylated probe specific for mRNA encoded HCMV – Matrix Protein showed hybridization with viral nucleic acids in 34 cases(out of 38)of malignant glial tumor specimens representing (73.9% ) of the total study groups . All cases with high grades astrocytoma revealed a positive hybridization in a percentage of 32.6% from 15 cases with grade III, and 10 ( 21.7% ) cases with grade IV astrocytoma. Nine out of 38 cases with grade III astrocytoma representing (23.7%), 7 (18.4 %) cases with glioblastoma multiforme and 2 oligodendroglioma cases(5.3 %), revealed inclusion bodies on histological examination. Conclusions: HCMV may play a role in the glioma pathogenesis. In Situ Hybridization test proved to be a very sensitive and specific technique for the detection of HCMV mRNA in tissues. Epidemiological, histopathological identification of cytomegalic inclusion bodies , and molecular studies are necessary to confirm the association of HCMV related human cancers in general Iraqi population.


Article
parastic infection associated with acute appendicitis in surgically removed appendices

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BACKGROUND-to explor the infections associated with acute appendicitis in surgically removed appendices in Diyala. Materials and Methods: this study include 160 surgically removed appendices with acute appendicitis . the patients were 66 fenales and 94 males. the age range was 5-53years with mean age 22.9±7.2 years.the surgically removed appendicitis were submitted for gross inspection and microscopic examination including direct mount, sedimentation and flotation techniques. Additionally specimens from 25 appendices were processed and examined histopathologically. Results: The rate of parasitic infection in surgically removed appendices was 26.2%. the rate of single parastic infection was 23.1%, while the rate of two parasticwas 3,1%. there were insignificant differences in the rate of infection regarding the sex and age of patients . Additionally there were significant differences in the histopathological changes observed in appendices with parastic infection compared to those without infection. conclusion: parastic infection may play a role in the development of acute appendicitis in patients with surgically removed appendices in Diyala province keywords parastic infection, acute appendicitis, Diyala


Article
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection in Baghdad City

Authors: Lazem H. K. Al-Taie* PhD
Pages: 187-191
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Background: Intestinal parasites are endemic in many developing areas (WHO report 1998), and they considered as one of the most common tropical disease in developing countries ranges between 30-60 % Patients and Methods: The present study is a survey to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in out and in patients of Al-karama hospital during the period from Jan 1999 to Nov. 2000. Stool samples examination was the test in establishing the results of the present study by direct microscopic examination. Q –square statistic test were used for evaluation the results Results: Results of the present study reveled that the most affected group of patients’ with intestinal parasites, those with 11-20 years old (32%), protozoa percentage of infection were (18.56%) significantly more than helminthes with (2.45%). Males were more infected with intestinal parasites (44.18%) than females (28.96%). The highest infection rate with helminthes was recorded at the period between March and Jun. Conclusion: Infection rate in Baghdad City21.01,rotozoal18.56%,whichinclude E.histolytica12.14%,G.lambilia 4.9 % While helminth infection rate,2.45 %,include H.nana,1.17 %Enter.vermicularis,0.38 %,Asca.lambricoidus0.37 %.Femal infection rate8.21 % more than male4.01 %.


Article
ELFA and IFAT Techniques to Detect Chlamydial Infections in Baghdad Women and Its Effect on the Immunoglobulins Level.

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Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common human pathogens and considered as one of the causative agents of STDs. This organism cause acute and recurrent pelvic infections and infertility. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and seventy three females were included in the present study, attending infertility department, AL-Elwiya hospital, AL-Jarah private hospital, central public health laboratory and STDs clinic to whom IFAT, ELAF and immunoglobulins concentration were done. Results: Females were divided into three age groups <20; 20-39 and ≥40 years. Single and repeated abortions were 44.9%, 55.1% respectively. Primary and secondary infertility were 55.6% and 44.4%. Higher abortions rate were in the age group 20-39 years which represents 31.5% and 41.6% in single and repeated abortions. Primary and secondary infertility were high in the same age group which represents 42.6% and 33.3% of the total investigated females, also the multipartners within the same age group constitutes 56.7%.Chlamydial infections detected by IFAT technique constitute 12.8% which were represented as 14.6%, 11.1%, 36.7% and 5% in abortions, infertility, multipartners and fertility with no abortion groups respectively. While by ELFA technique the percentages were 12.4%, 9.3%, 30% and 4% in the same mentioned groups.Immunoglobulins mean value in females with chlamydial infections wee as follows IgG = 2102.1 mg/dl; IgA = 317.9 mg/dl and IgM = 272.5 mg/dl. Which were more than the normal values of the immunoglobulins. Conclusions: Chlamydial infections were distributed largely among multipartners than other aborted females. High abortions were noted in age group 20-39 years. IFAT technique was more reliable than ELFA technique to detect chlamydial infections. IgG and IgM concentrations were higher than normal concentrations, while IgA remains normal.


Article
Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) in Rheumatoid Arthritis in patients (RA)

Authors: Huda Th. Al-Marsomi*
Pages: 198-199
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Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is heterogenous syndrome. Because the diversity of disease processes and formation of complex lymphoid microstructures that indicate the multiple T cell activation pathways are involved .affected patients have major abnormalities in the T cell pool with clonally expanded CD4 + T cell that lose expression of the CD28null molecule and lack the ability for profiliration. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an indicator of the proliferation and differenation of lymphocyte, in particularly the T cell subcells. Patients and Methods: Total ADA levels were measured in the sera of RA patients and healthy group according to Giusti (1981). Results: The mean value of ADA was lower in patients with RA than control group with no significant differences. Conclusion: the lower value of ADA (which involved in the proliferation of lymphocyte) in RA patients may results from the predominance of CD4 + T cells in the peripheral blood

Keywords

RA --- ADA --- IR.


Article
Serum resistin levels, and other hormonal and biochemical parameters in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

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Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common cause of anovulation during reproductive life.Resistin can increase ovarian androgen production by directly stimulating ovarian theca cell or indirectly by augmenting pancreatic – B cell production of insulin.Patients and Methods: Sixty patients with PCOS who were non diabetic and not taking any medicine for the last three months were involved in the study .Thirty normal fertile female serves as control group. Fasting blood samples were aspirated from all individuals from 3rd - 6th day of the menstrual cycle to measure resistin, insulin, glucose, LH, FSH, TT3, TT4, Prolactin , Total Testosterone and lipid profile, by ELISA and routine methods.Results: mean serum resistin concentration was increased in women with PCOS compared with the control group (Mean ±SD) (19.83 ± 6.101 vs 9.36 ± 2.17) ng/ml. Serum resistin concentration correlated positively with BMI, which is divided into two subgroups. The first with BMI < 25 kg/m2 and the second with BMI ≥25kg/m2 in both control and patient groups. In BMI < 25kg/m2 serum resistin concentration for the control group was (8.90 ± 1.76) and (14.66 ± 2.09 ) for patients group ,while BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 serum resistin concentration for the control group was (10.62 ± 1.76) and (21.55 ± 5.40) ng/ml for patients group. Resistin also correlated positively with Insulin, LH, LH/FSH ratio and total Testosteron in women with PCOS but not in control. Fasting insulin level was higher in PCOS group compared with the control group (Mean ±SD) (27.45 ± 4.47 vs 13.27 ± 3.80) mIU/ml.The Fasting serum glucose was also higher in PCOS group compared with the control group (Mean ±SD) (125.27 ± 28.63 vs 92.63 ± 13.99) mg/dl. Total Testosterone level was elevated in the PCOS group compared with the control group (1.04 ± 0.37 vs 0.52 ± 0.25) ng/ml.Total Testosterone correlated positively with BMI, Resistin, Insulin, LH, and LH/FSH ratio.Conclusion: PCOS women with BMI >25 kg/m² were found to have a marked increase level of Resistin ,Insulin , Glucose ,LH ,and Total Testosterone .and a decrease level in their insulin sensitivity i.e increased insulin resistance.These data indicate that abnormal resistin secretion in obese PCOS women may play a role in causing ovarian hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia. Therefore fasting serum resistin level could be helpful in diagnosing PCOS patient


Article
Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Human Papilloma Virus Infections in Iraqi Patients with Esophageal Carcinoma.

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Background: Molecular DNA hybridization has confirmed more than 120 different human papilloma virus (HPV) genotypes. A small group of them have high- risk oncogenic potential. Many studies have described an association of such high risk-HPV genotypes with a variety of esophageal benign tumors as well as malignant squamous cell carcinomas.Patients and Methods: A total number of 90 tissue specimens were collected from 50 patients with esophageal squamous cell (SCC), adenocarcinoma (AC) and carcinoma in situ (CIS); 20 patients with squamous acanthosis (SA); and 20 individuals with apparently-healthy esophageal tissues (AHET). The molecular detection methods for HPV detection and genotyping were performed by in situ hybridization using cocktailed- and specific high- risk HPV DNA probes, respectively.
Results: The overall percentage of HPV in the total group of esophageal carcinoma was 20%.The percentage of HPV DNA in the subgroup of SCC and AC was 26.7% and 13.3%, respectively,. However, neither HPV DNA was detected in CIS subgroup nor in both control groups (SA and AHET).The overall genotyping results showed that HPV 18 constituted the majority of the detected high-risk oncogenic HPV genotypes, followed by HPV 16 then HPV 31/33.<.Conclusions: Despite the low prevalence of HPV infection and rarity of invasive esophageal carcinoma in the general Iraqi population, the detection of high percentage of such high oncogenic risk- HPV genotypes in these carcinomas indicating for a relevant importance in esophageal carcinogenesis.


Article
The In Situ Hybridization Expression of Fas and Fas Ligand (FasL) in Trophoblastic tissue of Aborted Women Compared with Normal Pregnancy.

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Background: Estimation of the in situ expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) in aborted women compared with normal human pregnancy .Patients and Methods: A technique utilizing in situ hybridization(ISH) was performed to detect and determine the in situ expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) mRNA using paraffin embedded sections of curettage samples obtained from 42 women, who were divided into two groups: 30 women with first trimester abortion and 12 women with induced abortion as control.Results: The levels of the in situ expression of both Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) mRNA were found to be highly significant increased in group 1 as compared with group 2 (p<0.01), with a significant positive correlation between Fas; and abortion in group I , FasL & abortion in group I , and between these two parameters(Fas & FasL) (p<0.01) in group1 .Conclusions: The increasing expression of Fas and FasL trophoblasts might influence pathogenesis of first trimester abortion.


Article
Endogenous Pancreaatic Regeneration from Pancreatic Duct Epithelium in Diabetic Adult Rats

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Background: Deficiency in beta cell mass is the hallmark of most forms of diabetes, it is worthwhile understanding pancreatic regeneration in the context of this disease.Of crucial importance in the development of diabetes, both type I and type II, is the insufficient beta cell replication after the onset of disease.This is why we are always in search of new sources of beta cells to be generated by neogenesis to induce beta cells. In this regard, pancreatic stem or progenitor cells may offer a promising therapeutic approach for diabetes.Methods and Materials: A total of 60 adults swiss albino rats were divided into two groups. Group I, control group (30 animals) were injected with normal saline into the subcutaneous and pancreatic tissue, and group II (30 animals) were exposed to 90% subtotal pancreatectomy for the study of the possible regeneration, and trans-differentiation of pancreatic stem cells from pancreatic duct epithelium into functioning islet cells.Results: The animals of group II showed high blood glucose and normal serum AFP during the period of experiment. The histological study revealed regeneration and proliferation of small cells from epithelial cells of the pancreatic duct during the first three weeks of the experimental period and then formation of islet like cells attached to epithelium of pancreatic duct around the period of six weeks. The animals of group I (control group) showed no changes in the pancreas.Conclusion: Pancreatic islet cells may originate from pancreatic duct epithelium.


Article
A New Method for DNA Isolation from Bone Marrow & Sperms of White Mice

Authors: Shayma J. Ahmed* PhD
Pages: 220-222
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Background: A quick and easy method was developed for extraction of DNA of eukaryotes from different samples, which are bone marrow and sperms in white mice Mus musculus strain (Balb/c). Patients and Methods: this method using high salt buffer, Ethylene diemine tetracetec acid (EDTA), Trypsine,Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate(SDS), and urea without using Proteinase-K digestion or ultracentrifugation.Results: This method was successful in extracting DNA from different samples in eukaryotic and this DNA is suitable for Hind III digestion.Conclusion: Without further clean-up, the extracted DNA can be used for restriction endonuclease digestion or for numerous applications

Keywords

DNA --- Eukaryotes --- extraction --- Mice --- bone marrow --- Sperm --- Hind III digestion


Article
Comparative study of CA19-9 levels as tumor marker in sera and tissues of patients with stomach, colon and rectum cancers

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Abstract

Background: CA19-9 is among a group of mucin glycoprotein sialosyl lewis antigen (SLA) having come to be recognized as a circulating cancer associated antigen for gastrointestinal cancer. Basic research into cancer causation will be a powerful determinant of intervention in the transformation process reinforcing the need for developing effective molecular tumor biomarkers for early detection of malignant evolution in tissues of organs i.e. stomach, colon and rectum. In this study, we make a comparsion between the levels of CA19-9 in sera and tissues of patients with these diseases to see if their levels are proportional and if it is a tumor marker that affect with malignant cells in tissues of these organs. Patients and methods: Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) levels were measured in sera and tissues’ of 8 patients with stomach cancer (G1), 8 patients with colon cancer(G2), 8 patients with rectum cancer (G3) and 30 healthy subjects (G4), by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Results: The results of CA19-9 levels in sera were (42.625±33.088; 47.013±0.318 and 10.938±0.979)U/ml for G1, G2 and G3 respectively compared with serum CA19-9 level of G4, which was 7.74±4.92 U/ml. The results were found to be significantly higher than control group (p < 0.005).The results of CA19-9 levels in tissues’ homogenate were (1170.25±8.45; 535.75±263.46 and 483.75±16.37)U/ml for G1, G2 and G3 respectively. The results revealed significantly higher levels of CA19-9 in tissue’s homogenate of each patients group compared with the serum levels of the same patients (p < 0.005). Conclusions: Normal level of CA19-9 were found in sera of rectum cancer patients compare to the cutoff value 37U/ml in literatures 1,2, but it is significantly higher than our control group. , Significant high levels of CA19-9 were found in sera of colon cancer patients. , Sera of stomach cancer patients showed elevation in CA19-9 level in 50% of cases. , Significant high levels of CA19- 9 were found in tissue’s homogenate of rectum, colon and stomach cancer patients compared to its levels there serum.


Article
Lymphocyte subsets phenotype in patients with infectious mononucleosis

Authors: Shahlaa M. Salih
Pages: 227-231
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Abstract

Background: Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a lymphoproliferative disease caused primarily by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The initial viral infection by EBV occurs in B lymphocytes and is followed by an extensive proliferation of T lymphocytes. Previous studies on immunity to EBV (including IM) have mainly focused on activation of peripheral blood T cells, which are responsible for the lymphocytosis in blood during acute IM. Patients and Methods: Indirect immunofluorescence technique analysis was performed to detect the percentage of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, and CD56 positive lymphocytes. Results: Our results on the phenotype of T cells in samples from patients with infectious mononucleosis showed that there is a significant increase in percentage of CD8+ T-cells when compared with healthy group. In addition, increased in percentage of CD3 T-cells and moderately increase in CD56 (NK) cells. CD4 and CD19 percentage were significantly decrease in comparison with healthy control. Conclusion: Acute infectious mononucleosis is characterized by a marked increase in the percentage of CD3 and CD8 T- cells with a slight increase in CD56 percentage. A marked decrease in CD19 percentage and CD4/CD8 ratio was noticed.

Table of content: volume:51 issue:2