Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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Contact info

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2007 volume:38 issue:4

Article
AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING TABLE EGGS CONSUMPTION IN IRAQ FOR THE PERIOD 1980-2002
تحليل اقتصادي لأهم العوامل المؤثرة في استهلاك بيض المائدة في العراق للمدة 1980 – 2002

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Abstract

The aim of this paper is to analyse the important factors affecting table eggs consumption in Iraq for the period 1980-2002. This aim could be achieved through estimating an individual demand function and then calculating demand elasticities, and also estimating the annual rates of growth in production for two periods 1980-1989 and 1990-2002. The rate of growth was 5.5% during the first period whereas became -6.3% during the second period . On the other hand, the population growth rate was very close during the two periods as it was 3% during the first period and became 2.8% during the second period .The rate of growth in per capita demand from eggs was 2.5% during the first period which was compatible with population growth rats while the rate of growth in per capita demand increased during the second period substantially as it became 9% due to rehabilitation programme in poultry sector in 1998. The annual rate of growth in per capita income took the same direction of the rate of growth in eggs demand as it was 1.1% during the first period and became 6.3% during the second period. This paper arrived at some recommendations including the support for production inputs and to encourage investors to invest in this sector to increase the supply of this commodity which would affect on price decrease and consequently demand increase.

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Article
THE LEVEL OF JOB PERFORMANCE OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN THE GENERAL BOARD OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND COOPERATIVE
مستوى الأداء الوظيفي للمرشدين الزراعيين في الهيئة العامة للإرشاد والتعاون الزراعي

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Abstract

The efficiency of various organizations in achieving their aims depends on several factors , such as the performance of the organizations workers . So , the present research aims to identify the level of job performance of agricultural extension workers in the general board of agricultural extension and cooperative, and the differences according to the research variables related to the work physical conditions and training. The study was conducted on a sample of agricultural extension workers in the General Board of Extension in Baghdad Governorate consisting of 50 male and female guides . For the purpose of collecting information , the researcher designed a questionnaire form including two aspects ; the first one is the job performance scale which contains two fields : ability to work and motivation to work , where as the second aspect is represented by the independent variables scale which contains a specific scale for each variable . Several statistical tools have been used in data analysis such as standard scoere , person correlation formula. The study findings have shown that the job performance level of agricultural extension workers in the general board of agricultural extension and cooperative is medium tending to relative increase . There is also a significant positive relationship at 0.01 level of significance between the performance level and the ability to work field , and at 0.05 level of significance with the motivation to work field .

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Article
BREEDING SOME MELON TRAITS BY HONEYCOMB SELECTION 1- VEGETATIVE GROWTH TRAITS
تحسين بعض صفات البطيخ بالانتخاب بخلية النحل1 – صفات النمو الخضري

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A field experiment was conducted in three seasons on the farm of the Dept. of Hort., Coll., of Agric. University of Baghdad during 2005-2006. This was to study the effect of honeycomb selection for breeding vegetative growth traits in 3 melon cultivars (Hafed nafsa, Ismaily and Ananas). Four selection criteria were used; number of days from planting to blooming, number of nodes on the main stem before flowering, number of main branches/plant and sex ratio. The results showed that the number of days from planting to first female flower was reduced by 17%, coincided with reduction of number of nodes per plant before female flower by 40.4%. Main stems per plant were increased by 31% after 2 cycles of selection. This was reflected on plant leaf area to be increased by 30.7%. Selection increased dry matter of selected plants by 161.7 g /plant. Selection increased growth rate by 2.8 g.d"1.plant"1. This growth rate has reduced number of days from planting to physiological maturation by 7.6 d. High Heritability in four selection criteria gave an indicator for effective honeycomb selection to improve yield and it's quality because of the positive correlation between these criteria and quantity and quality of fruits of melo

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Article
BREEDING SOME MELON TRAITS BY HONEYCOMB SELECTION 2- YIELD, QUALITY AND HERITABILITY
تحسين بعض صفات البطيخ بالانتخاب بخلية النحل2 – الحاصل والنوعية والتوريث

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Abstract

A field experiment was conducted in three seasons on the farm of the Dep. ofHort., Coll., of Agric. University of Baghdad during spring and fall 2005 and spring 2006. 3 melon cultivars (Hafed nafsa, Ismaily and Ananas) were grown according to honeycomb selection design. Four selection criteria were used; number of day from planting to blooming, number of nodes on the main stem before flowering, number of main branches/plant and sex ratio after 60 clays from planting. The results showed that the number of days from planting to first female flower was reduced by 17% after 2 cycles of selection, it was reduced from 52.9 day at C0 to 43.9 day at C2, reducting number of nodes per plant before female flower (at range 1.7 node) from 4.2 to 2.5 nodes after 2 cycles of selection. Main branches per plant were increased from 3.2 branches /plant at C0 to 4.2 branches /plant at C2. Sex ratio was increased from 11.7% to 15.6% after 2 cycles of selection. Number of fruits/plant was also increased from 2.9 fruit at C0 to 4.5 fruit/plant at C2. Fruit weight was not increased due to selection but the yield was increased by 37.2% due to increased yield per plant from 3.8 , 9.8 and 4.0 kg/plant for Hafed nafsa, Ismaily and Ananas, to 5.8,12.7 and 6.0 kg/plant respectively. Fruit TSS content was increased from 10.6% to 13.3% (Hafed nafsa), 10.2 % to 12.8% (Ismaily) and 12.8% to 13.2% (Ananas). This was reflected on fruit total sugar content to be increased from 10.2% to 12% and from 9.8% to 12.2% and from 12.2% to 12.7% for Hafed nafsa, Ismaily and Ananas, respectively. Heritability (at C2) of criteria used was 69.6% for number of days to blooming, 79.3 for number of nodes before flowering, 66.9% for no. branches /plant and 58.9% for sex ratio, and 65.8% for no. fruits/plant. This was higher than the heritability for yield (40.7%). Conclusively, four selection criteria were effective to improve traits. This allows breeder to select early especially with high heritability and positive correlation with yield and quality.

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Article
POTATO PRODUCTION BY ORGANIC FARMING 1. ROLE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER AND WHEY ON SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROORGANISM NUMBER
إنتاج البطاطا بالزراعة العضوية1 – دور التسميد العضوي والشرش في الصفات الفيزيائية للتربة وإعداد الأحياء المجهرية

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A field experiment was carried out at the College of Agric. Abu - Ghraib in silt clay loam (in spring season) and silt clay soil (in autumn season) in 2006 to examine the effect of cow manure (0,10 and 20% WAV), poultry residues 0 , 10% and 20% and mixing whey with irrigation water at 0 , 10% and 20% in randomized complete block design with three replicates on soil physical properties and soil microorganism numbers. The control treatment represented the application of chemical fertilizer as recommended (1000 kg/ha of NPK 27:27:0). Soil samples to 30 cm deep were collected at periods of 30 , 60 and 90 days after tuber planting . Results showed that application of organic fertilizer at 20% regardless its source with the use of 20% whey increased soil viscosity 5.00 , 4.87 , 3.98 and 3.76 m. poise and mean weight diameters 7.98 , 7.49 , 5.23 and 4.14 mm for cow manure and poultry residues for two seasons , 90 days after planting, respectively . Soil aggregates greater than 5 cm in diameter were also increased from 98.08 and 95.52% for control treatment to 100% for other treatments. Organic fertilizer and whey application increased numbers of bacteria, fungi and actinomyces . A new mechanism for soil aggregation resulted from organic matter and whey application was suggested.

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Article
POTATO PRODUCTION BY ORGANIC FARMING 2. ROLE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZATION AND WHEY ON NPK AVAILABILITY AND PERCENTAGE OF MYCORRHIZA INFECTION
إنتاج البطاطا بالزراعة العضوية2 – دور التسميد العضوي والشرش في جاهزية العناصر الكبرى للنبات ونسبة الإصابة المايكورايزية

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A field experiment was conducted at the fields of the College Agric. Abu -Ghraib to investigate the role of soil applied organic matter and whey in the availability of N, P, and K, and the percentage of root infection by mycorrhiza fungi. The treatment included cow manure at levels 0 , 10% and 20% WAV , poultry residues at levels 0 . 10% and 20%, and whey mixed with irrigation at concentrations 0 , 10% and 20% in randomized complete block design with three replicates. The control treatment represented by chemical fertilizer application as recommended (1000 kg NPK/ha 27:27:0). Soil samples were collected 30 , 60 and 90 days after potato planting . Root samples also were taken for determination of mycorrhiza infection percentage during spring season only. Results showed that available N and P concentrations were significantly increased with the increasing organic fertilizer levels up to 20% and 20% whey. The application of 20% poultry residues with 20% whey resulted in 189.45 and 179.31 mg N/Ug and 204.22 and 212.22 nig P/kg for spring and fall season, respectively. However, highest concentrations of K were 423.65 and 432.21 mg k/ha resulted from cow manure at 20% with 20% of whey for spring and fall season, respectively after 90 days of planting. The 20% of whey and 20% organic fertilizer resulted in the highest percentage of root infection by mycorrhiza (72.00%).

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Article
POTATO PRODUCTION BY ORGANIC FARMING 3 - EFFECT OF ORGANIC ERTILIZER AND WHEY ON PLANT GROWTH, YIELD AND TUBERS QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS
إنتاج البطاطا بالزراعة العضوية3 – تأثير التسميد العضوي والشرش في نمو النبات وحاصل الدرنات وصفاتها النوعية

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An experiment was carried out at the Vegetable Field of the College Agric, Abu - Ghraib, to study the effect of application of organic residues to the soil (poultry residues 0 , 10% of 20% , or cows residues) (WAV) and whey at concentrations 0 , 10% or 20% of irrigation water on growth , yield and tubers quality during the spring and autumn seasons (2006) . The design adopted was RCBD with three replicates. Results showed that application of organic residues 20% and 20% whey increased the number of stems, and the highest number of stems was 10.67 and 9.33, Plant when 20% of Poultry residues with 20% whey were used for both seasons, respectively. However, the best tuber's quality was found when 20% of cow or poultry residues with 10% of whey were used highest. The percentage of starch was 27.9% and 28.6% in spring season, while in fall season it was 30.8% and 31.7% for 20% of either residue source with 20% whey. Thus last treatment produced highest total yield (58.7and 66.0 ton. ka"1) and marketable yield (56.6 and 64.1 ton.ha"1) for spring season. Some treatments give highest yield (52.6 and 57.9 ton.ha"1) and marketable yield (51.5 and 55.8 ton.ha'1) for fall season as compared with the treatment yield ( 29.4 and 22.1 ton.ha"1 ) and marketable yield ( 26.4 and 20.7 ton.ha"1 ) for both control seasons, respectively. Significant increases occurred in fertilizer use efficiency and reached 123.9 and 161.0% in treatment 20% poultry residues with 20% Whey for both seasons, respectively. Tuber's Contents of amino acids was increased with increasing levels of either residue and the highest was in treatments of 20% (W/W) of both residue source and whey.

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Article
BUILDING AND ASSESSMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR PREDICTING SORPTIVITY OF IRAQI SOILS FROM SOME PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
بناء وتقويم نماذج رياضية للتنبؤ عن امتصاصية الترب العراقية من بعض صفات الفيزيائية والكيميائية

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Abstract

Five multi-linear regression equations were developed for predicting the sorptivity of 70 soil samples from easily measured soil properties. The SAS analysis system was used to produce the best multi-linear associations between dependent and independent variables using five model building procedures: l)Stepwise, 2) Maximum R-squared Improvement Technique (MAXR), 3) Minimum R-squared Improvement Technique (MINR), 4)Forward Selection, and 5) Backward Elimination. Values of measured properties ranged between 40-610, 154-635, 41.5-735, 0.5-455, 20.3-120, and 4-33.3 gm.kg"' soil for the clay , silt, sand, gypsum, carbonate, and organic matter respectively. Measured sorptivity values ranged between 0.101-1.65 cm. min_/l. Pearson bivariate correlation matrix produced significant correlation coefficients between sorptivity and each independent variable. A highly significant, yet positive linear correlation existed between sorptivity and gypsum, while no clear trend was realized between sorptivity and other independent variables. The MAXR and MINR model building procedures resulted in a six parameters model (all independent variables were included in the model) for predicting sorptivity with the highest correlation coefficient R=0.901) and a significance of %53.2 for all parameters in the model. When the first and fifth methods were used, a two parameter models were obtained for predicting sorptivity( only two independent variables were included in the models) with R- value of 0.896. All parameters in the model were significant at %99.9. The Forth method produced three parameters model(three independent variables were included in the model) with R- value of 0.897. All parameters in the model were significant at %73.3. In this study the best obtainable five regression models for predicting sorptivity were assessed upon five criteria; 1) number of the parameters in the model, 2) value of correlation coefficient, 3) Mean square error, 4)Mallows' Cp statistics, and 5)F-value. Based on our assessment, Stepwise and Backward elimination model building procedures produced the best model for predicting the sorptivity with a minimum number of parameters, highly significant R-value, lower mean square than the four parameters model, lowest Cp value, and highest F-statistic value.

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Article
BUILDING AND ASSESSMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR PREDICTING SORPTIVITY OF IRAQI SOILS FROM SOME PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
حاصل حبوب القمح من أربعة أنظمة من التسميد تحت المرشات المحورية وعلاقته بسحب العناصر المعدنية والكتلة الحيوية وبعض منظمات النمو

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Abstract

المسـتخلص .
نفذت تجربة حقلية في تربة جبسية باستعمال أربعة أنظمة من التسميد هي نظام التسميد الكيميائي والعضوي والحيوي ونظام التسميد المتكامل وذلك لدراسة تأثير هذه الأنظمة في حاصل الحبوب ومكوناته وتوزيع تراكيز بعض منظمات النمو وأعداد الخلايا البكترية والفطرية في منطقة رايزوسفير جذور نباتات القمح المزروعة في تربة جبسية تحت منظومات الري المحورية . أظهرت النتائج أن نظام التسميد المتكامل حقق أعلى غلة إنتاج (4800 كغم.هـ-1) مع تقليل كمية الأسمدة الكيميائية والعضوية المضافة في هذه الأنظمة بصورة منفردة إلى النصف . أن معامل حيوية البذور ومعامل الاستفادة والكفاية من NPK تفوقت معنوياً تحت نظام التسميد المتكامل مقارنة بأنظمة التسميد الأخرى . إن توزيع IAA و ABA في الأوراق وخلال مرحلة التفرعات والأزهار جاء متماشياً مع أعلى من وزن الآلف حبة مع ظهور حالة التضاد في تركيز IAA و ABA في الأوراق . أن أعداد خلايا البكتريا Azotobacter chroococcum و Azosprillium brasilinse ازدادت مع تقدم عمر النبات وحافظت على أعداد 33.6 × 106 و 22.6 × 104 في مرحلة النضج النهائي على التوالي . أن نسبة الإصابة بفطر Glomus mossease وسجل تكون السبورات أعلى القيم تحت نظام التسميد المتكامل مقارنة بالأنظمة الأخرى وبلغت 92 % و 890 سبور .غم-1 تربة جافة على التوالي . أن نظام التسميد المتكامل يقدم بديلا لأنظمة التسميد الكيميائي والعضوي والحيوي بصورة منفردة ويحقق أعلى غلة إنتاج مع أقل كميات أسمدة كيميائية أو عضوية مضافة إلى التربة الجبسية إذ تحافظ على بناء الكتلة الحيوية المايكروبية في هذه التربة . توصلت النتائج أنه بالإمكان الاستفادة من قوالح الذرة الصفراء في مساحات المرشات المحورية وهي (60 و 80 و 120 دونم) إذ يمكن أضافتها إلى تربة الحقل قبل موسم الزراعة بمدة 8 – 10 أسابيع مع أعطاء رطوبة مناسبة من خلال عمل المرشات وإضافة 20 و 12 كغم . م-2 من القوالح المطحونة وتركها في الحقل . كذلك التأكيد على ضرورة أجراء عملية الحراثة غير العميقة بعد تحلل المواد العضوية وأجراء عملية الحراثة غير العميقة بعد تحلل المواد العضوية وأجراء عملية زراعة المساحات تحت المرشات المحورية أو الثابتة . مع إضافة 50 % من كمية الأسمدة الكيميائية مع أعطاء المغذيات الصغرى من خلال المسمدات في المرشات المحورية خلال مرحلة التفرعات والبطان . فضلاً عن ذلك استخدام اللقاح البكتيري المزدوج من A.brasilines + A.chroococcum المحمل على مواد عضوية وبمقدار 5 غم. كغم-1 بذور كذلك إضافة فطر المايكورايزا نثراً قبل الزراعة والمكون من (سبورات + جذور مصابة + تربة) وبمقدار 1.5 كغم . م-2 من المواد العضوي المتحللة الجاهزة للإضافة .

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Article
PRODUCTION OF HYDROCELLULASE FROM LOCAL ISOLATE OF ASPERGILLUS SP
إنتاج أنزيم Hydrocellulase من عزلة محلية من Aspergillus sp.

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Abstract

A hydrocellulase enzyme was produced from local isolate of Aspergillus sp., by solid state fermentation by using maize cobs as ap suport material and wheat straw treated with alkaline peroxide, pH=6.8,vith inoculum size of 106 spore/gm at 30°C for 7 days. After enzyme extraction with phosphate buffer it was purified among cellulases first by ammonium sulphate 40% saturation, next by gel filtration by Sephadex G-200 (60xl.5cm), then it was purified by ion exchanger DEAE-Sephadex A50 (8x2.2cm). Enzymatic activity of purified enzyme was estimated by using CMC and insoluble cellooligosaccharides as substrates. It was convinced as hydrocellulase by using insoluble cellooligosaccharides as a substrate, its activity was 17.54 U/ml comparatively with using CMC which was 11.76 U/ml. The specific activity of purified enzyme was 115.95 U/mg. In conclusion, this type of enzymes are active on non-crystalline cellulosic materials, so the produced cellubiose b y cellulases will analyzed to glucose so it will decrease the inhibition effect of cellubiose on other cellulases. This kind of cellulases released glucose out of the non reducing ends of oligosaccharides. Endoglucanases are responsible of decreasing the degree of cellulose polymerization because they are broke cellulosic chains from inside of non-crystalline regions. The existence of two kinds of exoglucanases is necessary to complemize the effect of each other, one of is them active on reducing ends while the other is active on non reducing ends. As a result of the this action we can use this kind of cellulases in sugar production because of its important roles in glucose production from cellulose, beside ethanol production biological fuel, some drugs and pharmatical materials, paper industries and fibers.

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Article
PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS BY ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN LOCAL AWASSI EWES TREATED WITH PROGESTERONE AND eCG
تشخيص الحمل المبكر باستخدام الموجات فوق الصوتية في النعاج المعاملة بهرموني البروجيستيرون و ECG

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The fifth group was left without progesterone treatment (as control). Ewes of groups 1 and 2 were synchronized and injected with 500 and 750 I.U of eCG. I.M subsequently at time of sponges removal, while ewes of groups 3 and 4 were injected with 500 and 750 I.U of eCG I.M subsequently, 48 hrs before sponges removal. Numbers of embryos were counted in right and left uterine horns. Numbers of lambs, type of birth, gestation length were counted in treated groups. Diagnosis of pregnancy after 20-25 days of breeding by using ultrasonography showed significant differences (P<0.05) between the total numbers of embryos in left and right uterine horns. Results also showed significant differences (P<0.05) of gestation length among ewes carrying single or twine lambs.

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Article
QUALITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF EGGS OF TWO JAPANESE QUAIL STRAINS (BROWN AND WHITE)
الصفات النوعية والكيميائية لبيض سلالتين من السلوى الياباني(البني و الأبيض)

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The objective of this study was to compare two strains of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) which were brown and white in quality characteristics included percentages of egg shell , egg yolk , egg white , yolk index , shell thickness and haugh unit , chemical composition of egg yolk and white included percentages of protein , lipid , ash , carbohydrates and cholesterol concentration in egg yolk . A total of 75 day old chicks of each strain were distributed into three replicates (25 bird per replicate) and reared at 2 m3 metallic cages. The data obtained revealed that no significant (P<0.05) differences were appeared between the two strains in the percentage of egg components, the average percentage of egg shell were 8.36 and 8.39 % , egg yolk percentage were 32.22 and 32.16 % , egg white percentage were 59.42 and 59.45 % for brown and white quail respectively , also in egg yolk index which it were 0.44 and 0.44, shell thickness were 0.033 and 0.034 mm and haugh unit were 90.3 and 90.3 . No significant differences were appeared in the chemical composition of egg white and yolk except cholesterol concentration which were highly significant (P<0.05) in the egg yolk of brown compared with white quail strain and the average concentration were 14.78 and 13.57 mg /gm egg yolk for brown and white quail respectively , that indicated white plumage mutation affected egg components percentage onley .

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Article
COMPARISON BETWEEN BROWN AND WHITE JAPANESE QUAIL IN PRODUCTION PARAMETERS AT FIRST PRODUCTION PERIOD
مقارنة السلوى الياباني البني مع الأبيض في المؤشرات الإنتاجية خلال مرحلة إنتاج البيض الأولى

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Abstract

This study was carried out to compare two strains of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) which were brown and white in production parameters during the first egg production period . A total of 75 day old chicks of each strains distributed into three replicates (25 birds per replicate) and reared at 2 m3 metallic cages .The data obtained revealed that brown quail significantly (P<0.05) predominant in the average live body weight which it were 191.7 and 181.3 gm for brown and white quail respectively , also brown quail significantly (P<0.05) predominant in the average of feed intake which it were 647.3 and 619.3 gm for brown and white quail respectively , and significantly (P<0.05) predominant in the average of egg weight which it were 11.01 and 11.01 gm for brown and white quail respectively , and significantly (P<0.05) predominant in the average of egg mass which it were 304.5 and 288.2 gin for brown and white quail respectively , while no statistically differences appeared in feed conversion and egg production

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Article
EFFECT OF REPLACEMENT OF ANIMAL PROTEIN CONCENTRATE BY PLANT PROTEIN CONCENTRATE ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF ISA BROWN LAYER
تأثير أحلال مركز البروتين النباتي محل مركز البروتين الحيواني في الأداء الإنتاجي لدجاج بيض المائدة إيسا البني

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The present experiment v;is conducted to evaluate the effects of replacement of imported animal protein concentrate by locally produced plant protein concentrate (sunflower meal supplemented with amino acids , vitamins' and minerals) in layer rations (ISA Brown strain) on the productive characteristics of the hens and some quantitative characteristics of eggs . Five treatments were used ranging from control treatment In (100% imported animal protein concentrate + without plant Protein), T| = 25%, T2 = 50%, Tj = 75% and T'j = 100% locally plant protein concentrate.The experimental rations were iso nintro genous and iso caloric rations. The live rations were ted to 75 layer liens of 24 weeks old during the production period (24 - 40 weeks of age).Thcre were distributed into five treatments of 3 replicatets . ICach treatment containd 5 layer hens. Data were collected for live body weight, weight gain, egg production (H.D. %) , egg weight, egg mass, feed consumption, feed conversion rate and mortality rate through the production period (24 - 40 weeks of age). Results indicated that no significant differences between the different treatments in live body weight during the different production periods. However, the live body weight differed significantly as the bird progresses in age. Weight gains differed significantly during the different production periods. So, Tj and T2 showed the best weight gains among the different treatments . Egg production percentage (H.D. %) showed significant differences (P<0.05) among the different treatments and different intervals. Check treatment (0) followed by Ti and Tj gave the highest (ll.D.%) in this comparison . The production period (32 -36 weeks of age) showed the highest H.D% among the different intervals. Egg weight and egg mass at the different periods did not differ significantly. However, significant differences among the different production intervals were noticed in both egg weight and egg mass except in the first four weeks (24 - 28). The treatments Tj and T j differed as. compared with other treatments in egg mass. The last 8 weeks of egg production period of (32 -40 weeks of age) gave heavier egg weight (64.0 g/egg) and heavier egg mass (59.4 g/egg) as compared with the first 8 weeks of egg production. Data of feed consumption and feed efficiency (g. feed/egg) indicated that the different treatments as well as the different production intervals differed significant!) (!'<().05) . liens in 1 j and Tj consumed more feed than those in other treatments dining the whole production period (24 —10 weeks of age). However Hens of To showed the best feed efficiency in this comparison. No significant differences were found in mortality rate due to different replacement of plant protein concentrate treatments. Results of this experiment refer to the possibility of substitution of the imported animal protein concentrate by the locally produced plant protein concentrate in layer diets.

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