جدول المحتويات

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: الزراعة
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تأسست مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية في كلية الزراعة جامعة بغداد عام 1966. كانت المجلة تصدر بعددين في العام فقط. بدأت المجلة عام 2000 باصدار ستة اعداد في السنة لكل مجلد, وهي الان في عام 2016 بالمجلد (47). تشمل ابحاث المجلة كافة العلوم الزراعية المرتبطة بالعلوم النباتية والحيوانية فضلاً عن المكننة الزراعية والاقتصاد الزراعي والارشاد الزراعي والعلوم الداعمة للعلوم الزراعية مثل الكيمياء والفيزياء لاسيما المرتبطة بالضوء والالحرارة والرياح وغيرها. يتضمن المجلد الواحد حالياً اكثر من 75 بحثأ حيث يتضمن العدد الواحد بين 20-25 بحثاً بحسب عدد الابحاث المقبولة في كل عدد

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معلومات الاتصال

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2008 المجلد: 39 العدد: 4

Article
DETECTION OF THE FUNGUS ASPERGILLUS AND ITS TOXINS ASSOCIATED WITH COTTON SEEDS AND CAKES AND EVALUATION OF THEIR EFFECTS ON SEED GERMINATION.
الكشف عن الفطراسبرجلس وسمومه المرافقة لبذور وكسبة القطن وتقويم تأثيرها في انبات البذور

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الخلاصة

Results of isolation and identification for the associated Asprergillus species with the fibrous and unfiber cotton seeds collected from 25 locations at Baghdad, Ninewa, Wasit, Taameem and Salah Al-din governorates using Agar plate method revealed an association of three Aspergillus species, A. flavus ,A. niger and A. terrus with the fibrous cotton seeds with the high frequency of A. niger in the seed samples, the high percentage for it reached 85%, while the unfibrous cotton seeds contain also the same above three species with high frequency of A. niger, at rate 70%. Only A. flavus was isolated from cotton cakes at rate 1200 colony/g from squeezing cakes and 200 colony/g by the chemical extraction. The test of six isolates of A. flavus on the stored cotton seeds for 2, 4 and 6 months significantly caused negative effect reduced the percentage of seed germination, moisture content, germination vigority and number of abnormal seedlings. The percentage of seed germination in the treatments of the six isolates ranged 62.3-83.5, 58.0-83.0 and 54.8-75.8% after 2,4 and 6 months of inoculation respectively, while it was in the control treatment 89.0,88.0 and 86.0% respectively for the same above periods. The percentage of germination vigority ranged 19.0-24.0, 18.2-24.0 and 17.2-20.8 respectively for the same above period while it was in the control treatments 28.6, 26.3 and 25.0 respectively. The percentage of abnormal seedlings where 12.3-24.5, 14.0-28.0 and 18.4-30.8 while it was in the control treatments 10.8,11.3 and 13.3, and the moisture content for the seeds 7.9-9.7, 9.2-10.2 and 11.6-14.0 while it was in the control treatments 7.9, 9.7 and 10.1 for the three periods respectively. Besides the results showed the contamination of cotton seeds and cakes produced by squeezing or by chemical extraction by the aflatoxin B1, with the highest concentration of the toxin was found in contaminated cotton seed cakes produced by squeezing extraction which was 120ppb. The results showed that isolates of A. flavus associated with cotton seed samples were able to produce aflatoxin B1 when they were examined by TLC and photobrightness methods.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EVALUATION THE PREDACITY EFFICIENCY OF SOME NEMATODE-TRAPPING FUNGI AGAINST ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA
تقويم الكفاءة الافتراسية لبعض الفطريات الصائدة للنيماتود ضد نيماتود تعقد الجذورMeloidogyne javanica

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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the predacity efficiency for some nematode-trapping fungi and determine their mechanism of effects on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. The results showed the differences between the tested species Arthrobotrys oligospora Fres. ,A. conoides Drechsler ,A. arthrobotryoides (Berlese) Lindau, A.cladodes Drechsler وNematoctonus haptocladus Drechsler , N. robustus Jones, Dactylaria candida (Nees:Fr.) Schenck,Kendrick&Pramer, Dactylella brochopaga Drechsler, D. lepyospora, Monacrosporium eudermatum, Monacrosporium sp. In the predacity efficiency after 9 and 18days of inoculation, the number of killed nematode in the treatments of all fungi ranged 30.0-99.33 and 36.66-100.00 nematode after 9 and 18 days respectively. A. oligospora was significantly superior than the rest other fungi, but it wasn’t significantly differ from D.brochopaga, while A. cladodes showed lower predacity efficiency. In the effect of fungal colony age in the predacity efficiency, the results revealed that the 18days colony age gave significantly higher predacity efficiency from 9days colony age and the fungus A. oligospora gave the highest predacity efficiency after 18days, the number of killed nematode in its treatment 100, followed by the fungus D. brochopaga with 98.66 mean number of killed nematode, while the fungus A. cladodes in the age of 9 days showed less predacity efficiency with 30 mean number of killed nematode in its treatment. The results showed that the pure filtrate of A. oligospora doesn’t affect the root-knot nematode, while the extract of the infected root-knot nematode with five isolates of A. oligospora individually revealed significantly higher number of killed nematode after 12 and 24h of inoculation, the number of killed nematode in the treatments of the five isolates ranged 95.00-96.66 and 100.00nematode for the two periods respectively, compared with 2.33 and 2.66 number of killed nematode in the control treatment for the two periods respectively. Results of evaluations of five materials (nematode suspension, distill water, 2%ethanol alcohol, 0.1 sodium hydroxide and water agar) in the induction of trapping devices in the fungus A. oligospora also showed that all the materials induced formation of the traps, and the nematode suspension was the most efficient between them

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI ON COTTON SEED GERMINATION AND ITS CONTROL BY USING SOME PLANT EXTRACT
تأثير الفطر Rhizoctonia solani في انبات بذور القطن ومكافحته بأستعمال بعض المستخلصات النباتية

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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of Rhizoctonia solani on cotton seed germination and its control by using some plant extracts. Results showed that six of ten isolates of the fungus Rhizoctonia solani completely prohibited seed germination of the cabbage, while the seed germination of the other four isolates ranged from 16 to 95%. The six isolates HS1,HS2,HS3,HS4,HS5 and HS6 significantly surpass decreasing seed germination of the cotton cultivar Cocker-310 which was zero in there treatments compared to 100% in the control treatment. The thermal treated and untreated filtrate of the fungus R. solani had significantly negative effect and completely prohibited seed germination. To control of the fungus R. solani by cauliflower powder at 2% inhibits 50% of its growth comparing to 100% inhibition when the fungicide Beltanol was applied at rate 0.25 CC/l, followed by pomegranate coats and colocynth fruits powder at rate 2% which inhibits the fungul growth 35.55 and 25.55% respectively. Also, it was found that the alcoholic extraction of the cauliflower powder at rate 2000mg/l caused 100%inhibition of the fungus R. solani on PDA culture medium, followed by pomegranate and colocynth which caused 75 and 50% inhibition, respectively and with significant differences compared to the control. To evaluate this efficiency on cotton seeds germination, the results revealed that the treatment of cauliflower alcoholic extraction and Beltanol with the presence of the fungus R. solani significantly surpassed the seed germination compared to the other treatments and was 50 and 60% ,respectively, while the R. solani treatment showed zero seed germination.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
DETERMINATION AND BIOASSAY OF SOME PLANT HORMONES IN SOME FUNGAL EXUDATES
التقدير الكمي والإختبار الحيوي لبعض هرمونات النمو النباتيةفي رواشح بعض الفطريات

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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted at the Agriculture college of laboratories , University of Kufa during 2006 . This was to study the effect of eight fungal exudates (Aspergillus tamari , Fusarium oxysporum , Drescholera oryza , Rhizoctonia solani , Aspergillus terreus , Emericella nidulans , Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium calmorun) with two concentrations on their content of plant growth hormones : indol-3-acetic acid , zeatin and giberellic acid by using the photometric method , The bioassay was conducted on rice Oryzia sativa L. to calculated the seeds germination percentage , survival percentage and their content of plant growth hormones .The results of quantitative determinations showed that the exudates of Aspergillus tamari and Aspergillus flavus produced more hormones than the others . The concentration 15% gave significantly more hormones than the concentration of 5% , The interactions between fungal exudates Aspergillus tamari and Aspergillus flavus and their concentrations were increased with significantly difference compared with other interactions . The bioassay results occurring significant increase on germination percentage of rice seeds, while, all treatment are not significant effect on survival percentage , The results of rice on containing plant hormones were present significant difference linear increased to the containing of plant hormones in fungal exudates.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF FOLIAR SPRAYS WITH GIBBERELLIC AND SORREL EXTARACT AND PACKING ON ABSCISSION AND FRUIT QUALITY OF DATE PALM CV. BRAIM.
تأثير الرش بحامض الجبريليك ومستخلص الكجرات والتكييس في التساقط والصفات النوعية لثمار التمر صنف البريم.

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted in Al-Lateffea experimental station , Horticulture and Forests General Company for the growing season of 2004 , in order to reduce the percentage fruit dropping and improving the yield content in the date palm Braim cultivar. Thirty six trees were selected with 25 years old planted 10x10 meter. The bunches were sprayed with GA3 at a concentration of 10 , 20 mg/l and sorrel extract at 5, 10 , 15g/l and bagged the bunches with netted plastic bags . The experiment included 12 treatments arranged at RCBD with three replicates for each treatment and the experimental results showed that the percentage of a fruit drops decreased in the three stages of Khalal , Rutub and Tamur by a percentages of 44.11 , 68.81 , 61.67 % , respectively when bunches sprayed with GA3 at 20 mg/l and bagged , while the treatment with sorrel extract at 15 mg/l and kept in netted bags reduced this percentage by 51.78 % , 34.81 % and 32.90 %. Fruits weight and size increased by a percentage of 34.58 % , 35.44 % when GA3 at 20 mg/l are used and bunches kept in netted bags while the increment was 21.55% , 24.47% when sorrel extract at 15 g/l was used and bunches kept in netted bags. Bunches weight were increased by a percentage of 87.39 % when GA3 at 20 mg/l where used and bunches kept in netted bags. In the same time all the treatments causes a reduction in dry matter , TSS and sugars as compared with the control treatment.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ASSESSMENT OF GRAVITY-DRAINAGE UNSATURATED FLOW UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS FOR A SILTY CLAY LOAM SOIL: II. PREDICTING TIME RATE OF CHANGE IN DEPTH OF STORED WATETR IN SOIL PROFILE
تقويم الجريان غير المشبع للبزل الحر تحت الظروف الحقلية لتربة مزيجة طينية غرينية :II . ألتنبأ عن المعدل الزمني للتغير في عمق الماء المخزون في مقد التربة.

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الخلاصة

An 8 by 8m field plot was continuously flooded with water for forty days; the plot was covered then to prevent evaporation after ending water supply. In this study, drainage cycle started when all water infiltrated through soil surface. Gravimetric water content measurements were made from the soil surface to 140cm in 10cm increment during 90 days of drainage. The general flow equation was analytically solved under unit gradient assumptions to predict depth of stored water, and time rate of change in stored water as a function of depth during drainage period using three functions; , , and ; that describe the hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content (where Km is saturated hydraulic conductivity, θ is volumetric water content, and the subscript m, r denote maximum and minimum water content values, and β, α, and n are empirical parameters). When a power function was fitted to describe the log-log relation between depth of stored water and time, straight line trends were obtained with coefficient of determination values ranged from 0.849 to 0.970 for different depths. A close and highly significant 1:1 relationships between measured and predicted values of depth of stored water were obtained during the drainage period with correlation coefficient values of 0.987, 0.989, 0.973 and regression coefficient values of 0.993, 1.126, and 1.124 for the three functions respectively. Measured rate of change in stored water increased with increasing depth of soil profile and ranged from 1.5541 to 17.3855 cm.day-1 during the first time interval and from 0.0001 to 0.037 cm.day-1 during the last time interval for the 10 and 140cm depths respectively. A 1:1 relationships between predicted and measures values of the rate of change in stored water gave regression coefficient values of 0.986, 0.826, 1.966 and coefficient of determination values of 0.889, 0.850, and 0.863 for the three functions respectively. Values of the regression coefficient clearly showed that the first function accurately predicted the rate of change in stored water during drainage period while values of the rate of change in stored water during drainage period were under predicted by the second function and over predicted by the third function.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF POWDER OF ERUCA SATIVA ON QUALITY AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF MINCED BROILER MEAT PATTIES
تأثير اضافة مسحوق اوراق الجرجير في الصفات النوعية لأقراص مفروم لحم الدجاج

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الخلاصة

The aim of this study was to improve some quality and sensory characteristics of minced broiler meat patties by using powder of Eruca sativa (0 , 2 , 4%) and which were stored for 0 , 3 and 6 days at 4 – 7 C, and some chemical, physical and sensory tests were done for this product. The results showed that the addition of Eruca sativa had led to significant increase in moisture content, pH, WHC while there was a significant decrease in cooking loss percent, thawing loss percent, PoV, TBA and FFA. Addition of Eruca sativa led to reduced the total plate count and psychrophilic count in minced poultry meat during storage periods in refrigeration. Sensory evaluation data of flavour, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability increased when the concentrate of Eruca sativa increase. In conclusion, the results revealed the possibility of using 4% of Eruca sativa powder to poultry meat patties which improved some chemical, physical and sensory evaluation and led to safety when the patties stored for 0 , 3 , 6 days without showing undesirable changes in quality or sensory characteristics of processed product.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE COMPARISON BETWEEN FORECASTING METHODS WITH DEMAND ON RICE IN IRAQ FOR THE PERIOD (2001-2020)
مقارنة طرائق التنبؤ بالطلب على محصول الرز في العراق للمدة (2001-2020)

المؤلفون: Ali .D. Kassar علي درب كسار
الصفحات: 74-88
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الخلاصة

The objective of this research was to compare forecasting methods with demand on rice in Iraq for the period (2001-2020) using time series data of quantity available for rice consumption in Iraq for the period (1961-2000). Various methods of prediction were used represented by least squares method , simple and double exponential smoothing methods , and moving averages in addition to (B&J) procedures. The comparison has been done between these methods according to mean squares error(MSE)criteria with preferable to the model which attain less value of that criteria, and also less value of Automatic information criteria (AIC) in comparing between (ARIMA) models. The results showed that (ARIMA) models succeeded to have less value for (MSE) criteria comparing with other models. The rank of (ARIMA) model was (1,1,1) which considered to be the best model in less value of (MSE) or (AIC) comparing with other (ARIMA) models. Also, the model which has been chosen exceeded the required statistical tests. The results recommended to the importance of studying all rice crop aspects starting from cultivation through production up to marketing taking into account the issues of rice crop production in order to know its development factors and production obstacles with importance of cooperation between economists, technicians and statisticians to present the right decisions for economic policy makers to agricultural crops in general and rice crop in particular. This can not be done without efforts of various government and non government organizations to support the right and reliable data and information in order to find out an accurate estimation. Finally, studying foreign policy related to exports and imports for crops reflects domestic requirements from foodstuff in order to reduce the burden on general budget of the country.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
LORE EXTENSION REALITY OF FISHMEN BY ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION,ITS CAUSES, AND PROBLEMS IN FISH FARMS
الواقع المعرفي وألأرشادي لمربي ألأسماك بألتلوث البيئي وأسبابهو مشاكله في المزارع السمكية

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الخلاصة

The livestock is one of the basic aspects in the agricultural field, and fish recourse is one of the important livestock branches. Thus the research aims to recognize the lore reality extension of fishmen by the environmental pollution aspect of the fish farms. The governorates of the middle area have been chosen to process the research with 50% from the governorates they are Baghdad, Salah Al-Deen , Diyala and Babyl. The sample of research was formed from 50 fishmen in the governorates. The four-dimensional standard has been used to measure the lore reality, including these statements: a large knowledge, middle knowledge, little knowledge and none. The measure included 30 articles distributed on five axes, they are: The herbicides, the environmental system of the fish, the industrial factories refuse , waste process industry poultry and use of floading.The research has been summarized to reduce the lore reality of fishmen in general in the aspects of environmental pollution, that the main of the lore reality of fishmen is 55 degrees, and comparing with maximum degree is 90 and the minimum degree is zero.It is more than midlevel of 45 degree . And then it seems for research that all fishmen 100% incisted on herbicides which is the main cause of pollution of invironment in fish culture . Then when 92% incisted on the environmental system of the fish due the pollution and 88% of them incisted that the industerial factories refuse the causes of pollution .But the percent which comes at the fourth degree which is 80% of the fishmen that the pollution becomes from waste process industry poultry and the last of the result that 76% of the fishmen incisted on floading is the causes of pollution.The conclusion from this research that the problem is dealing with using of herbicides comes at the first level and then fowlloed by using of environmental system of fish , after that the industerial factories refuse ,then the waste process industry poultry . The last problem comes from using of floading water.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
LOSSES OF MECHANICAL HARVESTING OF BREAD WHEAT IN IRAQ
فواقد الحصاد الالي لحنطة الخبز

المؤلفون: Ali S. Al-Najar علي صالح النجار
الصفحات: 98-104
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الخلاصة

The research was a field data of 1992 season, determining the percentage of losses in harvesting the wheat variety maxibac by the combine harvestor.Combine harvester consists of three main units cutting, threshing and screening. The data collected from Mousel, Khalis and Kut.The results were analyzed statically using the randomized complete block design with three replications was used. It is found out that there were high losses of wheat in the screening unit of combine harvester compared with the rate of standard losses allowance. The highest average of wheat loss in Khalis 238 grainm2 .The loss happen when using height speed for the screen unite Due to suffocate for the screen by straw, as well as the air speed towards the screen, Therefore we advice to adjust the speed of air and screen. In order to, decrease both the loss of grain and suffocate the screen by straw. The cutting unit losses were within the standard allowance, but in the threshing unit there were a little more losses of wheat than the standard losses allowance. The highest average of grain loss was 72 grainm2 in Mousel because the big clearance between threshing drums and concave. That’s come from bad adjustment for the clearance or the wear of a rasp bar. That allowed passing spikes without threshing. Therefore to avoid that problem we advance the users of combine harvestor adjust the clearance between the threshing drum and concave as well as replace the wear rasp bar in order to decrease the grain loss to standard allowance.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
DEVELOPMENT OF NEW MAIZE INBRED LINES
استنباط سلالات نقية من الذرة الصفراء

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted in spring and fall seasons during 2004-2007. The objective was to develop new inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.), by using different genotypes ( Buh 106 , Talar , single cross hybrid shahed and Yu-Zp Sc704 , by hand selfing method . After three generations of selfing, 95 lines (S3) were produced . Top crosses developed by using the lines as female parents and synthetic variety 5012 as pollen parent . The field trails for top crosses was carried out by using randomized complete block design with three replications , at the same time selfing was continues , end of fall season 2007 inbred lines in seventh generation (S7) were produced . Significant differences were found among top crosses in studied characters except number of ears /plant. Plants of top cross BK102 was earlier than the others in number of days from planting to 75% tasseling and silking (55 and 56 days) . Plants of the crosses BK110 were superior in plants height (179cm). Plants of the cross BK143 and BK128 superior in number of grains/ear (304 and 300 grains/ear . The higher 300 grain weight (105 gms) produced from plants of BK104 , BK110 , BK127 and BK129. Plants of the top cross BK128 and BK164 produced higher grain yield 103 and 101 gms/plant , this revealed that both top crosses has higher general combining ability . We are recommended to use the new inbred lines BK104 , BK105 . BK110 , BK115 , BK121 , BK127 , BK128 , BK129 , BK147 , BK164 in adaillel crosses to produce promise single cross hybrids in Central Iraq .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF REMOVING SOME GRAIN OF MAIZE EAR FROM DIFFERENT POSITION ON THE WEIGHT OF OTHER GRAIN
تأثير أزالة عدد من حبوب العرنوص في الذرة الصفراء من مواقع مختلفةفي وزن الحبوب المتبقية

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الخلاصة

A field study with maize hybrid B7 × B4 and its inbred B4 was conducted at Babylon in 2007 to asses the effect of reduction in kernel number per ear on kernel weight The primary ear of each plant was bagged. Treatments were conducted after a week of selfing. The treatments were removing basal , middle, tip and basal + tip kernels, in addition to the control treatment. The ear length was divided into three parts which represented basal, middle, and tip kernels. A method was employed by husks lifting and kernels removing , then husks were bound.The results showed that basal kernels possession of the highest weight was due to rate of kernel dry matter accumulation characters of cob rather than grain filling period .This may have related with taxonomic characters of cob. Removing basal kernels didn’t rise weight of tip kernels, and this may indicate that growth regulators don’t concentrate in kernels. Basal kernels weight were highest in hybrid, whereas tip kernels weight were highest in inbred, despite the fact that means of kernels weight didn’t differ between two genotypes. The hybrid exerted efficient source – sink ratio than did inbred , and this was obvious by minor abundant in hybrid cobs weight for removing treatments compared with inbred . this is indicating of capability of hybrid in transmission additional accumulation to rest kernels. The selection for taxonomic and enzymic cob characters would provide a new foundation for increasing grain yield.

الكلمات الدلالية

جدول المحتويات السنة: المجلد: العدد: