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The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2010 volume:41 issue:4

Article
EFFECT OF SPRAYING ORGANIC NUTRIENT (VIT-ORG) ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF POTATO
تاثير الرش بالمغذي العضوي Vit-org في نمو ومكونات حاصل البطاطا

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Abstract

An experiment was conducted in the fields of the Department of Horticulture- College of Agriculture- University of Baghdad, to study the response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)cv. Desiree to the spraying of organic nutrient (Vit-org) at different concentrations, which is produced by GREEN HAS ITALIA Co. during spring season of 2008. The liquid organic nutrient contains [organic nitrogen (N)soluble in water (3% w/w), potassium oxide(K2O) soluble in water (6% w/w), organic carbon (C) from biological origin 18%, organic matter (31%w/w)]. Plants were sprayed until dripping, after ten days of emergence at concentrations of (0, 3, 4.5 and 6 ml/l H2O). The plants were divided into three groups and the process of spraying was repeated twice after the first spray, within (15) days interval. A randomized complete block design was used with three replicates. The results showed that plants sprayed with high concentration of organic nutrient for three times have significantly increased plant height to 76.67cm and number of leaves to 91.6, number of branches to 6.3per plant, leaf area 8921 cm2 , chlorophyll content to 50 SPAD unit, and plant dry weight to 122.70 g/plant, while the control treatment reached 47.0 cm plant height, 49.0 leaf, 3.40 branches, 5213 cm2 leaf area, 41.60 SPAD unit, and plant dry weight 63.25 g/plant ,respectively. The results of yield and its components were influenced in the same direction as the vegetative growth is done, dry weight percent of tubers was 25.73% , tubers firmness 11.40 kg/cm2, T.S.S was 5.50, and the number of tubers per plant was 8.33 with average weight 123.58 g, the yield per plant was 1.029kg while the control treatment gave means as 19.92% of dry weight percent of tubers, tubers firmness 10.56 kg/cm2, 4.23 T.S.S, 4.22 tuber, 94.36 g, 0.398 g , respectively. According to that we conclude that using organic nutrient will improve quality and quantity of production and conserve environment.

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Article
EFFECT OF DATE OF PLANTING AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH ,YIELD AND ACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF ARTICHOK
تأثير مواعيد الزراعة والأسمدة العضوية في نمو وحاصل وإنتاج المركبات الفعالة للخرشوف

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Abstract

A field experiment was carried out at the Experimental Field of Hort. Dept/ College of Agric.Abu-Ghraib/University of Baghdad during the growth season of 2008-2009, to study the effect of date of planting and organic fertilizer on plant growth, yield and production of active compounds in artichoke. The treatments included three dates of planting; 1/10, 20/10, 10/11/2008 and levels of fertilizers; control, recommended chemical fertilizer. ,humic(high K) foliar spray + adding to the siol, poultry manure 20 ton/ha + humic (high K)spray, poultry manure 40 ton/ha+ humic(high K)spray. A spilt plot design was implemented with three replicates . The results showed that planting on 1st.oct. increased plant height, number of branches, leaf area, number of heads, head weight, total yield, and total cynarin which were 135.6 cm, 7.2 branch, 259.4 dcm2, 11.4 head, 44.0 g, 5.0 ton/ha and 622.0 g/ha respectively. The planting on 20,10/oct.increased the percentage of inulin and cynarin up to 4.8,4.7 mg/g for the first planting date and 520.7, 441.9 mycrogram/g for the second planting date. fertilizing treatment increased vegetable and flower growth in application of poultry manure 40,20 ton/ha with spray humate which were 123.1,121 cm, 6.9,6.1 branch, 237.3,215.5 dcm2, 10.1,9.1 head 44.3,43.4 g/head, 4.4,4.0 ton/h. respectively .The poultry manure 20 ton/ha + humate resulted highest percentage of inulin ,cynarin and cynarin yield 5.6mg/g 648.2 mycrogram/g, 806.8 g/ha respectively. The interaction treatment of poultry manure 40 ton/h + with spray humate at the 1st.oct. increased plant height, number of branches, leaf area, number of heads and total yield 152 cm, 8.3 bran, 302.5 dcm2, 14.9 head and 6.6 ton/h respectively. While the highest inulin percentage and the percentage and cynarin yield in the heads 6.4 mg/g, 1036.1 mycrogram/g,1481.1 g/ha was found in plants manured with poultry manure 20 ton/h + with spray humate at the 1st.oct.

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Article
EFFECT OF SPRAYING ORGANIC FERTEILIZER ON GROWTH, YIELD AND FRUIT CRACKING OF MUSKMELON
تاثير رش السماد العضوي في النمو والحاصل وتشقق ثمار البطيخ

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Abstract

A field experiment was carried out at the College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad /Abu-Ghraib in silt clay loam soil during spring season 2007 and 2008. This was to study the effect of spraying liquid organic fertilizer (VIT-ORG) at concentrations (0, 1.5, 3, 4.5 ml/l) (M0, M1, M2, M3), respectively and( NP) fertilizer (0, 260 kg/ha) NP (C0, C1), respectively on growth and yield of muskmelon cv. Ismaily. An RCBD in a factorial experiment with three replicates. The plants were sprayed three times with organic fertilizer. Results showed that spraying organic fertilizer 4.5ml/l (M3) was superior in increasing leaf area (476.7, 473.4 cm2), chlorophyll (55.47, 57.14 SPAD Unit), plant yield (10.82, 10.37 kg), T.S.S (6.72, 6.81 %), sugar (6.17, 6.40 %) and reduce fruit cracking (20.30, 17.90 %) as compared with (M0) (365.30, 351.60 Cm2), (48.15, 49.10 %), (7.91, 7.37 kg), (5.35, 5.33 %) and (37.90, 38.20 %) for both seasons, respectively. Chemical fertilizer was superior in increasing of fruit weight (2.52, 2.42 kg), plant yield (11.01, 10.41 kg) and total yield (89.34, 86.04 ton/ha) as compared to no fertilizer (1.86, 1.80 kg), (7.64, 7.45 kg) and (63.39, 61.50 ton/ha) for both seasons, respectively. The combination treatment (C1M3) was superior on increased of plant yield (12.41, 11.97 kg), total yield (101.30, 98.70 ton/ha) and reduced fruit cracking (18.90, 16.50 %) compared with control (C0M0) (5.60, 5.46 kg), (46.10, 45.26 ton/h) and (47.60, 46.10 %) for two seasons, respectively. C1M2 was superior in branch number/plant (4.32, 4.44 branch), chlorophyll contrition (55.77, 58.73 %) and fruit weight (2.80, 2.76 kg) compared with C0M0 (3.01, 2.90 branch), (43.53, 44.30%) and (1.43, 1.39 kg) for two seasons, respectively.

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Article
EFFECT OF SEEDING RATES AND HERBICIDES ON GROWTH OF COMPANION WEEDS IN RICE FIELDS
تاثير معدلات البذار ومبيدات الادغال في نمو الادغال المرافقة لمحصول الرز

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Abstract

A field trial was carried out at Mishkab Rice Research Station, AL-Najaf governorate during the summer season of 2008 and 2009 to investigate the effects of seeding rates (120,140,160 and 180 kg.ha-1) and herbicides (oxadiazon and propanil) on growth of weeds and rice crop. A factorial experiment was carried out according to RCBD design with four replications . The seeding rate 180 kg.ha-1 gave lowest number of weeds after 30,60 and 90 days from date of sowing in both seasons (8.9, 15.5 and 23.2 plant.m-2 in first season and 7.4,15.2 and 24.2 plant.m-2) in second season, respectively. It also reduced dry weight of these plants by 35.6% and 10.4% in both seasons respectively. Therefore it gave highest of plant at both seasons, 87.9 and 83.3 cm respectively and high value of biological yield were 17.9 and 17.5 ton.ha-1 respectively at both seasons. Oxadiazon caused reduced number of weeds at stages 30, 60 and 90 days from plant-sowing at both seasons ( 1.7 , 2.1 , 12.1 , 11.8 , 25.5 and 24.1 plant.m-2 ) and also reduced the dry weight of these plants by 84% at both seasons. Therefore it gave higher biological yield (17.25 and 16.77 t.ha-1 respectively) at both seasons. Oxadiazon with 180 kg.ha-1 gave lowest dry weight of weeds at both seasons 25.0 and 23.6 gm.m-2 and superior biological yield 18.62 and 17.28 t.ha-1 respectively at both seasons. From these results we have seen that seeding rates and herbicides were working together against weeds and gave positive response to most characters of rice as grain yield.

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Article
BREEDING CROPS FOR NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCY
تربية محاصيل لكفاءة استخدام النايتروجين

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Abstract

In this review, recent developments and future speculations that explain the regulation of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of some crops are presented. It is considered essentially to get best knowledge of mechanisms that control on optimal NUE in plants to reduce fertilizer application rates, underground and irrigated water pollutions and in the same time, producing acceptable yield by using genotypes grown under agronomic conditions at low and high nitrogen rates. It is possible to develop integrated physiological researches on whole plants include genes, proteins to determine the different steps that contributing in nitrogen uptake, assimilation and recycling to final deposit sites in seeds. It is still a big challenge face plant breeders to improve crops have high potential NUE particularly cereal that NUE is not exceed 50% .The performance of genotypes consider acceptable at low nitrogen input fertilizer rates when the yield deficiency will be no more 35-40% .The main reason of lower canopy photosynthesis crops that suffer from nitrogen application results from reducing leaf area expansion , thus the intercepted photo-radiation efficiency may be reduced more than radiation itself. The genetic modification of crops may be a new approach of discovering proteins that controlling on nitrogen assimilation and translocation in plants. Especially, by identifying much of quantitative traits loci (QTLs) that code enzymes contribute in photosynthesis pathway .This support the opinions that confirm of nitrogen importance in carbohydrates assimilation and increasing of grain filling . Our knowl- edge has improved about physiological and molecular control on nitrogen assimilation in crops at different environmental conditions by using integrated approaches depending basically on physiology and quantitative genetics. Current knowledge and prospects for future to develop application for breeding crops adapted to lower fertilizer input taking into account the world economic and the environmental constrains in the next century.

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Article
AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS FOR SOME FACTORS AFFECTING PEANUTS PRODUCTIVITY IN DIYALA PROVINCE
تحليل اقتصادي لبعض العوامل المؤثرة في انتاجية محصول فستق الحقل في محافظة ديالى

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Abstract

The serious food crisis that afflicting many states assume to make it a natural trend of agricultural policies geared towards addressing the factors that affect productivity growth, which is studied and related urgent need. The aim of this work is to study factors affecting peanuts productivity by taking a random sample of 150 farmers in Diyala province in Iraq. The result showed that the double logarithmic function was appropriate with the economic meaning, by representing the relationship and passing statistical criteria.The dependent variable represented by productivity of hectare, and the independent variables contain: harvested area, mechanical work, fertilizers ,seeds ,irrigation ,experience of peanuts cultivation, pesticides and the education of farmers. The independent variables explained about 53% of variations in the productivity.The result also showed the significance of all independent factors except education,and showed that irrigation was the most factor affecting productivity because the crop needs a huge quantities of water during cultivation period and the value of parameter 0.43,that’s mean if irrigation changed by one unit ,the productivity will change with 43%.The variables: mechanical work and fertilizers follow irrigation and the value of their parameters 0.24,0.25 perspectively.When making a comparison between productivity of peanut in Iraq and other countries,we found that productivity in Iraq is the same as other Arab countries,where Egypt come first with3.1 ton/ha but it is too low against other world countries,where USA come first with 3.3 ton/ha of productivity and that is indicate problems in this crop cultivation in Iraq.

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Article
ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY AND ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE IN THE PEANUT FARMS
الجدوى الاقتصادية وتقييم الأداء في مزارع فستق الحقل

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Abstract

The use of production elements without reference to economic and technical criteria result in reduction productivity on the one hand and the high costs on the other hand, and this is lead to the lack of full and optimized usage of resources. Therefore the interested in agricultural sector must focus their attention on the ways leading to the increase in production, and the scientific methods in farm management will be necessary and sufficient condition to achieve that. This paper aims to identify the economic efficiency of crop planting through the application of measures of economic efficiency of agriculture and the most important indicators. The requirements of research has been met depending on the data form questionnaire and were randomly distributed to 150 from the crop’s farmers in Diyala province, this province was chosen to be a case study because its famous for planting the crop and contributes 62% of the total cultivated area at the country level .The results showed that all farmers have achieved positive returns in according to the used economic criteria (net cash income, net farm income, return on labor farm, farm revenue management, revenue dinar investor, the period of recovery of capital).The category (2.7 – 5 ha ) of possession were the best among the studied categories, which achieved the highest returns through the used criteria. The net cash income contributed as 86% of net farm income due to the limited quantities for domestic consumption which was 0.02 as a highest rate. The results indicate that peanut farmer has merit as an economic return on revenue dinar investor as 1.8 dinars at the level of the sample and this is rewarding, as compared to other productive projects. The period of recovery of capital at the level of the sample was 3.4 years, but encouraging at the level of large factions relatively.

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Article
SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WATER MELOM CULTIVARS TO INFESTATION BY THE TWO SPOTTED SPIDER MITES
حساسية أصناف من الرقي للإصابة بالحَلَمْ ذي البقعتين

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A field study was conducted to evaluate the response of three different cultivars of water melon Citrullus lanatus (Charlestong Gray, Crimson Sweet, Charle) to infestation by two spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch in abu Ghraib area. The seeds of the three cultivars were bought from local market and planted on 25th April 2008. Results indicated no significant differences in mobile stages of Mites during the first and second week.Moreover,the eggs were found on Charlston gray and crimson sweeet on the second week of the sample collection (7th may 2008). However, there were no eggs found in Charle cultivar until the 14th May 2008.Results also showed significant differences in the response level according to the age of the cultivar.The charleston gray was more sensitive, the general mean number for eggs and mobile stages during the season 37.92, 54.23 mobile stages,egg/leaf respectively. The lowest mean of mobile stages and eggs were 2.4,2.3 respectively on Charle cultivar in which the infestation of this cultivar were noticed on the seventh week of the experiment (11-6-2008). However, in crimson sweet cultivar the number of mobile stages and eggs were in the middle of the two others, they were 14.36 , 13.56 individual,eggs/leaf respectively. The mobile stages and eggs were increased in charleston gray followed by crimson sweet , then charle was less in their infections . Therefore, choosing suitable cuitivar for water melon should take in consideration its reponses to infestation of various pests in addition to the quatitative and qualitative characters. Key words: spidermite Tetranychus urticae, , susceptibility,watermelon Citrullus lanatus

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Article
ROLE OF APPLICATION LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS TO SOIL AND SPRAY ON GRAIN YIELD AND ITS QUALITY BY MAIZE
دور أضافة ورش الفسفور في حاصل ونوعية حبوب الذرة الصفراء

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A field experiment was conducted at the field of college of Agriculture – Univ. of Baghdad in Abu – Ghraib during the spring season of 2008 in silty clay loam soil texture classified as a Typic Torrifluvent. This was to study the role of applying phosphorus fertilizer to soil and with foliar feeding on grain yield and its quality 0f maize, cv. Bohooth 106. Three levels of phosphorus 0, 40 and 60 kg P.ha-1 were added to soil and three concentrations 0, 3000 and 6000 mg P.L-1 were used as foliar. Triplesuperphosphate (20% P) was used as phosphorus source. A randomized complete block design was used with three replications. A fixed amounts of N and K were used they were 200 kg N.ha-1 as urea (46% N) and 160 kg K.ha-1 as potassium chloride (50% K) as source for N and K respectively. Results showed that the interaction treatment of 40 kg P.ha-1 added to the soil and 3000 mg P.l-1 as foliar feeding had significant results and had the superiority to give the highest value of grain yield and the weight of 500 grain and the protein percentage of grain, that were 7.25 ton.ha-1 for grain yield, 137.70 g for 500 grain weight and 13.99% for protein percentage in grain respectively. Also result showed that the same treatment had that superiority to give the highest value of protein yield and oil yield that were 1014.30 kg.ha-1 and 319.10 for protein yield and oil yield compared with the control treatment respectively.

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Article
COMPARING ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL INSEMINATION IN AWASSI EWES
المقارنة بين تقانات التلقيح الاصطناعي والطبيعي لدى النعاج العواسي

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This experiment was carried out at Agargof Sheep Improvement Station, which belongs to the State Board of Agricultural Research, Ministry of Agriculture, through a period from September / 2008 to April / 2009.This experiment was done to compare the differences between natural insemination and artificial insemination in the vaginal, cervical and uterine through the cervix, using the diluted semen with sperm concentration of (300,250,150×106) sperm per ejaculate, respectively. Estrus synchronization was made for all the ewes (38 ewes) using vaginal sponges impregnated with 40 mg of fluogesterone acetate for 11-12 days. The percentage of ewes showed estrus was 97.3 and the lambing percentage in ewes of natural and artificial insemination in the vaginal and intrauterine were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those ewes inseminated artificially in the cervix, in spite of the absence of significant differences in lambing percentage between the natural and artificial insemination in the vagina and uterus, but was there is a tendency for higher lambing percentages in natural insemination (37.5, 30.7, and 33.3% respectively).

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Article
MINIMIZING WATER CONSUMPTION BY USING PVC PIPES IN PLANTING
تقنين استهلاك الماء بالزراعة في الانابيب البلاستيكية

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This experiment was conducted on the field of the College of Agriculture /University of Baghdad by using drip irrigation and comparing it with normal irrigation .six pipes of 20 cm diameter ,6 m long were used . They were punched from the top with 10cm diameter hole along the pipe, the total amount of the holes are 28 for each pipe and the distance between each hole is 10 cm . These pipes were marked as A1,A2,A3 filled with sand soil , pipes B1,B2,B3 filled with sand soil mixed with pitmos with 1:4 .Four grooves have been dogged with the same length and number of holes in the pipe ,the grooves marked as C1,C3 with sand soil ,while C2,C4 with sand soil mixed with Pitmos . The pipes and grooves were planted with bean seeds .Time of irrigation had been changed as follows : A1,B1C1,C2 were irrigated every 4 days with 14 Liters by using drip irrigation , A2,B2, irrigated every 6 days with 14 liters by using drip irrigation while A3,B3 were irrigated every 7 days with 14 Liters by using drip irrigation and C3,C4 were irrigated every 2 days with 75 Liters by using normal irrigation . Randomized Complete block Design with three replications and LSD (0.05) was used to compare the means of treatment at 0.05 level . The results showed that .In the first week noted that germination percentages in ,C1,A1,A2,A3,C3 were better than in C2,C4,B1,B2,B3..In the second week the length of plants were the same in all pipes and grooves ,while the growth in C1 was too weak compared with C2 ,until the plants died in C1 .In the third week I noted that the growth of the plants in B1,C3,C4Was higher than the others,while the plants were died in C2, showed planting in the PVC pipes with using drip irrigation achieved lower water consumption and better growth .

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Article
INVESTIGATING PEROXIDES AND ACID VALUE IN USED EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS .
التحري عن البيروكسيدات وقيمة الحامض في زيوت الطبخ المستخدمة

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Abstract

ABSTRACT :
Four selected oils their trade names are Alkhair, Orkide, Bizce, and Sandy after subjected each to two different frying temperatures 130o C and 170o C. The frying temperature of each interval was 20 minutes. The food stuff that subjected to frying were potato, mince meat, and fish. This transfer from 130o C to 170o C using same frying time (20 minutes) was noticed to cause changes in values of A.V. of pure oil higher than that changes of P.V. for pure oil. This transfer also caused a decrease of P.V. using pure Bizce while it caused a minimum decrease using pure Sandy. This decrease in P.V. using Bizce oil was from 23 to 9.84 meq peroxide / Kg oil, while a minimum decrease in P.V. was recorded for Sandy oil from 15.6 to 9.58 meq peroxide / Kg oil. Comparing the performance (in terms of P.V.) of pure vegetable oils this performance was recorded better at frying temperature 170o C. The maximum value of peroxide recorded in this work when foods (potato-P, mince meat-M, and fish-F) were subjected to frying processes at 130o C, and 170o C was 22.7 meq where mince meat-M fried at 130o C and using Bizce oil, then peroxide value equal 15.9 meq when potato-P fried at 130o C using Alkhair oil then peroxide value equal 14.4 meq when potato-P fried at 170o C using Alkhair oil. In this work the acid value A.V. of oils was increased whether oils were pure-P, or the oils were with foods: potato-P, mince meat-M and fish-F during frying change from 130 oC to 170 oC. This change in temperature caused a decrease in acid value A.V. using Bizce pure oil-OP from 0.97 to 0.71 mg KOH. Maximum value of acid value A.V. for foods: fried at 130 oC, and 170 oC were 0.71 mg KOH for mince meat-M fried at 130 oC using Bizce oil, and 0.66 mg KOH (table 6) for fish-F fried at 170 oC using Sandy oil.

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