جدول المحتويات

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: الزراعة
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تأسست مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية في كلية الزراعة جامعة بغداد عام 1966. كانت المجلة تصدر بعددين في العام فقط. بدأت المجلة عام 2000 باصدار ستة اعداد في السنة لكل مجلد, وهي الان في عام 2016 بالمجلد (47). تشمل ابحاث المجلة كافة العلوم الزراعية المرتبطة بالعلوم النباتية والحيوانية فضلاً عن المكننة الزراعية والاقتصاد الزراعي والارشاد الزراعي والعلوم الداعمة للعلوم الزراعية مثل الكيمياء والفيزياء لاسيما المرتبطة بالضوء والالحرارة والرياح وغيرها. يتضمن المجلد الواحد حالياً اكثر من 75 بحثأ حيث يتضمن العدد الواحد بين 20-25 بحثاً بحسب عدد الابحاث المقبولة في كل عدد

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معلومات الاتصال

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2012 المجلد: 43 العدد: 2

Article
NEW RECORD OF ARMORED SCALE INSECT IN IRAQ
تسجيل جديد لنوع من الحشرات القشرية المدرعة في العراق

المؤلفون: Iman M. Al-Malo إيمان محمد المالو
الصفحات: 1-6
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الخلاصة

New record of armored scale insect Diaspidiotus gigas (Thiem and Gerneck) 1934in Baghdad and Dohuk on leaves, branches and stems of Populus sp. during 2008-2010. These insects belong to order Hemiptera and sub order Sternorrhyncha , super family Coccoidea and family Diaspididae and tribe Aspidiotini. The identification are depended on the adult female characters. Armored scale insects most important that attacked leaves , fruits ,stems of trees and shrubs, others feeding on herbaceous plants. The insects secrete honeydew under the scale. Causing the secretion of toxic saliva during the feed direct damage for plants, which impedes the function of textile plant tissue and distortion . leaves color, change and fall, and then plant will die .The adult female can be distinguished as small in size(1-2mm) ,covered with separated scale from the body. Antennae and legless reduce, the last fifth abdominal segments fused and forming area called pygidium which is important in the diagnosis of species.The anus is on the dorsal surface. This species distributes in wild world such as Palaearctic region and Nearctic region.It attacks four plant genera belong to three plant families in the world, Betalaceae,Tiliaceae, and Salicaceae. The morphological characters were study for adult female and with the other species which nearest Diaspidiotus pyri (Lichtenstein) 1881 as studied taxonomic keys and explaining the resemblances and different points for both species.

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Article
EVALUATING THE VIRULENCE OF SOME PATHOGENIC ISOLATES FOR THREE FUSARIUM SPECIES IN DATE-PALM AND THEIR CONTROL.
تقويم ضراوة بعض العزلات الممرضة لثلاثة انواع من الجنس Fusarium في النخيل ومقاومتها.

المؤلفون: Kamil S. Juber كامل سلمان جبر
الصفحات: 7-17
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الخلاصة

This research aims to evaluate the virulence of some Fusarium species isolates which were associated with declined date-palms in Babylon governorate and control the pathogen by using the biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum and the fungicide Beltanol. The preliminary tests of pathogenicity for isolates of Fusarium spp. showed that all the isolates were significantly reduce cabbage seed germination percentage. The isolates Fo9, Fss3 and Fg4 achieved the highest reduction in seed germination, the percentage of seed germination in their treatment was 0.00-4.00% and all the other isolates were pathogenic and reduced the seed germination to 6.66-40.00% compared with control 82.66%. Results of influence of the pathogenic isolates in 3 months date-palm seedlings under lathhouse conditions indicated that all tests isolates were pathogenic compared with the control (without pathogen) and caused 73.33-93.33% infection severity. Under the lathhouse conditions, the results of test for effect of chemical fungicide (Beltanol) and biocontrol agent T. harzianum on shoot & root length and fresh & dry weight of date-palm seedlings 6 months old showed that all treatment caused significant reduction in percentage of infection severity on 6 month date-palm seedlings compared with pathogenic fungi treatments Fo9, Fs3 and Fg4 which showed 73.33%, 80.00% and 86.66% infection severity respectively. Beltanol with pathogenic fungi treatment Fo9, Fs3 and Fg4 was superior to other treatments 20.00%, 13.33% and 6.66% followed by the T. harzianum with pathogenic fungi Fo9, Fs3 and Fg4 40.00%, 26.66% and 26.66%. Also all treatments indicated that significant increase in all test palnts growth average compared with control treatment. But the treatment of the T. harzianum alone is in the first in significant increase in all test plants growth average. Results of the field experiment were similar to the lathhouse experiment, all the treatments that used to control pathogen indicated significant reduction in infection by date-palm declined disease pathogen on 3 years offshoot, it was 13.33-40.00% compared with control treatment with pathogenic fungi only which was 73.33%-80.00%.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECTS OF POPULATION DENSITIES OF BLACK BEAN NYMPH ON BIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF THE PREDATOR LARVAE OF COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTATA L.
تأثير الكثافات السكانية لحوريات مَنّ الباقلاء الأسود في الأداء الحيوي ليرقات الدعسوقة ذات السبع نقاط

المؤلفون: J. K. Al-Rubeae جواد كاظم الربيعي
الصفحات: 18-27
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الخلاصة

The Coccinella septempunctata L. is one of the important control agents against many economic insects. The aim of this research was to study the biological concepts which help in the continuation of predation . Results indicated that was a positive correlation between predator efficiency and aphid density , the lowest consumption of nymph of Aphis fabae(Scopoli) was 4.34 nymph/day when prey density was 5 nymphs/day , while consumption was increased to 20.62 nymph/day when prey density were 30 nymph/day. And The period for development of predator larvae and percentage of mortality correlated negatively with density of aphis nymph . The shortest period was 13.39 days at a density of 30 nymph / day with no observed mortality . However, The period of development was increased to 25.63 days with 40% mortality at 5 nymph/day. Curves of the functional response showed that the larva of the predator is of a second type ( cyrtoid ) of the functional response . The rate of attack coefficient was increased while the handling time was reduced , the highest attack coefficient was 1.003 cages for the 4th larval stage and the lowest attack rate was 0.875 cages for 1st larval stage. However, the highest handling time was 56.16 minutes for the 1st larva stage and the lowest handling time was 5.67 minutes for the 4th larval stage . It was concluded that predator efficiency was directly correlated with the population density of aphids nymph . Therefore using 20 nymph /day the aphids to rear the Coccinella septempunctata L.

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Article
THE INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND STORAGE PERIOD ON SURVIVAL AND ADULTS PERFORMANCE OF THE EGG PARASITOID. Telenomus busseolae GAHAN.
تأثير درجات الحرارة في مدة الخزن وبعض الأوجه الحياتية لبالغات متطفل البيض

المؤلفون: Jasim Kh. Mohammed1 جاسم خلف محمد1
الصفحات: 28-43
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الخلاصة

The species Telenomus busseolae Gahan. (Scelionidae: Hymenoptera) is considered as an effective egg parasitoid against stalk borers of Lepidoptera Sesamia cretica Led. Several laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the suitable tempreture for storing this parasitoid to be used in mass rearing programs and field releases. Two temperature regimes 15ºC and 20 ºC were considered during the duration of this study. Results had indicated that both survival and adult life span were significantly influenced by storage conditions. Survival rate was 97% after storage period of 10 days at 20ºC reduced to 64 and 14% after 35 and 50 days of storing at the same temperature respectively. Female survived storage periods of 10 and 50 days were able to infest 51 and 20 of the corn stalk borer. Eggs repectively.When the parasitoid adults stored at 15ºC, survival rates were 100, 85, 58 and 13% after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storing, respectively. The number of stalk borer eggs attacked was 58 for females survived 30 days of storing, however it was reduced to 31 and 24 egg for females stored for 60 and 120 days, respectively. Females reared at 26ºC were able to infest 118 of the corn stalk borer eggs. No influence was observed on behavior and performance of emerging females of these treatments copared to control females reared at normal conditions, Therefore,the present results would be of benefit in mass rearing programs especially in case of shortage or absence of the stuable host.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ANALYSIS OF GENOTYPE x ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION AND CULTIVAR X TRAIT DATA FOR SOYBEAN
تحليل التداخل البيئي الوراثي والصفة X الصنف لفول الصويا

المؤلفون: Jasim M.Abbas1 جاسم محمد عباس1
الصفحات: 35-55
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الخلاصة

GGE-Biplot was used to analyze yield data of eight cultivars of soybean that sown in four environments(2 locations X 2 years) to investigate the effect of genotype X environment interaction and test the performance of these cultivars under that environments. Performance of six traits was tested by GT-Biplot to study simple correlations among them. Whereas, GGE-Biplot interpreted 88.7% of total variance, whereas the first two principal components were explained 59.5% and 29.2 % of total variance, respectively. This technique showed that the four environments were suitable for soybean cultivars DT84,Lee74 and M103 which were superior under these environments based on yield data.TN12 was most stable as shown on biplot. GT-Biplot interpreted 70.3% of total variance resulted from traits behavior among them. However, the first two principal components explained 43.7% and 26.6% of total variance, respectively. AK09 behavior was stable in all traits. GT-Biplot indicated that there was significant correlation (acute angle) between seed yield and pods per plant, and plant height and seed weight. It could be concluded that the two techniques were effective to partition variances resulted from environments and trait response as well as to extract correlation among traits using acute angle among traits vectors; therefore, it could be recommended to use these techniques to study genotype-environment interaction and selection based on traits that had the strongest correlation with seed yield. For example, Lee74 could be selected based on traits of dry matter, seed yield and pods per plant.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
TESTING OF INTRODUCED GERMPLASM OF MAIZE BY LINE X TESTER MATING SYSTEM: II- PHENOTYPIC TRAITS
اختبار مواد وراثية مدخلة من الذرة الصفراء بطريقة التضريب سلالة × فاحص2- الصفات المظهرية

المؤلفون: K.M. Wuhaib كريمة محمد وهيب
الصفحات: 45-55
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الخلاصة

Field experiment was conducted at the field of Field Crops Sci., College of agric. Univ. of Baghdad. Ten inbred lines introduced from Italia were tested in Iraqi central environments for general and specific combining ability by using Line x tester mating method. Planting date was on spring and fall of 2009, selfing was used to increase homozygosity. On spring season / 2010 seeds were planted, at anthesis crossing between inbreds and tester was done. On fall season/ 2010 for crosses and parents using RCBD with four replications to evaluate and estimate some genetic parameters. The results of statistical analysis for these parents and their crosses were highly significant differences for all traits: Genetic analysis shows superiority the inbred L3 in gca for plant and ear height, and no. of leaves. The cross L1 × t8 gave high no. of rows and longer ear (20.8cm and 18.8 cm ), and gave highly positive hybrid vigor for no. of rows and ear length ( 34.19 row and 11.24 cm ) and high no. of leaves and gave high sca for no. of rows and leaves . Additive variations for inbreds were more than testers for all traits except no. of leaves and ear length, so it's more than non additive gene action. The σ2gca for inbreds was more than testers for plant and ear height, leaves area and no. of rows. σ2gca/ σ2sca were less than one for all inbreds and testers traits except no. of leaves and ear length for testers. Some traits controlled by over dominance where average degree of dominance was more than one, while other traits controlled by partial dominance where ā was less than one. We can conclude the possibility of using superior inbrds to produce hybrids or use selection for it and produce synthetic variaties .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF BORON AND POTASSIUM SPRAYING ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHITE MUSTARD
تأثير رش البورون والبوتاسيوم في نمو وحاصل الخردل الابيض

المؤلفون: I.H.Al-Hilfy انتصار هادي الحلفي
الصفحات: 56-64
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الخلاصة

To investigate the response of white mustard Sinapis alba L. sprayed with boron and potassium on growth and yield. Afield experiment was conducted during 2008-2009 and 2009- 2010 seasons at the experimental farm, Department of Field Crop Science, College of Agriculture/University of Baghdad .The layout of the experiment was a split–plot in RCBD with three replications .Boron concentrations (0,100,200,300 mg.L-1) were in the main plots while potassium concentrations (0,2000,3000,4000 mg.L-1) were in sub plots. Results showed that higher concentration of boron was superior in seed yield.ha-1 in increasing 42.14% and 56.36% for both seasons compared to control due to increases in silique. Plant-1 (453.2 and 478.2) and seed .silique-1 ( 11.2,10.8) for both seasons. Higher concentration of boron gave higher branches. Plant-1 ( 23.1 , 19.3 ) and higher plants (121.2,116.9 cm) for both seasons while higher concentration of potassium gave higher yield plant about 12.1 and 10.4 gm and higher seed yield about 1294.2 and 1472.8 Kg.ha-1 , more silique number per plant 447.6 and 480.3 and higher seed number per silique about 10.6 and 10.4 seed. Silique-1 and weight of 1000 seeds about 2.6 and 2.8 gm for both seasons. While the control treatment K0B0 gave least yield about 956.1 and 922.7 kg.ha-1 and least silique number about 320.7 and 310.5 silique.plant-1 and least plant height about 109.7 and 110.3 cm and least branch . plant-1 for both seasons

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
AN ESTIMATION OF COSTS FUNCTIONS AND SIZE ECONOMIES OF BABIL GOVERNORATE AS CASE STUDY
تقدير دوال التكاليف واقتصاديات الحجم للذرة الصفراء(محافظة بابل انموذج تطبيقي )

المؤلفون: Mohameed J. Ali محمد جاسم علي
الصفحات: 65-74
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الخلاصة

The crop of Maize is considered one of the main significant crops and its importance lies in copanent of animal fodder , Maize grain contains more than 60% of its compent of high percentage of carbohydrate .also it one of flour compont prepared for humane consumption being contain a high percentage of food component ,as for the industrial importance centered in starch in dustry and exacting oils and also through international direction to extract fuel the biology fuel from seeds of corn ,the bio fuel from seeds of Co2 and reduce levels the of And the crops in Iraq and it occupies the fourth stage of it s importance and in Babil prorince it accupies the second stage after wheat and it is one of the strategic crops in the prorince. And it considered one of the crops that under went lot of problem led to decline .its production and heighten the cost of its production that wreaked achieving the economical effienciyin addition &absence of agricultural policy and agricultural plants and to pnamerous of poultry production ,the matter that cause new burden to farmers ,more over the rising of cost production that necessities a study and analysis of the cost function of this crop. It has been chosen a random sample from 163 ministries in Babil province included about 3% of the overall framers of the crop in the province by using a form of a questionnaire prepared for this purpose.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ESTIMATION OF INDIVDUAL DEMAND FUNCTION OF WATERMELON IN IRAQ (1985- 2009 )
تقدير دالة الطلب الفردي للرقي في العراق للمدة 1985- 2009

المؤلفون: Zuhal R. AL-Huseny زحل رضيوي الحسيني
الصفحات: 75-87
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الخلاصة

Demand for most agricultural products is increasing continuously as a result of economic and social transformation. On other hand domestic production does not respond to meet this demand . The aim of this research is to estimate individual demand for an important summer vegetable crop in Iraq which is watermelon. The results showed that the average consumption per capita of watermelon was recording a negative rate of growth of -4% for the period 1985-2009. The results also showed that the most important factors affecting consumptional demand for watermelon for the same period were retail price for the crop and the average prices of vegetable crops as substitutes. On other hand the results showed that the effect of average per capita income on quantity consumed was very low and it was statistically insignificant. The value of time coefficient indicated a negative rate of growth in demand with time which means that the consumers tastes decreased as an affecting factor in crop demand. The independent variables explained 71% of total changes in consumed quantities on Iraq level for the whole period. The results showed that the values of price elasticity of demand, cross elasticity, and income elasticity were -0.71, 0.97 and 0.01 respectively. The research had arrived to some recommendations such as crop support through fertilizers and pesticides subsidies and extension and to supply subsidies improved seeds .

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Article
AN ESTIMATION OF COST FUNCTIONS AND SIZE ECONOMIES OF COTTON FOR THE YEAR 2009-2010(TAAMIM PROVINCE AS A CASE STUDY)
تقدير دوال التكاليف واقتصاديات الحجم لمحصول القطن للموسم الزراعي2010- 2009)محافظة التأميم أنموذجا تطبيقيا(

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الخلاصة

Agriculcural Sector in Iraq Suffered from several and Complicated problems which affected the availability of food and clothing directly and indirectly.Cotton production suffered from many problems which resulted in its production decline . As a result many farmers quited cotton production and transferred to the cultivation of other substitute crops. The aim of this research is to estimate the cost functions of the crop and consequently to derive the economies of scale for the crop. This was achieved through a field study carried out in Taamim province by choosing a random sample of 200 farmers. The results showed that the variable costs were higher than fixed costs as they consisted about 69.65% of total costs. On other hand fixed costs consisted about 30.35% of total costs. The rise in variable costs was due to the high costs of labour assigned for harvesting , while family labour consisted the highest percentage of variable costs , about 23.02% and this refleats the importance of labour as Constrain in the productiors of cotton. The results also showed that the optimum production quantity was about 14.8/ hectare which achieved the lowest costs of about 302.5 thousand dinars / ton . On other hand the optimum area was about 1 hectare , while the range of the sample area was between 0.25 – 4 hectares . The results also showed that about 29% of the farmers in the sample achieved the economies of scale While 47.5% did not achieve the economies of scale and 37.5% achieved lower percentage of economies of scale. The results revealed that the price elasticity of supply was low which means the limited response of producers for the changes in prices.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EXTRACTION OF β-GLUCAN FROM BARLEY BRAN AND ASSESMENT OF SOME FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND MOLECULAR WIEGHT
استخلاص البيتاكلوكان من نخالة الشعير وتقويم بعض صفاته الوظيفية وتقدير وزنه الجزيئي

المؤلفون: M. A. Musa مكارم علي موسى الطائي
الصفحات: 100-108
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الخلاصة

β-glucan was extracted from local barley bran (Hordeum vulgare L) cv. Eba 265 , by aqueos extraction at pH 7and 55 C˚.The molecular weight was estimated by size exclusion HPLC ,which reached 92×103 kd compared to standard .Theoretic molecular weight which depend on apparent viscosity was 1.55564 ×105 kd. Its functional and physical properties determined, showed that percentage of β-glucan extracted from barley bran was 5% ,relative ,apparent viscosity at 0.2 % was 1.247,1.22 ml/g, respectively .Water and fat retenation capacity was 900 and 140 %. The results showed that β-glucan had capacity for foaming stabilization which reached 0.9 % at 5 and 95c˚for each .Hence, used β-glucan with starch improved its properties in prepared food instead of thickener materials such as carboxymethel cellulose or some gums such as arabic gum, guar gum and locust bean gum .Bread formulas contained β-glucan instead of some gums which was usually, adding improving materials and also adding β-glucan to food which included starch to increase its viscosity . Also adding it to drinks and juices as thickener materials . β-glucan had higher capacity to absorb water and fat and foam stabilization in its solution . This supported its role in the foods ,so it's possible use in the dairy products especially cooking cheese ,ice cream , salad sauce as emulsifying materials because of its higher ability to absorb water and fat and foam fixation, especially in cake and some baking products .

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Article
THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BARLEY BETA GLUCAN AND ITS USE AS PREBIOTIC IN ACIDOPHILUS MILK
الفعالية التثبيطية لبيتاكلوكان الشعير واستخدامه محفزاً حيوياً في الحليب الاسيدوفيلي

المؤلفون: Shatha A.Al-Aithy شذى عبدالله الليثي
الصفحات: 109-118
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الخلاصة

β-glucan was extracted from local barley bran (Hordeum vulgar L) cv.Eba 265 , by water extraction method at pH 7and 55 C˚.Its molecular weight was estimated by size exclution HPLC,which reached 92×103 kd compared to standard . Inhibition effects of β-glucan toward different microorganisms was examined to assess the antimicrobial activity . The microorganism included Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus cereus , Escherichia coli , Pseudmonas aeruginosa . Inhibition zone diameters at 0.1 mg/ml were 19,15,10and 9 mm ,respectively ,at 0.2 mg/ml concentration β-glucan were 21,17.5, 12 and 11 mm respectively , β-glucan extract at 0.1 ,0.2 concentration have no inhibition activity towards Rhizopus stolonifer and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effect of β-glucan in Lactobacillus acidophilus growth was studied to illustrate its role as prebiotic. Adding 1,2,3 % β-gluan to acidophilus milk product produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus starter showed significant increase in bacteria number during storage for 24 hours which were 10.70,10.66 ,10.60 respectively compared to control treatment 10.50 and there were a decrease in pH value for all treatments which reached 4.7, 4.6 ,4.4 respectively compared to control treatment 5 of acidophilus milk .Hence consumed the whole grain the highest contained percentage of β-gluan such as Barley and Oat and used in prepare kinds of food and study important in stimulation of immunity against diseases by using experimental study in vitro and in vivo also other study on antimicrobial activity against other bacteria and important in enhance the immune response for human against diseases . β-gluan can use in different concentration such as prebiotic for LBA and range effect of added different concentration from β-gluan on another kind of LBA also other experimental study around consumed β-gluan from microflora .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
RESPONSE OF OLIVE TRANSPLANTS TO SEAWEED EXTRACT AS SOIL APPLICATION AND FOLIAR APPLICATION OF MAGNESIUM
استجابة شتلات الزيتون لاضافة مستخلص الطحالب البحرية للتربة والتغذية الورقية بالمغنسيوم

المؤلفون: Ali A. Ismaeal علي عمّار اسماعيل
الصفحات: 119-131
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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted in lath house during 15/3 – 15/10/2010 in Neaimiyia Nursery –General Establishment of Horticulture and Forestry to study the effect of marine fert assoil application and foliar application of magnesium and interaction on some features of olive transplants –K18 and Khodeiri cvs. Marine fert (12% natural organic matter extracted from seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum)was applied with 0,2,4 ml/ l. to soil ,magnesiumwas Sprayed in form of MgSO4.7H2O (9.76%Mg)in the following concentrations, 0,1,2,3g/l. AFactorial experiment in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates .K18 exceed significantly in the average increase of main length stem , branches number ,leaves number ,while Khodeiri variety exceed in Leaf aera; and the two cultivars showed no difference in stem diameter, percentage of dry matter,N and P in leaves, while the higher percent of K detected in K18 Variety.Marine fert with 2 or 4 ml/ l. caused significant effect in vegetative growth features where the average increase in 2 ml/ l. were(18.7%) in main stem length , (30.9% )in branches number,(19.5 %) in main stem diameter ,(37.6 % )in number of leaves and (24.9% )in leaf area with no significant different between 2 ml/l. and 4ml/l. effects on all these features .Magnesium with 1g/l. Conentraction had significant effect on vegetative growth features , where average increase were(13.43% )in main stem length , (18.8% )in branches number , (23.9%) in main stem diameter , (27.2% )in leave number and (18.1%) in leaf area. While the other concentrations did not affect these features. 1g/l. magnesium and marine fert increased significantly the percentage of dry matter ,N,P and K in leaves.The interaction between marine fert and magnesium resulted a significant effect on all features and the best results were found when using 2 or 4m/l. marine fert with 1 g /l.Mg which resulted in improving vegetative growth and N,P,K content of leaves.

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Article
THE EFFECT OF DISC TILT ANGLE, TILLAGE SPEED AND DEPTH ON SOME OF MACHINERY UNIT TECHNICAL AND ENERGY REQUIREMENTS PARAMETERS
تاثير زاوية الميل لأقراص المحراث القرصي وسرعة وعمق الحراثة في بعض المؤشرات الفنية ومتطلبات القدرة للوحدة الميكنية

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted on a farm at the College of Agriculture – University of Baghdad during 2010 in a silty clay loam soil, New Holland tractor with Disc plow was used.In this study treatments were laid out using split-split plot with randomized complete block design with three replicates. The study consist of three factors : First factor was tractor speed with three level’s (4.27 , 5.51, 7.27) kn/hr, which represented main plots second factor was plowing Depth with two level’s (10,20) Cm, which represented sub plot’s , third factor was tilt angle of disc with three level’s ( 15, 18, 21) which represented sub-sub plot’s. slippage percentage , field efficiency , number of clod’s 10 cm/m2 and fuel consumption as well as machinery unit energy requirement were determind in this experiment . Results obtained indicated that third speed (7.27 km/hr) showed significant superiority in comparison with other speeds (4.27, 5.51 km/hr) in recording higher values of field efficiency (97.722%), lower, value of number of clod’s 10 cm/m2 (5.278 clodm2) , lower value of fuel consumption (41.671 L/ha) and lower value of machinery unit energy requirements (154.994 kw.hr/ha) . First plowing depth (10cm) showed significant superiority in comparison with second plowing depth (20 cm) in recording lower slippage percentage (6.842 %), higher value of field efficiency (95.353%) , lower value number of clod’s 10 cm/m2 (5.482 clod/m2), lower value of unit energy requirements (158.596 kw.hr/ha). Third tilt angle (21) showed significant superiority in comparison with other angles (15and 18) in recording lower slippage percentage (7.659%), higher value of field efficiency (98.511%) , lower value of number of clod’s 10 cm/m2 (6.500 clod/m2) , lower value of fuel consumption (44.707 L/ha) and lower machinery unit energy requirement (166.160 kw.hr/ha). It can be concluded that third tractor speed (7.27 km/hr) with first plowing depth (10cm) with third disc tilt angle (21) showed significant superiority in comparison with other speeds, depth and tilt angles in recording best of machinery technical performance and energy requirement parameters , and therefore it can be recommended using the third speed of tractor with first plowing depth with third disc tilt angle when New Holland tractor with disc plow are used as a machinery unit.

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Article
INHIBITION OF NITRATE REDUCUTASE PRODUCTION FROM GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA USING ZIZYPHUS SPINA-CHRISTI EXTRACT AND COMPARING WITH SOME ANTIBIOTICS
تثبيط انزيم اختزال النترات المنتج من قبل البكتريا السالبة لصبغة كرام بأستخدام مستخلص السدر ومقارنته مع المضادات الحيوية

المؤلفون: Sawsan H.A. Korji سوسن حسن عثمان كوره جي
الصفحات: 144-150
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الخلاصة

Plants have an almost limitless ability to synthesize aromatic substances , most of which are phenols or their oxygen substituted derivatives . these secondary metabolites could be utilized for benefit of mankind by studying their medical properties . the study was performed for testing the effect of different Zizyphus. spinachristi extracts (aqueous and alcoholic) on some gram negative bacterial growth in comparison with antibiotics , and compare their effects against nitrate reductase production by Brucella spp. And other gram negative bacteria. A total of nineteen diagnosed isolates were tested include : Brucella abortus , Brucella melitensis , Proteus spp. , Klebsiella spp. , Pseudomonas aeruginosa و Escherichia coli and Enterobacter spp. These isolates originally isolated from clinical materials collected from patients . the antimicrobial agents susceptibility test by disc diffusion method was performed using eight antibiotics . the minimum inhibitory can centration (MIC) of the antibiotic (Ciprofloxacin) was determined for the most sensitive bacterial isolates. The aqueous and alcoholic leaves and stem bark extracts were prepared in different concentration (10,20,40)% and the activity of the extracts was determined by measuring the diameter of inhibition zone using ager well diffusion method. The inhibitory effect of ciprofloxacin and Z.spina-christi aqueous and alcoholic extracts were determined against the nitrate reductase production by test microorganism using sub-MIC concentration of each materials . The results showed highly significant p<0.05 antibacterial effect of Z.spina-christi aqueous stem bark extracts on all the bacterial isolates specially Klebsiella spp. (20 mm) and E.coli (20 mm) compared with the leaves extracts (13 and 10) mm for Klebsiella spp. and E.coli respectively , at 40% concentration, while the heist activity was determined by alcoholic stem bark extract at 40% concentration against Klebsiella spp. (13 mm) isolates . the antibiotic susceptibility showed that all isolates were resistant to ampicillin and Trimethoprim , while they were susceptible to Ciprofloxacin ,Cefotaxime and Z.spina-christi revealed inhibited the nitrate reductase production from all tested bacteria. I can recommend that Z.spina-christi extracts have a good antibacterial effect against Brucella spp. and other gram negative bacteria. And the aqueous extracts of the stem bark is the best extract. and both Ciprofloxacin and Z.spina-christi extracts inhibited the production of nitrate reductase from all tested bacteria.

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