Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2010 volume:41 issue:2

Article
DIET DILUTION WITH LEVELS OF GROUND WOOD, PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND SOME BLOOD CHARACTERISTICS OF BROILER COBB-300.
تخفيف العلف بنسب من مسحوق الخشب في الأداء الإنتاجي وبعض صفات الدم لفروج اللحم سلالة* Cobb-300

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Abstract

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of diet dilution with levels of ground wood on productive performance and some blood characteristics at early age of broiler chicken ( 4 – 14 d). Using 450, unsexed one-day old broiler chicks of cobb -300. Reared together as one group for the first 3 days, after that, birds were divided randomly into 6 treatment with 3 replicates with 25 chickens in each replicate. First group was regarded as control group (c) fed on control diet, where as the remaining groups (T1 – T5) were fed on diets diluted with ground wood at levels of 10 , 20 , 30 , 40 and 50% of the control diet respectively. A compensatory growth was noticed in groups T1 – T4 and became similar in their body weights with the control group at 56 days of age but birds in treatment (T5) did not exhibit any compensatory growth and body weights were reduced significantly when compared with control group. Total feed intake was reduced significantly in groups T3 – T5. Mortality was declined in all treatment groups during first 4 weeks, and means of total feed conversion ratios were improved in all treatment groups except in T1 and T2. Production Index values were improved in groups T1 , T3 and T4 Economic Index was improved significantly in groups T1 – T4 when compared with control group at 56 days of age. Red blood cells count and packed cell volume were decreased in groups T2 – T5. Hemoglobin concentration was decreased while heterophil: Lymphocyte ratio increased in T1 – T5 compared with control group at 14 days of age. In conclusion, that the dilution of diet with ground wood led to reduce feed intake and total mortality percentage, improved production index , Economic Index and feed conversion ratios.

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Article
WHITE LEGHORN LAYER PERFORMANCE AFTER UROPYGIAL GLAND REMOVAL BEFORE THE AGE OF SEXUAL MATURITY
الاداء الانتاجي لدجاج اللكهورن الابيض المزال الغدة الزمكية قبل النضج الجنسي (*)

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Abstract

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of uropygial gland removal before the age of sexual maturity on Layer performance of white Leghorn (WL) Laying hens. The study was carried out at Poultry farm of the College of Agriculture – University of Baghdad from the date of 4/5/2005 to 31/7/2006. The duration of the experiment was 15 months. A total of 180 WL pullets of 14 weeks old were randomly divided into four treatment groups. The Surgical removal for Uropygial gland (preen gland) were carried out at 16,18 and 20 weeks of age for the first three treatment groups (T1 ، T2 and T3) respectively. WL pullets at T4 were used as control group , so the uropygial gland of the hens for this group wasn't removed. Hen-Day (H.D) , Hen-House (H.H) egg production , Egg mass , and feed conversion rate (g. feed / g. egg) were measured monthly throughout of the experimental period which is lasted for 15 months. The data showed that Uropygialectomy were not significantly affected egg production , accumulative egg production and egg mass in WL Laying hens. The treatment of uropygial gland removal in age of 18 Wk. had the best feed conversion rate in age of 46-49 Wk. since the feed conversion rate for this treatment was 1.51 g. feed / g. egg in comparison with control group which the feed conversion rate for it was 2.22 g. feed / g. egg. The treatment of uropygial gland removal in age of 16 Wk. had the best feed conversion rate in age of 62-65 Wk. since the feed conversion rate for this treatment was 2.04 in comparison with control group which the feed conversion rate for it was 2.16 , while there was no significant difference between the other treatments in comparison with control group. The results can be summarize as follows : the uropygial gland removal of the WL before the age of sexual maturity had no effect on most of the productive properties of this chicken.

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Article
ROLE OF FOLIC ACID IN THE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF PREGNANT AWASSI EWES AND THEIR LAMBS
استخدام نسب من حامض الفولك في الأداء الإنتاجي للنعاج الحوامل العواسية ومواليدها

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Abstract

Two experiments were carried out at the animal farm, Department of Animal Resources ,College of Agriculture and Forestry,Mosul University. Sixty mature Awassi ewes in experiment 1 of 2.5 years old and about 39-40 kg body weight were randomly divided into 4 equal groups (15 ewes/group). Ewes were supplemented with four different levels of folic acid (0,4,8 and 12 mg/kg diet respectively) from mating to lambing.In experiment 2, sixty lambs were also randomly divided into 4 equal groups (15 lambs/group).Lambs were orally administrated with four different levels of folic acid (0,0.25,0.50 and 0.75 mg/kg live body weight respectively) for their born to weaning (90 days old).Results of experiment 1 did revealed an obvious improvement in fertility percentage,prolificacy,lactose and milk pH in accompanied with reduction in heart beats of group 4 (12 mg folic acid/kg diet) as compared with the other groups.Daily gain, milk yield and some blood parameters were also enhanced in ewes pertaining to group 4 in comparison with the other groups.Lambs of group 4 (0.75 mg folic acid/kg live body weight) achieved the better performance, growth rate and physiological characters as compared with the other groups.These lambs were superior in their birth and weaning weights, blood parameters and viability percentage.In conclusion,folic acid play an important role in improvement of reproductive and productive performance of Awassi ewes and growth rate and physiological characters of lambs pertaining to these ewes .

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Article
ESTIMATION OF THE DIRECT AND INDIRECT EXPECTED GENETIC IMPROVEMENT DEPENDING ON THE PHENOTYPIC PERFORMANCE OF AWASSI SHEEP AT WEANING
تقدير التحسين الوراثي المباشر وغير المباشر المتوقع اعتمادا على الأداء المظهري للأغنام العواسية عند الفطام

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the estimation of direct and indirect genetic response dependent on phenotypic values for weaning weight (WWT), number of lambs weaned (LNO) and economic value (EV) of both traits. This study was carried out at the Sheep and Goat Research Station, State Board for Agricultural Research (20 km west of Baghdad), and over the period from 1/7/2008 to 31/1/2009. Data of 603 records of 379 ewe, sired by 48 rams were analyzed. Different criteria of selection program (90, 80, 70, 60 and 50 %) were used to select ewes from the flock. The selection depend on phenotypic values WWT, LNO and EV. The percentage of direct genetic response for WWT were 1.31, 2.19,2.93,3.59 and 4.20% from the flock mean at the selection percentage 90 , 80 , 70 , 60 and 50 % respectively. Direct genetic response of LNO corresponding were 0.57 , 1.14 , 1.79 , 2.53 and 3.27 %, and direct genetic response of EV were 1.20 , 1.97 , 2.60 , 3.19 and 3.72 % respectively. The selection at 50 % of ewes showed a high of direct genetic response 4.20, 3.27, 3.72 for WWT, LNO and EV respectively. The direct selection for LNO showed increase in the percentage of indirect genetic response for WWT and EV (1.70 and 1.52%) at the selection criteria 70%. However the direct selection for WWT and EV showed a decrease in the percentage for LNO at all selection criteria. In conclusion, a positive genetic response dependent on direct selection was found.

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Article
WEED COMPETITION AND ITS IMPACT ON GROWTH CHARACTERS OF SOME WHEAT CULTIVARS
منافسة الادغال وأثرها في صفات نمو بعض اصناف الحنطة

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Abstract

A field experiment was conducted during 2008-2009 winter season at the Farm of Field Crop Sciences Department, College of Agriculture/ University of Baghdad, to identify the effect of weed competition on growth characters of some wheat cultivars. Randomized Complete Block Design arranged in Split plot was used. The main plots included weed treatments, weedy check treatment, grass weed treatment, broadleaved weed treatment and weed free treatment, while sub plots included wheat cultivars, Tahaddi, Iraq, Fatah, Abu-Graib 3, IPA 95 and IPA 99. The results showed that the percentage of grass weed was 18.75% while the percentage of broadleaf weed was 81.20% , it was also observed that growth characteristics of the different cultivars were affected by weed competition during 92 days after sowing in comparison with other duration, which caused reduction 13.41, 35.37 and 56.8% in leaf area, plant dry weight and crop growth rate respectively at weedy treatments as compared with weed free treatments. Abu-Graib 3 cultivar showed greater tolerance to weed competition as a result of its least affect of growth characteristics of the presence or absence of weeds. Growth characters of IPA 99 cultivar affected by weed competition during the same period with the reduction percentage of weedy treatment were 23.72 and 46.67% in leaf area and plant dry weight respectively. However, Growth characteristics of Fatah cultivar were most affected at 124 days period after sowing with the reduction percentage of 63.3, 94.43, 93.18 and 90.91% in plant dry weight, crop growth rate, net assimilation rate and relative growth rate respectively in comparison with other cultivars. It was concluded from the present study that Abu-Graib 3 cultivar could be the most tolerance one for weed competition, and Fatah and IPA 99 cultivars were the most sensitive to weed competition.

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Article
GENETIC ANALYSIS AND ESTIMATION OF SOME GENETIC PARAMETERS OF MAIZE TOP CROSSES
التحليل الوراثي وتقدير بعض المعالم الوراثية في الهجن القمية للذرة الصفراء

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A field experiment was conducted at Al-Madain district, during spring and fall seasons of 2007. Hybridization program( line ×tester ) experiment was conducted with six inbred lines of maize ; Agr 183 , Wc 163, PAN 466 , De Kalb 243 , X q880 and YUZPT 75 ( maternal), with two testers, lba 5012 and Tallar, (perental), during spring season. In fall season, field yield trail was conducted, sowing these genotypes (six pure lines with two testers and 12 top crosses) was to estimate , top cross hybrid vigour, effect of GCA and SCA, developing hybrids for high grain yield and other traits. Significant differences were among genotypes and their mating’s in studied traits, except ear number/plant.Hybrid (I ×Agr183) produced higher average number of grain/row (39.50) and grain yield 212.36 g/plant, higher average weight of grain were 31.08/g .The hybrid (T×Wc163) gave higher positive hybrid vigour for best parents and mid parents for weight of grain (13.03% ,17.73%), grain yield (57.52%, 117.98%) for the hybrid (I ×Dekalb243) respectively.Significant difference were found for the effect of GCA.Inbred Agr183 was the best, for the GCA of number of ears/plant, and number of grain/row.Inbred PAN466, was best for the plant height and Dekalb243 best in number of grains/row, weight of grain and grain yield, These results reflect that DEKALB243 had a great contribution in transmitting traits to the hybrid, which share in producing the hybrid (T×PAN466) was higher in number of grains/row and grain yield, the hybrid (I×Xq880), was higher in weight of grain. High value of effect of SCA, pointed out the increasing of averge trait in hybrid production comparing to their parents. Genetic variance dominance values б²D was higher than genetic variance additive values б²A for all traits except grain yield.Higher decrease in narrow sense heritability for all traits, increase of the average of dominance ā than one, except 50% tassiling The higher grain yield obtained was 212.36 g/plant for top cross hybrid (I×Agr183). Dominance Inbred in GCA can be reproduced and used in hybrid breeding after self-pollination with selection for other generations.

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Article
EFFECT OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATURS ON SOME VEGETATIVE CHARACTERS OF BLACK SEED.
تأثير منظمات النمو النباتية في بعض الصفات الخضرية للحبة السوداء

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A field experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with a spilt plot arrangement with three replicates.the planting population of black seed was 200000 /ha. This was estimate the effect of plant growth regulators(PGRs) on vegetative growth of black seed during 2003/2004at the experimental farm of Dept of Field Crop Science, College of Agriculture. The PGRs were coconut milk ,gibberillin and ethephon with concentrations of 100000 µl/l, 100 µg /g and 1000 µl/l ,respectively as well as the control (water) .Coconut milk and gibberllin gave highest plant height of 65.2 and 64.9 cm ,respectively .Coconut milk was superior in stem diameter ( 4.17 mm), while ethephon and gibberillin had highest secondary branches no./plant of 19.36 and 19.31 branch .A highest stem weight was effected by coconut milk and gibberillin ( 4.76 and 4.71 g, respectively). Biological yield was increased with coconut milk (18.54 g). Root weight increased with the PGRs of for gibberllin ,coconut and ethephon to give 7.40 ,7.33 and 7.17 g/plant ,respectively .Coconut milk was superio in vegetative system dry weight /root system weight f.63

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Article
DETECTION OF FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH THE SEEDS ANDPLANTS OF BARNYARDGRASS AND EVALUATINGTHEIR PATHOGENIC EFFICIENCY.
الكشف عن الفطريات المرافقة عن طريق بذور ونباتات الدنان وتقويم مقدرتها ألأمراضيه

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This experiment was conducted to detect the fungi associated with seeds and shoots of Barnyardgrass and to evaluate the efficacy of the isolated fungi on biocontrol of barnyardgrass under glass house condition. Results of isolation and identification showed the existence of 26 species of fungi associated with barnyardgrass seeds which were isolated from five samples collected from four governorates, Theykar, Messan, Al-Najiff and Al-Kadessia. The percentage of frequency of these fungi ranged 0.0 % - 65.0 %, also 8 species of fungi were isolated from the foliage of one sample of Barnyardgrass collected from Abu-Ghraib location, Baghdad governorate with 5 % - 35 % percentage of frequency. The isolation and identification of these fungi regard the first record of these fungi on Barnyardgrass in Iraq. Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler was the most frequently fungus found on seeds and shoots of Barnyardgrass, it was isolated from all the tested samples with 7.75 % - 65.0 % percentage of existence, while the percentage of frequency in the foliage sample was 35 %. Results of spray of Barnyardgrass seedlings 21 days old with spore suspension of eight pathogenic fungal isolates showed disease severity ranged from 26 % for the Ulocladium atrum (UA5) isolate to 62 % for Curvularia tuberculata (CT4) isolate , while all the isolates revealed significant reduction in foliage fresh and dry weight of Barnyardgrass seedlings. Results of soil treatments with spore suspension of eight pathogenic fungal isolates showed significant effect ( p=0.05) in percentage of seed germination disease severity and fresh and dry weight for the shoots and roots compared with the control treatment , Cylindrocarpon didymium (CD3) isolate showed highest effect it gave 20.0 % , 73.3 % , 2.1 gm / plant , 1.40 % gm / plant , 2.50 gm / plant and 1.00 gm /plant respectively.

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Article
DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM AREA OF BREAD WHEAT BY USING SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
تحديد المساحة المثلى للقمح باستخدام الري بالرش

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The aim of the research is to study the nature of wheat production cost in Saladhin province by using sprinkler irrigation and comparing it with gravity irrigation. From costs data costs function could be estimated in order to derive optimum area of wheat by using sprinkler irrigation and comparing it with the optimum area of the crop by using traditional irrigation. This research depended on data derived from stratified random sample for wheat farmers in Saladhin province for the production season 2001-2002. The sample included 223 farmers using traditional irrigation representing 77% of the total population and 65 farmers using sprinkler irrigation representing 23% of the total population which amounted to 288 farmers. The results showed that 63.27% of farm labour in the province depended on family labour before harvesting while this percentage decreased during and after harvesting to about 36.73%. The hired labour employed before harvesting formed 27.66% and during and after harvesting formed 72.34% of total labour. The results of gravity irrigation for IPA cultivar that the optimum area is 39.5 hectares while the percentage of the cultivar farms while achieved economies of scale were 79%. The results of sprinkler irrigation for the same cultivar showed that the optimum area was 36.5 hectares while the percentage of the cultivar farms which achieved economies of scale were 88%. The results also showed that the economic efficiency of the sprinkler irrigation farmers was better than the gravity irrigation farmers as the IPA cultivar using sprinkler irrigation a level of economic efficiency of 89% of total farms, while it achieved on economic efficiency of 64% in gravity.

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Article
DETERMINATION OF SOME PATHOGENS OF DATE PALM OFFSHOOTS DEATH PHENOMENON AND THE EFFECT OF ِSALINITY AS A PREDISPOSITION FACTOR FOR DISEASE
تحديد بعض مسببات ظاهرة موت فسائل النخيل وتأثير الملوحة كعامل مهئ للمرض

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This study was conducted to detect date plam offshoots death phenomenon, isolation and identification the fungi associated with declined offshoots in the middle of Iraq, evaluation their pathogencity, The results of field survey covered twelve locations (Baghdad, Kerballa, Babylon, Diala, EL-Qadjsia and EL-anbar) revealed the presence of this phenomenon in all studied locations and the percentage of offshoots death ranged between 13% to 42%. Microbial analysis showed that ten fungal species (Alternaria alternnata, Chalaropsis state of Ceratocystis radicicola, Cylindrocarpon album, C. destructans, C. destructans var. crassum, Drechslera australinsis, Fusarium graminearum, Pythium aphanidermatum , Rhizoctonia solani and Scytilidium thermophilum) belonged to eight genuses associated with declined offshoot, roots in varied percentage of occurency. The isolation of the species belonged to the genus cylindrocarpon was the first in Iraq. The fungus C. destructans was isolated from all tested samples with highest frequency isolation percentage 48.75%, followed by C. destructans var. crassum and C. album which isolated from nine and seven samples 33.88% and 32.50% respectively, while the other fungi isolated from one to six samples with isolation frequency ranged between 5% to 25%. The results also showed that isolates AZ1, AZ2 and AZ3 were more virulence (0, 2 and 3 seeds germinationl). The results of the effect of 8 fungi isolates C.destructaus (AZ1), C. destructans var. crassum(AZ2), C.album (AZ3), C. state of ceratocystis radicicola (AZ4), F.graminearum (AZ5), D.australiensis (AZ6) , A. alternata (AZ7) , P.aphanidermatum (AZ8) on sixty days old date palm seedlings revealed that all tested isolates induced significant increment in disease severity 25-85% as compared with control untreated treatment 0% , and the isolate AZ1 was the superior 85% followed by isolate AZ4 75%. The tested pathogenic fungi also induced significant reduction in all tested plant growth parameters compared to control treatment, and isolate AZ1 was the more effective which reduced the shoots & roots length and fresh & dry weight of shoots to 16, 3.75cm, 2.07 and 0.15 gm respectively, compared to 44.4, 55cm and 6.94 , 2.2gm in control treatment respectively. The results of the interaction between salinity and fungal pathogens showed that the all tested levels of salinity 2, 4 and 8 dc/m increased the virulence of the fungal pathogens compared to that of the fungal pathogens only, also significant reduction in plant growth parameters was recorded.

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Article
ROLE OF PHOSPHORUS APPLICATION TO THE SOIL AND FOLIAR ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF MAIZE
دور إضافة الفسفور الى التربة وبالرش في نمو وحاصل الذرة الصفراء

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A field experiment was conducted at the field of college of Agriculture – Univ. of Baghdad in Abu – Ghraib during the spring season of 2008 in silty clay loam soil texture classification as a Typic Torrifluvent. This was to study the role of applying phosphorus fertilizer to soil and with foliar feeding on growth and grain yield of maize, cv. Bohooth 106. Three levels of phosphorus 0, 40 and 60 kg P.ha-1 were added to soil and three concentrations 0, 3000 and 6000 mg P.l-1 were used as foliar. Triplesuperphosphate (20% P) was used as phosphorus source. A randomized complete block design was used with three replications. A fixed amounts of N and K were used they were 200 kg N.ha-1 as urea (46% N) and 160 kg K.ha-1 as potassium chloride (50% K) as source for N and K respectively. Results showed that the interaction treatment of 40 kg P.ha-1 added to the soil and 3000 m P.l-1 as foliar feeding had significant results and had the superiority to give the highest value of leaf area, dry weight and grain yield of plant. They were 0.602 m2 and 246.10 g.plant-1 and 136.60 g.plant-1 for the above mentioned parameters, respectively and gave the increasing percentage ratios 30.30% and 15.55% for the leaf area, 44.63% and 9.83% for the plant dry weight and 60.95% and 12.43 for the grain weight of plant respectively compared with the control treatment (without application to soil and without foliar feeding) and compared with the 60 kg P.ha-1 added to the soil + 3000 mg P.l-1 as foliar respectively.

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Article
BIOTA GENE FLOW AND GENOME CONTAMINATION
الانجراف الجيني وتلوث الجينوم بين الأحياء

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Gene flow means the unconventional transfer of genes from one population's individual to another. This is a rare naturally occurring phenomenon among genetically compatible individuals if the appropriate conditions are available. Crops have exchanged genes with their wild and weedy relatives for centuries, and this will continue in happening. This process can occur in crop plants whether the crop plant was developed through conventional plant breeding or biotechnology methods. Transgene containment is a major concern in genetically modified crops (GMC), especially for those with potential to crosspollination their wild relatives. Releasing GM organisms into the environment can create serious threats to the environment and the food chain. GMC crops have the ability to reproduce and multiply. Therefore, through crosspollination, the "foreign" genes they contain can be transferred to other crops and wild species and cause what we call it "Genetic Contamination". Genetic contamination problem can, therefore, magnify over time. GMC seeds can also be spread, mixed with non GMC seed and compounding the problems. Bio-pharming originates to produce pharmaceutical proteins in genetically manipulated plants. Supporters of this technology claim that PMPs (Plants Made Pharmaceutical) can be made in plants at a significantly reduced cost compared to current production methods. One of the major concerns with bio-pharming is that food may become contaminated with genes of these products, as well as these products may have negative effects on natural ecosystems in near or far future.

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Article
COMPARING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOME SELECTIVE HERBICIDES AGAINST WEEDS IN BREAD WHEAT FIELDS
مقارنة بعض المبيدات الأنتقائية للأدغال في حقول حنطة الخبز

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Field experiment was conducted wilh three replicates according to RCBD at the experimental field of Dept. of Field Crop Sciences ــ College of Agriculture ــ University of Baghdad during the season 2008 ــ 2009 to compare the efficiency of the selectivety for the herbicides pendimethalin , Pyroxsulam , Chevalier and Harmony extra to control weeds and their consequence effects on grain yield and yield components of wheat . Pendimethalin was sprayed as pre ــ emergence at rate of 1.6 L / ha , whereas herbicicdes Pyroxsulam , Chevalier and Harmony extra were sprayed as post ــ emergence at 0.3 L / ha , 0.3 kg / ha and 25 gm / ha respectively . Results showed that all herbicides were significantly efficienct in studied characteristics compared to check treatmeant . A Significant reduction in weed dry weight was observed with all herbicides treatmeants as compared to check treatmeant . A posative effects were recorded for yield and yield components . However the use of Pendimethalin as pre ــemergence treatmeant caused high reduction of weed dry weight ( 0.5 g / m2 ) and at the same time a significant increases were obtained in number of spikes , number of grain / spike , weight of 1000 grain and wheat yield reached 446.6 spike / m2 , 46.6 seed , 41.7 g and 6.9 t / ha respectively . Pyroxsulam , Chevalier and Harmony extra gave weed dry weight ranged from 2.5 to 12.4 g , number of spikes 433.5 to 445.5 spikes / m2 , number of grain / spike 42.0 to 45.9 seed , weight of 1000 grain 39.5 to 43.8 g and grain yield 5.8 to 5.9 t / ha compared to 116.0 g , 289.1 spike / m2 , 37.0 seed , 37.0 g and 4.3 t / ha respectively in weedy treatmeant . Therefore it can be concluded that the application of Pendimethalin as pre ــ emergence treatmeant was the most efficient herbicide in term of weed control and the positive consequences on grain yield and yield components of wheat compard with other treatmeants .

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Article
ROLE OF SELECTION INTENSITY IN MAIZE GRAIN IMPROVEMENT
دور شدة الانتخاب لتحسين حاصل الذرة لصفراء

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A field experiment was conducted in the Department of Field Crop Sci. Farm, College of Agriculture ,University of Baghdad ,Abu-Ghraib, during spring and fall seasons of 2007 and spring season of 2008. The objectives were to determine the optimum selection pressure used were to improve maize( Zea mays L.) Buhuth 106 by mass selection were 5,10,15 and20%.The trial was carried out by using a randomized complete block design with five replications. Significant differences were found among all selection pressures and original population . Buhuth 106 for all studied characters except grain yield .In plant height , grain weight and number of grains per ear were the most important characters .The selection pressure in 20% is superior in plant height (188.92 cm) and grain weight ( 0.254 gm) . The selection pressure in 15% is superior in number of grains per ear (477.40 grain). It was found that genetic gain selection was higher at 5% then decreased gradually at selection pressure 20% . It was concluded that selection pressures 15% and 20% are superior to other selection pressure and cultivar Buhuth 106 for characters plant height, grain weight and number of grains per ear .This is a well known fact because it could not obtain a Significant differences in grain yield from one generation of agriculture on narrow areas in comparison with grid system where the work of additive gene principle is clear. So, less number seasons selection. In conclusion increase in grain yield maize should be dependent on hundred of plant groups during selection ,because differentiate plant depend on the size of changes in population, chance of appearance of these changes in the population and dependence of grid system method in selection . In this program additive gene action was dependent because it works independent from the plant intensity.

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Article
EVALUATION OF ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PLANTEXTRACTS AGAINST GROWTH OF FUSARIUM
تقييم الفعالية التثبيطية لمستخلصات بعض النباتات في نمو الفيوزيريوم

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Three laboratory experiments were conducted during 2008 to evaluate the antifungal activity of some plant extracts at different concentrations against pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Plants of Artemisia herba-alba, Achillea santolina and Saliva aegyptiaca were collected from central region of Iraq . The plant materials were dried under temperature and laboratory condition , then ground by a blender . Plant extracts were prepared and different concentrations of 0 , 125 , 250, 500 and 1000 ppm were added to PDA medium for antifungal activity tests against the fungus growth . The results obtained showed that different plant extracts and concentrations caused various antifungal activity. Plant extract of Artemisia herba-alba showed weak inhibition activity on fungus growth even at highest concentration of 500 and 1000 ppm which produced 15.2% and 17.7% inhibition of fungus growth, respectively. Similarly, the pathogenic fungus F. oxysporum showed no obvious response to Achillea santolina extract with all concentrations tested. Concentrations of 500 and 1000 ppm caused 11.8% and 20.5% inhibition of fungus growth, respectively which was almost in agreement with the effect of A. herba-alba at same concentrations. Plant extract of Salvia aegyptiaca , however , produced greater fungus growth inhibition as compared to those of Artemisia herba-alba and Achillea santolina especially at higher concentration . The concentration of 125, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm caused 17.2%, 26.5%, 40.8% and 49.1% inhibition of fungus growth, respectively. The present results indicate that plant extract of S. aegyptiaca appeared to be more effective as antifungal growth inhibitor than other plant extracts tested. It was concluded that antifungal activity of S. aegyptiaca extract could be used in biological control which need more investigation for this evaluation.

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