Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2010 volume:41 issue:5

Article
EFFECT OF WINTER PRUNING ON SOME VEGETATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN APRICOT CULTIVAR
تأثير التقليم الشتوي في بعض الصفات الخضرية على صنف من المشمش

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Abstract

This experiment was conducted in the apricot orchard ,Dept.of Horticulture, College of Agriculture /University of Baghdad, Abu Ghraib .This was during the growing seasons of 2008 and 2009. Apricot trees Prunus armeniaca cv.Labeeb -1- four year old were used. The study included two methods of pruning. The first method was thinning (t) and the second method was heading (h). In each method, three levels of pruning were used, no pruning (t1 or h1), removing 25% (t2 or h2)of branches or 33% (t3 or h3) branches of the trees. Each treatment replicated three times with a factorial experiment with RCBD. The number of trees in this experiment was 27 trees pruning was done during February. The Experimental results showed that thinning 33% and heading 25% of branches (t3h3) significantly gave the highest leaf area of 26.98 and 31.91 cm2 and the highest average yearly growth of 49.39 and 50.53 cm and the highest chlorophyll index of 33.34 and 35.57 SPAD unit , highest nitrogen percentage of 0.816 and 0.862% and phosphorus of 0.339 and 0.356% and potassium of 0.767 and 0.792% for both seasons, respectively. The lowest value of these parameters were found in the control treatment, it was highest in branches content of carbohydrates and C/N it gave 8.43 and 8.81% carbohydrates and11.77 and 12.36 % C/N ratio in both seasons, respectively. It could be concluded of this experiment that the winter pruning treatments improved vegetative characteristics in apricot trees and we recommend conducting a winter pruning annually and study the effect of interaction between summer and winter pruning on apricot trees.

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Article
EFFECT OF GIBBERELLIC ACID AND BENZYLADENIN APPLICATION ON GROWTH OF STRAWBERRY
تأثير الرش بحامض الجبريليك والبنزل أدنين في سلوك النمو الخضري للشليك

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Abstract

This study was conducted at the lath house of the Horticulture Department College of Agriculture-Baghdad University at fall season 2008-2009 to investigate the effect of Gibberellic acid (GA3) and Benzyladenin (BA) application on growth and yield of Strawberry plant (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) cv. Albion. Three concentration of Gibberellic acid 0, 150, 300 mgl and three concentrations of Benzyladenin 0, 900, 1800 mgL analysis consequences according to SAS programm. The result could be summarized as follow. Gibberellic acid at 300mgL increased plant height ( 12.87 cm ) , Stolon's length ( 81.88cm ) , the number of stolon per plant ( 1.41stolon/plant ), plant per stolon (2.61plant/stolon ). As compared with control treatment which gave (0.98cm, 11.33cm, 0.13 stolon/plant, 0.29plant/stolon), respectively. The highest level of benzyladenine decreasing plant height, however it give the highest number of branches which reached (2.30 crown / plant), as compared with control treatment which was (2.09 branch/plant). The interaction between Gibberellic acid and Benzyladenin was significantly increase ( BA0 + GA300 ) treatment in plant height , Stolon length , the number of Stolon per plant , plant per Stolon which gave ( 16.06cm , 118.11cm , 1.68 Stolon/plant , 3.67plant/Stolon ) respectively . As compared with control treatment which gave ( 1.07cm , 32.33cm , 0.20Stolon/plant , 0.67plant/Stolon ) respectively . and gave ( BA1800 + GA0 ) treatment the highest number of crown 3.56 branch / plant . As compared with control treatment which gave 1.89 crown/plant .

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Article
EFFECT OF GIBBERELLIC ACID AND BENZYL ADENINE TREATMENT UNDER VACUUM ON STORAGE LIFE OF TOMATO
أثر التغطيس تحت التفريغ بالجبرلين والبنزل أدنين في القابلية الخزنية للطماطة

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Abstract

This study was conducted in the plastic houses and cold storage unit of the Department of Horticulture , College of Agriculture ,University of Baghdad during 2007-2008 . Gibberellic acid (GA 3) and benzyl adenine ( BA ) were used to study their effects on ripening and storage life of tomato( Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Nura ) . Mature green fruits were harvested and treated with distilled water containing the following concentrations of GA 3 or BA : 0 or 2.5 or 5 or 10 ppm under normal pressure or under vacuum ( - 300 mbar). The treated fruits were stored in cold room (15 ± 2 C ) for one month. The results showed that treating mature green tomato with 10 ppm GA 3 without vacuum increased fruit firmness and the percentage of total acids and decreased percentage of spoiled fruit after one month in storage . Vitamin C contents in fruits were also increased ( 104.97 mg / kg ). Treating the fruits with GA3 under vacuum ,needed the reduction of GA 3 from 10 to 5 to obtain the best results compared with those treated under normal pressure with 10 ppm GA 3 . Treating tomato fruit with BA under normal pressure showed the same results of GA 3 treatments under normal pressure . fruits Treating with BA under vacuum increased. vitamin C content in the fruits ( 127.74 mg / kg ) higher than the effect of GA 3 under vacuum . Treating the fruits with BA under vacuum reduced the percentage of spoiled fruit to 10 % compared with 40 % of the untreated fruit . Treatment with BA under vacuum delayed the ripening of the fruits after one month in storage . These results revealed that using vacuum is very important if low concentration of growth regulators are used to reduce the percentage of spoiled fruits and reduce vitamins C loss from the fruits during storage.

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Article
IN VITRO MICROGRAFTING OF GARDENIA
التطعيم الدقيق لنبات الكاردينيا خارج الجسم الحي

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Abstract

To graft gardenia in vitro , shoot tips and nodes of Gardenia thunbergia used as rootstocks planted on MS medium with BA at 0.0 ,0.5 , 1.0 , 1.5 and 2.0 mg/l or kinetin at 0.0 , 2.5 , 5.0 , 10.0 and 15.0 mg /l for multiplication . Shoots produced in vitro rooted on medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l IBA and 3 gm/l agar for micrografting . The experiment included shoot tips multiplication of gardenia used as scions from planting on medium supplemented with BA at 0.0 , 0.5 , 1.0 , 1.5 and 2.0 mg/l , scions treated with kinetin at 0.0 , 1.0 and 2.0 mg/l quick dipped before micrografting , data refers , planting nodes of rootstock G. thunbergia on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BA gave the highest average of shoots number( 11.2 shoot /explant) , on the other hand shoot tips gave 7.8 shoot /explant when planted on medium supplemented with 2.0 mg /l BA after eight weeks . Planting shoot tips of scion (Veitchii cv. ) on medium at 2.0 mg /l BA gave 4.5 shoot /explant after four weeks , high encounter 90 % achieved by treated scions with 0.0 or 1.0 mg /l kinetin , highest length 1.23cm of scion and length of plantlet 1.99cm obtained from 1.0 mg /l kinetin after eight weeks , in vitro micrografting plantlet after acclimatization transferred to field and grown with survival 100 % .

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Article
VEGETATIVE AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF GRAPE HYBRID THOMPSON SEEDLESS X ALABBASI
الصفات الخضرية والثمرية لهجين العنب تومسن سيدلس × العباسي

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This experiment was conducted to investigate the vegetative and fruit characteristics of grape hybrid produced by crossing between Thompson seedless and Alabbasi and compare it with its parents. This study was conducted at the College of Agriculture , University of Baghdad during the seasons of 2008 and 2009. Results revealed that the hybrid tended to look like Alabbasi in date of fruit maturity but it was earlier that Thompson seedless in ripeness , which was ranged 17 days in first season and 19 days in the second season. The hybrid was similar to Thompson seedless in vegetative and fruit characteristics. Thompson seedless and hybrid were superior in leaf area in comparison with Alabbasi , which were 93.71 and 96.11 cm2 (Thompson seedless), 93.57 and 95.21cm2 (hybrid) and 86.72 and 88.21 cm2(Alabbasi)for both seasons, respectively. Higher cluster length was observed in Thompson seedless (19.62 and 20.43 cm) and hybrid (18.92 and 20.11cm) as compared with Alabbasi (16.72 and 17.41cm) for both seasons, respectively. Alabbasi was superior in cluster weight (370.10 and 375.21 g) in comparison with Thompson seedless (290.11 and 295.65 g) and hybrid (259.68 and 285.3 g) for 2008 and 2009 seasons, respectively. Alabbasi exhibited the greater average of 100 berries (382.21 and 375.63 g) as compared with Thompson seedless (145.44 and 153.93 g) and hybrid (137.68 and 150.23 g) for both seasons, respectively. The differences among parents and crossbred in quality characteristics lacked significance. In conclusion , the hybrid produced from crossing between Thompson seedless and Alabbasi was characterized by good quality characteristics and early maturity. The results of the second season confirmed this fact . It was worthy to mention that a hybrid will remain for always without any genetic chang for it is propagated vegetatively.

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Article
PREDICTING VIGOROUS PLANTS OF MAIZE GROWN IN THE FIELD BY VIGOROUS SEEDLINGS EMERGED FROM SAND (SE/ 96 )
التنبؤ بالنباتات النشطة للذرة الصفراء في الحقل بالبادرات ( SE - 96 ) النشطة البازغة في الرمل

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Abstract

To predict percent of vigorous plants expected to grow in the field from a seed lot of maize by percent of vigorous seedlings emerged from sand , seeds of two synthetics of maize ; B- 106 and 5018 stored for one year under poor storage were used. Zinc metal containers with dimensions of 24.5 × 24.5 × 5 cm were prepared . silica pure sand was used in these containers of 4 cm deep . At the same time , a wooden clamp of 100 fingers was made . Fingers were 5 cm long and 8 mm diameter .One hour after watering the containers the clamp was pressed on containers to have 100 holes for planting . Seeds were planted in these holes , covered with dry sand and watered . This test was replicated twenty times . Seeds of the two cultivars were also planted in the field with twenty replicates , each of 100 plants . Data was obtained after 96 h from planting on vigorous seedlings emerged in the containers , whereas , percent of vigorous plants were recorded after 6 weeks in the field . Data obtained was analyzed by t – test , then in a factorial analysis with RCBD of four replicates . Results obtained showed that percent of vigorous seedlings from the sand test ( SE /96 ) was a very good estimate to predict percent of vigorous plants in the field expected from a maize seed lot . It was recommended to use this test to predict percent of cultivar mean performance in maize or other seed crops in the future .

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Article
GENE ACTION AND HETEROSIS OF LINE X TESTER IN COTTON
الفعل الجيني وقوة الهجين في القطن باستخدام سلالة x كشاف

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Abstract

The objective of this experiment was to facilitate the selection in cotton breeding and estimation of heterosis, the gene action and general combining ability (GCA) of the parents and specific combining ability (SCA) of hybrids considered for the development of high yielding in early generation. A field trial was carried out on the Field Crops Research Station of ٍState Broad for Agric. Res. in Abu Ghraib. Line x tester analysis involving five cotton female lines (Makneer, 44200, Marsomi 5, 113,and Dise) and three testers (Lashata, Ashoor 1, and Cocker 310 wilt), were crossed in 2007. The eight parents and theirs 15 hybrids were planted in a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2008. Significant differences were found among genotypes (lines, tester, and crosses) in all traits studied. The hybrid Ashoor x Dise showed significant heterosis over best parent for seed cotton yield (70.8%), no. of total bolls (161.6%), and no. of open bolls (126.2%). The variances due to GCA and SCA were significant for all traits studied. This indicated that both additive and non-additive gene effects were responsible for the investigated characters. It was found that in the population, plant height, no. of total bolls, no. of open bolls, boll weight, and earliness were influenced by additive gene effects while seed cotton yield, no. of sympodia, and no. of monopodia were influenced by non-additive gene effects. Among the parents Ashur 1 for seed cotton yield, boll weight, and no. of sympodia and 44200 for seed cotton yield and plant height were detected with higher general combining ability. SCA was significant for Cocker 310 wilt x Makneer and Lashata x 44200 hybrid combinations for seed cotton yield.

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Article
RESPONSE OF COTTON TO PLANT POPULATION AND WEED CONTROL
استجابة القطن للكثافة النباتية ومكافحة الادغال

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A field trial was conducted at the Experimental Farm of the Deparrtment of Crop Science- College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad , Abu-Ghraib during two summer seasons(2008 and 2009). The objectives were to investigate the response of cotton to planting 50000 ,62500 , 83333 and 125000 plant . ha-1 and weed treatments ( Treflan , Super Gallant , Weed-free and Weedy-check ) on yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Lashata ) . The design used was RCBD with split-plot arrangement with three replications . Treflan gave superior number of open cotton bolls . plant-1 and lint index and weight of boll 7.65 , 4.65, 3.44 in first season and 8.32 , 4.80 , 3.43 respectivly in second season . These result , reflected in good performance of cotton , therefore , it gave superior of seed cotton yield and lint yield were 2590.47 , 2728.83 , 854.85 and 900.53 kg.ha-1 respectivly in both seasons . The plant density 125000 plant . ha-1 gave lowest open cotton bolls and seed index and weight of boll 5.95, 6.78 , 9.66 , 9.71 , 3.02 , 3.11 respectivly in both seasons , but gave superior value of lint index 4.79 , 4.91gm respectivly and gave high seed cotton yield 3298.07 , 3627.59 and lint yield 1066.25 ,1197.12 kg.ha-1 respectivly. The treatment of weed- free with high density 125000 plant.ha-1 gave high value of seed cotton yield and lint yield at first season was 3770.55 and 1244.28 and at second season 4720.86 and 1557.88 kg.ha-1 respectively . From these result we can conclusion that the cotton is positive response to study factors , so we can use 125000 plant .ha-1 to control weeds instead of herbicid in order to get high yield and to keep clean environment .

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Article
ROLE OF SEEDLING AGE ON GROWTH AND RICE YIELD 1- GROWTH PROPERTIES AND BIOLOGICAL YIELD
دور عمر الشتلة في نمو وحاصل الرز1- صفات النمو والحاصل البايولوجي

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A field experiment with two factors was carried out at the Rice Research station in Al-Mishkab during 2008 and 2009 seasons to study the effect of seedling age on growth and biological yield of some rice cultivars.The design was split plot with RCBD arrangement in four replicates. The statistical analysis showed that the early seedlings ages i.e.(20 and 27)days led to a significant increase in the panicle length ,flag leaf area, and biological yield compared with two late ages (34 and 41) days,Treatment of seedling ages (20 and 27) days gave highest value than other treatments ,of panicle length (23.2,23.3 cm),(21.7, 22.1 cm), flag leaf area (29.6,30.3 cm2),(21.4 , 20.5 cm2), biological yield (9.87 , 10.06 tn.ha-1), (9.91 , 9.76 tn.ha-1) in both seasons respectively , However a significant reduction of number of days from sowing to 50% anthesis (106.6, 108.0 day) ,(110.6 , 110.7), number of days sowing to physiological maturity(139.3, 140.8 day) ,(139.5, 139.6 day) in both seasons respectively , was found in these two early ages .Seedlings ages had no significant effect on plant height, in both seasons.Cultivars showed significant differences in most studied characters. local cultivar Anber33 gave highest values number of days from sowing to 50% anthesis (111.4 , 113.6 days), number of days sowing to physiological maturity(143.9,141.6days), plant height(139.5, 100.2 cm), panicle length (26.5,25.2cm), flag leaf area(37.4 , 22.1 cm2)in both seasons respectively., biological yield (10.32 tn.ha-1 )in first season. .

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Article
ROLE OF SEEDLING AGE ON GROWTH AND RICE YIELD 2- YIELD COMPONENTS AND YIELD
دور عمر الشتلة في نمو وحاصل الرز2- مكونات الحاصل والحاصل

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A field experiment with two factors was carried out at the Rice Research station in Al-Mishkab during 2008 and 2009 seasons to study the effect of seedling age on yield of some rice cultivars.The design was split plot with RCBD arrangement in four replicates. The statistical analysis showed that the early seedlings ages i.e.(20 and 27)day led to a significant increase in number of panicles/m2 , number of grains/ panicle , paddy yield compared with two late ages (34 and 41) days, Treatment of seedling ages (20 and 27) gave highest value than other treatments ,at number of panicles/m2 (214.9 , 221.7) panicle in first season , (237.1 , 220.9) panicle in second season , number of grains/ panicle (164.0 , 167.8) grains in first season , (153.8 , 158.3) grains in second season, paddy yield (4.833 , 4.945)t.ha-1 in first season , (4.340 , 4.290) t.ha-1 in second season respectively . However a significant reduction of sterility percentage (11.65 , 11.69) in first season ,and (7.79 , 8.30) in second season respectively, was found in these two early ages .Seedlings ages had no significant effect on, weight of 1000 grain and harvest index in both seasons. Cultivars showed significant differences in most studied characters. local cultivar Anber33 gave highest values paddy yield (4.759 t.ha-1) due to its highest number of grains/panicle(192.3). While fourat1 was superior in paddy yield.hectare-1(4.526 t.ha-1) due to its highest number of panicles(208.8). m2, weight of 1000 grains(23.66) gm in first season while in the second season , Cultivars showed not significant differences in paddy yield . It could be concluded that seedlings transplanted in the ages of (20 and 27) day gave highest paddy yield due to the increases in the yield components

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Article
DETECTION OF UTERINE INVOLUTION USING ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN TURKISH AWASSI EWES
تشخيص أرتداد الرحم باستخدام جــهاز الأمواج فوق الصوتية لدى النعاج العواسي التركي

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This study was undertaken to investigate the time required for post partum (pp) uterine involution in Turkish Awassi ewes with single and twin births. This will lead to asses the most appropriate time for insemination that ensure the highest fertilization rate as well as to avoid endometritis. This study carried out at sheep and goat improvement station/ state board of agricultural researches in Agargof (25km western of Baghdad( during the period of January to April, 2009. This trial involved 30 ewes (15 with the single births and 15 with twin births) of 2-4 years old and 40-75 kg live body weight. The diameter of uterine horn was significantly decreased in ewes with single births from 63.87±1.27 mm at the first week pp to 11.53±0.56 mm at seventh week pp. Concomitantly, diameter was also decreased in ewes with the twin births from 62.07±31.1mm at first week pp to 11.93±0.55mm at seventh week pp. The thickness of endometrium was obviously reduced in ewes with the single (from 5.87±1.27 to 1.00±0.00 mm ) and twin births ( from 5.66±0.27 to 1.00±0.00 mm) for the first and seventh weeks pp respectively.In conclusion, the uterine involution in Turkish awassi ewes ewes occurred, 35 days pp. Thus, it is possible to inseminate ewes after this period to achieved highest fertilization rate and to avoid endometritis.

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Article
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE RESPONSE OF BROAD BEANS TO LEVELS OF N AND P FRTILIZERS
التحليل الاقتصادي لاستجابة الباقلاء لمستويات مختلفة من السمادين النتروجيني والفوسفاتي

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This study aimed estimating the optimum amount of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers for broad beans production in economic condition similar to experiment region, four functions were estimated : Linear , Cobb – Douglas , quadratic and square root . the results showed that the quadratic function was the most representative according to statistically economical , econometrical and biological criteria. The coefficient of determination was 90% . The results also showed the absence of autocorrelation from the model as Durban – Watson value was less than (dU) and more (dL) the results showed the absence of heteroscedasticity according to the Park test . we alsofound the absence of multicallinearity according to correlation matrix for independent variables. The results had shown that the optimum amount of nitrogen fertilizer was (56.3) kgs/Donum. While the optimum amount of phosphorus was (46.9) kgs/Donum. In addition some derivatives from production function were derived such as marginal rate of substitution , isoquant equation , expansion path , isoclines , and ridge lines. The results also showed that the signs of independent varieties were consistent with economic logic. The nature of the quadratic function is consistent with biological criteria as the addition of fertilizer would be biologically acceptable a certain limit.

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Article
PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF CARBONATE IN SOME CALCAREOUS SOIL SEPARATES OF NORTHERN IRAQ
التوزيع الحجمي لدقائق الكاربونات في مفصولات بعض الترب الكلسية لشمال العراق

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The experiment included calcareous soils samples with different orders classified within the series level from four locations of Northern Iraq namely(Aridisols-453CCW-Talafer) (Iceptisols-452CCF-Ninevah Forest) (Mollisols-653CEE-Zawaita) (Vertisols-452CCW-Batail). Soil samples were fractionated intro coarse sand (200-500m), fine sand (50-200 µ m), coarse silt (20-50µ m), fine silt (2-20 µ m) and clay (<2 m), and the calcium carbonate distribution was determined in each fraction.The results revealed that carbonate particles were concentrated in the coarse separates of Batail, Zawaita and Talafer accounting for 460.0, 457.7 and 461.4 gm.kg-1 respectively. In the Nineveh forest it was 179.2 gm.kg-1. carbonate particles were order as following (coarse sand ,fine sand ,coarse silt ,fine silt and clay fraction) respectively and the calcium carbonate distribution was different within the series level from four locations of Northern Iraq and within soil bedons. The concentration of carbonate particles is indicative of it’s nature whether it is secondary or pedogenic. Statistic a analysis showed a significant positive correlation (r=0.68**) between the percentage of carbonate in soil separates and it’s average diameter.

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Article
KNOWLEDGE LEVEL OF BUFFALOES HOLDER'S OF BRUCELLOSIS DISEASE IN THE AL-THAHAB AL-ABYADH VILLAGE
المستوى المعرفي لمربي الجاموس بمرض البروسيلا في قرية الذهب الابيض

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This research aimed to identify the current knowledge level of the buffalo's breeders in the Al-Thahab Al-Abyadh village of common disease between human and animals (brucellosis disease). Determining the knowledge level of educators in each of the areas of knowledge in field diagnosis of disease , knowledge of disease dangers , methods of disease transmission and prevention of disease, as well as identification of a relationship's level of knowledge of educators in all of the independent variables the following : age , educational collection , years number of practice , preparation of buffaloes and contribution to income . To achieve the research objectives in the light of literature and scientific research and publications, relating of common diseases between human and animals (brucellosis disease), a measure of knowledge consisted of 26 items distributed to the axes defined above. A parameter was built of two degrees and thus became the degree of the scale ranged between 0-52 degrees. The research community included all buffalo's holders in the Al-Thahab Al-Abyadh village 150 holders and by 40%. The results showed that the knowledge level of educators is described as average. The results showed a positive correlation between the knowledge level of educators and the preparation of buffalo. The researche recommends to that Agricultural Extension must play it role in the veterinary health institutions in the preparation many Extension's programs and activities to direct the breeders about common diseases between humans and animals in general and particular brucellosis disease.

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Article
AN ESTIMATION OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY FUNCTIONS FOR RICE IN IRAQ FOR THE PERIOD (1980-2005)
تقدير دالتي الطلب والعرض لمحصول الرز في العراق خلال المدة (1980 – 2005 )

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Rice is considered one of the main cereal crop in the world and occupies the second rank after wheat in importance. In Iraq rice is one of the main summer cereal crops and it is an important food item in Iraqi nutritional pattern. The aim of this research is to determine the factors affecting demand and supply together in addition to the evaluation of public policies performance. The results showed that the factors affecting rice demand were rice price, wheat price, potato price, per capita income and time. On the other hand the factors affecting rice supply were cultivated area, rice price for the previous year, fertilizer price, and water consumption. Double logarithmic model was chosen to express the relation between dependent and independent variables. The results also showed that the satisfaction from rice consumption was high due to low income elasticity of demand as it was 0.281. The positive sign of income elasticity of demand refers to that rice is normal and necessary commodity. The results also showed that the relationship between rice and potato is substitutional and complementary with wheat. The supply function results showed that the development of cultivated area contributed to the production increase but not sufficiently. The results also showed that the price had a negative effect on production , which indicates the weakness of public price policy performance. The role of irrigated water was positive but weak. The results also showed that the farmers did not use this resource economically. Some recommendations were forwarded.

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