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مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: الزراعة
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تأسست مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية في كلية الزراعة جامعة بغداد عام 1966. كانت المجلة تصدر بعددين في العام فقط. بدأت المجلة عام 2000 باصدار ستة اعداد في السنة لكل مجلد, وهي الان في عام 2016 بالمجلد (47). تشمل ابحاث المجلة كافة العلوم الزراعية المرتبطة بالعلوم النباتية والحيوانية فضلاً عن المكننة الزراعية والاقتصاد الزراعي والارشاد الزراعي والعلوم الداعمة للعلوم الزراعية مثل الكيمياء والفيزياء لاسيما المرتبطة بالضوء والالحرارة والرياح وغيرها. يتضمن المجلد الواحد حالياً اكثر من 75 بحثأ حيث يتضمن العدد الواحد بين 20-25 بحثاً بحسب عدد الابحاث المقبولة في كل عدد

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معلومات الاتصال

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2009 المجلد: 40 العدد: 5

Article
APPLICATION OF K-SULPHATE AND CHLORIDE TO EVALUATE THE ELEMENTS THAT LIMITS THE YIELD OF CUCUMBER BY USING DRIS
إضافة مستويات من كبريتات وكلوريد البوتاسيوم الى التربة وتحديد العنصر المحدد لحاصل الخيار بنظام DRIS

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted at fall season 2003/2004 in heated plastic house belong to Al-Moktadiya company for agriculture staffs at Al-Yousifiya district situation about 24 km south of Baghdad in a soil has a silty clay loam texture (Typic Torrifluvent), classified as MM4 (at the series level) to identify the nutrient element which limits the yield of cucumber crop (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. , Shoa’a , by using the diagnosis recommendation and integrated system. Potassium sulphate 41% K and potassium chloride 50% K were used as potassium source fertilizers. Randomized Complete Block Design was used with three replicates. Results showed according to the data obtained from this study by using the DRIS that potassium element was the limiting factor then nitrogen and phosphorus because the indices of KNP elements at flowering and harvesting were (-37.0 and -41.0) for K , (+ 1.0 and -0.3) for N and (+ 36.0 and + 44.0) for P at the flowering and maturity respectively. The level of 1000 kg K.ha-1 gave the highest yield for both K – sources that were 130.62 ton.ha-1 and 128.92 ton.ha-1 for K – sulphate and K – chloride respectively. However , there was no significant data between the two K – sources for this level, but the K – sources for this level had significant data compared with the level of 500 kg K.ha-1 for the both K – sources. Results showed also, that the level of 500 kg K.ha-1 for K – sulphate had significant data compared with the same level of K – chloride and gave the highest yield for the both K – sources that were 120.91 and 115.25 ton.ha-1 for K – sulphate and K – chloride respectively. The economical evaluation indicated and confirmed that K – chloride can used as a successful substituent for K – sulphate especially at the application of high levels of potassium fertilizers.


Article
Comparing Potassium Sulphate and Chloride In Quality Characteristics of Cucumber Fruits Under Protected Conditions and Drip IrRigation
مقارنة سمادي كبريتات وكلوريد البوتاسيوم في الصفات النوعية لحاصل الخيار في الزراعة المحمية والري بالتنقيط

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الخلاصة

A Field experiment was conducted at fall season of 2003/2004 under heated plastic house conditions and drip irrigation belongs to AL-Meqdadiya company for Agricultural Materials company at AL-Yousifiya district situated south of Baghdad in a silty clay loam texture soil (Typic Torrifluvent) , classified as (MM4) (at the series Level) to study the effect of potassium sulphate 41% K and potassium chloride 50% K fertilizers on quality characteristics of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), Shoa'a cv. Six levels that were (0, 100, 125, 250, 500 and 1000)kg.K.ha-1 of both K-sulphate (41%K) and K-chloride (50% K) were used as sources. The randomized Complete Block Design was used with three replicates . Results showed that the potassium sulphate had the superiority for all studied characteristics for cucumber fruits (fruit hardness , contenent of vitamin C and (T.S.S)) . Result also showed that the increasing of the data for all studied characteristics with increasing the levels of both potassium fertilizers . The level of 1000 kg K.ha-1 had significant data for all above mentioned characteristics and for both two fertilizers and this level gave the highest data compared with other levels that were 3.65 and 3.63 kg .cm-2 , 8.91 and 8.89 mg . 100 ml-1 juice and 2.83 and 3.81) % for fruit hardness, content of vitamin C and TSS respectively for potassium sulphate and potassium chloride respectively , while the data were 3.22 kg .cm-2 for fruit hardness, 8.27 mg .100 ml-1 juice for content of vitamin C and 2.35% for T.S.S for control treatment .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
AGGREGATES AND PORE SIZE DISTRIBUTION FOR SOIL AT DIFFERENT GYPSUM CONTENTS
التوزيع الحجمي لتجمعات ومسامات تربة ذات محتوى جبسي مختلف

المؤلفون: N.T.Mahdi نمير طه مهدي
الصفحات: 22-36
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الخلاصة

The objectives of this experiment were to assess the structure of soil at different gypsum content (5-502 gm gypsum. Kg-1 soil), by studied the aggregate size distribution and mean weight diameter (MWD). Then after assess the pore system for this soil by studied air filled porosity, storage pores, available water holding capacity, the slope of water retention curve and the pore size distribution. The aggregates size distribution was measured by wet sieves. The soil-water retention curve was also estimated, and used a computer program to determine the best-fit for experimental data of water potential verses volumetric water content which have nonlinear relation and to determine the parameter of van Genuchten (28) equation α, n and m. The derivative of van Genuchten (28) equation was used to measure the change in the slope of soil water retention curve for estimate the capacity of soil water retain or lost at deferent water potential as function of pore size distribution. The capillary rise equation was used to estimate the effective pore diameter. The result show that gypsiferous soil has weak structure and the aggregate size distribution which type microaggregate, less than 250 μm in diameter was more than 80%. The MWD was decreased from 0.375 to 0.165 mm when gypsum content increase from 5 to 255 gm gypsum.kg-1 soil, and then the value of MWD increased to 0.252 mm for sample 502 gm gypsum.kg-1 soil. The slope of soil-water retention curve increased with increasing gypsum and the maximum peak of slope found at 50 kPa water potential for soil gypsum content 502 gm gypsum.kg-1 soil. The pore volume increased with decrease the effective diameter it is ranged between 64 and 90 cm3.cm-3 for pores in diameter less than 29.8 μm, these result associated with decrease gypsum content in soil. The air filled porosity ranged between 10 and 36 cm3.cm-3 for pores in diameter more than 29.8 μm. The air filled porosity increased with increasing gypsum content in soil.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
PERFORMANCE OF MAIZE UNDER MAGNETIZED WATER AND K-SULFATE AND CHLORIDE
اداء الذرة الصفراء عند مغنطة الماء مع كبريتات وكلوريد البوتاسيوم

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الخلاصة

A pots experiment was conducted in greenhouse of Soil and Water Sci. Dept – using silty clay Loam Typic Torrifluvent . Soil collected from Agriculture College fields . The soil was fertilized by three levels of K ( 0, 60 , 120 kg . K.ha-1 ) using potassium sulphate and potassium chloride fertilizers . Also 100 kg P. ha-1 using calcium super phosphate and 240 kg N. ha-1 using urea fertilizers was applied to all treatments . Maize seeds (Zea mays) c.v Bohooth 106 were planted in Spring 2008 irrigated by magnetic and non-magnetic water to field capacity soil moisture. After 10 weeks of growth the plants were collected , plants height and dry weight were recorded also total uptake of K , P and N nutrients were measured The results showed that dry weights , total uptake of k , P and N nutrients by corn plants were significantly increased with potassium sulphate additionas compared with potassium chloride Percentage of increasing of these characters were 2.4 , 7.6 , 4.7 and 6.4 % respectively . Also magnetic water significantly increased plants height , dry weight , total uptake of K,P and N nutrients uptake as compared with non magnetic water The percentage of increasing were 2.4 % , 11.7 % , 24.5 % , 19.1 % and 18.6 % respectively . The results also indicated that all studied characters were significantly increased as potassium levels increased the higher increasing was with potassium sulphate fertilizer more than potassium chloride

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
CUCUMBER YIELD AND COMPONENTS AS INFLUENCED BY K – SULPHATE AND K – CHLORIDE UNDER CONTROLLED ENVIROMENT AND DRIP IRRIGATION
حاصل الخيار ومكوناته بتأثير كبريتات وكلوريد البوتاسيوم تحت الزراعة المحمية والري بالتنقيط

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الخلاصة

A Field experiment was conducted at fall season of 2003/2004 under heated plastic house conditions and drip irrigation at AL-Yousifiya district situated 24 km south of Baghdad in a silty clay loam texture soil (Typic Torrifluvent) , classified as (MM4) (at the series Level) to compare the effect of potassium sulphate (41% K) and potassium chloride (50% K) on yield and its components of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) , cv. Shoa'a by six levels of both K - sulphate and K – chloride (0, 100, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 kg K.ha-1 and 1000 kg N.ha-1 as urea 46% N and 78 kg P.ha-1 as super phosphate (20%P) were used. Randomized Complete Block Design was used with three replicates . Results showed that the potassium sulphate fertilizer had significant effect for all studied characteristics (total yield , plant yield , number of fruit and the weight of fruit) compared with potassium chloride . The level of 1000 kg K.ha-1 of both potassium fertilizers had significant effect compared with the level of 500 kg K.ha-1 . The level of 1000 kg K.ha-1 gave the highest effect for all above mentioned characteristics and gave 130.66 and 128.92 ton.ha-1 of total yield for potassium sulphate and potassium chloride respectively and gave 5.23 and 5.16 kg fruit.plant-1 for potassium sulphate and potassium chloride respectively . For number of fruit the same level gave 61.62 and 60.24 fruit.plant-1 for potassium sulphate and potassium chloride respectively . The same level gave the highest fruit weight that were 85.67 and 83.60 gm.plant-1 for potassium sulphate and potassium chloride respectively . Results also showed, that the economical evaluation indicated that the level of 1000 kg K.ha-1 of both K – sources was superior than the level of 500 kg K.ha-1 of both K – sources, but the level of 1000 kg K.ha-1 of KCl had more benefits than the same level of K2SO4. Therefore the KCl fertilizer can be as a good substituent source of potassium instead of K2SO4 for cucumber especially at the application of high levels of potassium fertilizers under the condition of the experiment.


Article
RHIZOBIA EFFICIENCY IN FUEL OIL DEGRADATION AND SOIL BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
كفاءة الرايزوبيا في تحلل زيت الوقود وأثره في خصائص التربة الحيوية

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الخلاصة

Bacterial isolates were collected from root nodules of Phaseolus aureus L. plants grown in soil to study its effect on fuel oil degradation and soil biological properties. Two types of Rhizobium isolates (IB2 and IB10 )and six levels of fuel oil ( 0,1,2,3,4, and % 5) have been used Soil samples (SiCL texture) have incubated for 20,40,60, and 80 days .A completely randomized design was used with three replications. Treatment values were tested by least significant difference.The results showed that the addition of fuel oil and Rhizobium inoculation led to a statistically significant increase in total nitrogin (3.05 g.kg -1) and the total organic carbon (59.93 g.kg -1) That was reflected to increasing organic matter (103.31 g.kg -1) and increasing the C:N ratio of the soil(22.18) and decreasing that resedus (26.55 mg.kg -1) and decreasing the pH (5.47) due to added fuel oil to the soil .However,bacterial growth was etimeted to be (Log 12.36) This was thought to be reflected on increasing activity of fuel oil removal from soil throughout increasing biodegradation.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
PARASITISM EFFICIENCY OF PARASITOIDS ON ORNAMENTAL PLANTS LEAF MINER
الكفاءة التطفلية لمتطفلات حافرة أنفاق أوراق نباتات الزينة

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الخلاصة

The objective of this research was to determine the role of parasites to regulate the population density of ornamental plants leaf miner Phytomyza horticola (Agromyzidae)for the period February – May/ 2008.The experiment was achieved at laboratories of Department Plant Protection /College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad. The results revealed, that higher infection percentage with pest was 66% in 15 March and lower infection 32% on 23 March .The population density of parasites of ornamental plants leaf miner ,reached 8 parasites/insect in 10 March, whereas lower number was 3 individuals on 15 February. Six parasites were studied for first time as follows : Diglyphus iseae (Eulophidae), Cirrospilus vittatus (Eulophidae), Neochrysochairs formosa (Eulophidae), Pediobius acantha (Eulophidae), Diaeretiella rapae (Eulophidae)and Opius sp (Braconidae) on ornamental plants. Results showed that higher percentage of parasitism was with Pediobius acantha which reached 25% at middle regions of Baghdad.Lower percentage of parasitism was with Opius sp which reached 2%. The total percentage of parasitism was 62% . For that , we realize the importane of parasites for regulating the population density of pests and we recommend augmentation and release of the natural enemies .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
COUNTING THE MOST IMPORTANT PARASITES ON WEED LEAF MINER AND PARASITOID EFFICIENCY
حصر لمتطفلات حفار انفاق اوراق الادغال وكفائتها التطفلية

المؤلفون: Sawsen K. F. سوسن كريم فليح
الصفحات: 76-81
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الخلاصة

The research aimed to identify the types of parasites that restrict population density of leaf miner on in experiment canducted at the laboratories of Biological control unit during the period from February to May for two years 2007 and 2008. Eight species of parasites were recorded on. Their occurrence was different between the two years .During first year (2007) , the number of species was Neochrysochairs formosa, Cirrospilus vittatus, Pediobius acantha and Diglyphus iseae whereas it was Neochrysochairs formosa, Cirrospilus vittatus, Pediobius acantha, Diglyphus iseae, Halticoptera circulus, Ratzeburgiola incompleta, Pediobius acantha, Opius sp and Diaeretiella rapae during the second year (2008) . In addition to the species that had already recorded this study showed occurance at 14 parasites on 2007 during and 13 parasites 2008 during. The relation between parasites and borer population on density show that high parasites population associated with less borer population. It was show on that more population density of parasites was associated with less population density of the host .The total percentage of parasitism were 62% and 56% in 2007 and 2008 respectively , and the high percentage of parasitism for Neochrysocharis formosa were 35% and 46% during 2007 and 2008 respectively , whereas the less percentage of parasitism for Haltbicoptera circulus and Diaeretiella rapae were 14% during 2007 and 2% Cirrospilus vittatus during 2008 respectively .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE PREDATION EFFICACY OF SCOLOTHRIPS SEXMACULATUS(PERG.) AGAINST THE TWO SPOTTED SPIDER MITE TETRANYCHUS URTICAE KOCH
استخدام المفترس Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Perg.) (Thysanoptera:Thripidae)في السيطرة على الحلم ذي البقعتين على القطن

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الخلاصة

Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the feeding efficacy of the predator Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Perg.) against different stages of the two spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch.Resuls indicated that the predator larvae fed on all stages of the mite .The consumption rate increased with increasing developmental stage of the predator and decreased with the increasing size of prey. The predator larvae consumed during the whole larval duration an average of 351,4,219.2,191.9 and 189.2 individual respectively of eggs,larvae,nymphs and adults mite when fed on each stage separately. Female was significantly different from male in term of prey consumption .Mean consumption for females was 2160.1,2072.1,1896.4 and 1163.2of eggs ,larvae, nymphs and adults mites. While the male consumed an average of 414.5,421.5,362.6 and 191.7 individual when fed on each of the mentioned mite stages separately during the whole life duration. Results also indicated that females consumed significantly higher number of mite individual during the oviposition period . The consumption rate decreased also with the increasing size of prey. Therefore, this predator can be included in a mass rearing program to be used in a spacic time for controlling the spider mite T.urticae and other small pests on cotton in the field .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF SELECTIVE PRESSURE OF AZAMETHIPHOS AND PERMETHRIN ON LOCAL HOUSEFLY
تاثير الضغط الانتخابي لمبيدي الازيميثيوفوس والبرمثرين في زيادة مقاومة الذباب المنزلي المحلي

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الخلاصة

Resistance of housefly to insecticides is considered among the serious prolems facing the workers in insect control. This phenomenon results due to frequent use of pesticides. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the selective pressure of azamethiphos and permethrin in changing resistance in housefly. Results showed that the resistance was developed faster in housefly strain when exposed to permethrin as compared to azamethiphos .The results also indicated that values of LD50 ratio was increased as the generation advanced .The values of LD50 of parent generations were 0.75 and 0.05 µg / female as compared to sensitive strain which values were 0.03 and 0.008 µg / female. In 10th generation, the LD50 was 2.81 and 1.44 µg / female then increased to 6.14 and 4.46 µg / female in 22nd generation .The resistance ratio was increased as generation advanced , the values were 25 and 6 in parent generations and increased to 93 and 180 folds in 10th generation to 204 and 557 folds in 22nd generation for azamethiphos and permethrin, respectively . In conclusion, the increase in resistance ratio varied according to the chemical group of pesticide.The importance of the tests related to insect resistance help in insects management in public health as transmitter for vectors to human and animals.


Article
DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CASTOR BEAN PLANT PARTS
تقدير بعض الصفات الكيميائية لبعض اجزاء نبات الخروع

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الخلاصة

This experiment was carried out on the leaves, seeds, and burrs pericorps of local Iraqi castor bean . It consisted of two parts, the first concerned with the active naturally occurring compounds in plants. The second part concerned quantitative and qualitative estimation of the essential and active constituents in the leaves ,seeds and burrs. The primary test showed that the leaves, contained : glycosides, tannins, resins, coumarins, alkaloids are positive results. However, with saponins and flavones are negative results. the seeds showed positive results with tannins, comarines, terpines, steroids, and negative result with others. The burrs of castor showed positive results with tannins, glycosides, saponins, coumarins, and negative result with others. The water extract was acidic pH : 5.71, 8.71, 5.52. The percentage of essential constituents of leaves , seeds ,burrs , were found that the oil percentage 2.1 , 53 and 1.2 , protein; 13.5 , 14.28 and 10.5 , Moisture : 12.8 , 7.81 and 9.6 , tannins : 6.7 , 8.9 and 10.5 , crude fiber ; 15.6 , 16.1 and 17.6 , total ash ; 12.15 , 19.5 and 13.5 , ash soluble in water: 30.33 , 33.5 and 29.33 mg/g , and ash insoluble in acid 21.25 , 22.61 and 19.5 mg/g . The experiment, of measuring the degree of swelling of leaves ,pulps and burrs under room temperature, in dark and during equal periods of time; the leaves required 2-4 hours for reaching degree of swelling and then to equilibrium , whereas the seeds elapsed about 48 hours and the burrs 12 hours .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE GENETIC VARIATIONS INDUCED IN Mathiola incana BY ELECTRIC SHOCK AS TESTED BY RAPD
التغايرات الوراثية للشبوي الناتجة عن الصعق الكهربائي باستخدامتقانة RAPD

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الخلاصة

The study was conducted in the lathhouse of Horticulture Department – College of Agriculture – Baghdad University in fall season 2005 to investigate the effect of electric shock on DNA of Mathiola incana.Three levels of electric current severity AC (6,8,10 Ampere) and three timings of electric shock (2,4,6 minutes ) were tested plus the control treatment. A special electric apparatus was prepared for this purpose. Sprouted seeds and seedlings were soaked before the treatments for 3hrs in a 1% NaCl solution. Then they soaked in a fresh water for the same period ( 3hrs ) before they planted in the soil. The genetic study included DNA finger printing for some selected plants of Mathiola incana. The Genetic Distance by using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD based on Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were applied. The study was carried out at International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)-Aleppo-Syria. Mathiola incana showed clear morphological differences on either the vegetative or flowering growth. The genetic analyses by using RAPD and Genetic Distance for selected treated plants comparing to untreated plants(control) was performed. High Genetic Distance of Mathiola incana plants(35%) in RAPD markers was registered on plants which the sprouted seeds were treated by (10A X 4mins).

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ALLELOPATHIC ACTIVITY OF SUNFLOWER RESIDUES IN BREAD WHEAT GROWTH
الفعالية التثبيطية لمخلفات زهرة الشمس واثرها في نمو حنطة الخبز

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الخلاصة

Two factorial experiments in RCBD with four replicates were conducted separately during winter season 2001-2002 to evaluate the allelopathic potential effects of sunflower residues cv. Euroflor and Alamo on wheat growth cvs. Abu- ghraib 3 and IPA 99. The results obtained showed that residues in soil of both sunflower cultivars caused significant reduction in plant height and dry weight of both wheat cultivars. Euroflor residues at rate of 6 g/kg soil found to be the most allelopathic which caused 9.98 and 9.34% reduction in height of wheat cv. Abughraib 3 and IPA 99 respectively. Similarly residues of Euroflor significantly reduced dry weight of wheat cv. Abu-ghraib 3 and IPA 99 by 38.8 and 47.4% respectively Euroflor residues at rate of 3 g/kg soil caused 4.40 and 5.45 reduction in plant height, while 18.9 and 31.2% reduction in dry weight of wheat cv. Abu- ghraib and IPA 99 respectively. Alamo residues at rate of 6 g/kg soil, however, appeared to be the least one which caused reduction of 7.24 and 6.65% in height, while 29.7 and 11.5% reduction in dry weight of Abu-ghraib 3 and IPA 99 respectively Alamo residues at rate of 3 g/ kg soil caused 2.50 and 3.60% reduction in plant height while 8.8 and 7.2% reduction in dry weight of wheat cv. Abu-ghraib and IPA 99 respectively. The results indicated that Alamo residues has less allelppathic potential effects then Euroflor residues and differences in allelopathic activity of both sunflower cultivars varies according to the rate of residues presented in soil. Wheat cultivar IPPA 99 appeared to be more sensitive then Abu-ghraib 3 to Euroflor residues presented in soil even at lower rate. The present study suggests that cultivation wheat next to sunflower probably the causative factor responsible for the growth reduction of wheat, although this reduction depends upon cultivars grown. It was concluded that the toxicity of sunflower residues could be minimized by cultivating wheat cultivars which can resist the phytotoxic effect.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
LEVEL OF ADENOSINE DE AMINASE (ADA) ENZYME IN ADAPTED WHITE LEGHORN CHICKENS AND LOCAL AND THEIR PROGENY
دراسة مستوى أنزيم نازعة الأمين Adenosine De Aminase ADA في دجاج اللكهورن الأبيض المتاقلم لظروف العراق والدجاج المحلي ونسلهما

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الخلاصة

This experiment applied in Poultry Farm, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, to measure the specific activity (SA) of ADA enzyme in three groups of studied birds The first was white leghorn birds artificially inseminated and were caged in individual panes. The second was naturally- inseminated white leghorn birds caged in three panes reared on floor and; the third group was naturally- inseminated local birds reared on floor placed in free flat hall. At the same time SA of ADA was measured in hens and roosters at age 34 weeks as well as in their progeny at different ages starting from embryos till their sexual maturity. Chicks in the three groups were caged under similar conditions, and their females were placed for each group. The SA of serum ADA did not differ significantly among various ages of each group. The local females exhibited the highest SA 17.26 u/mgp as compared to other ages. Similarly higher SA of ADA was noticed pertaining the local males 14.60 u/mgp of the same age as compared to white leghorn males and for the first group 4.968 u/mgp. Differences were not significant (P > 0.01) in serum ADA activity which observed in chicks belonging to the three groups in various ages until 24 weeks (sexual maturity) The local ancestor (group three) exhibited the significant higher SA for ADA, 5.20 u/mgp as compared with (0.54 u/mgp) for the white leghorn chicks. In the second group, the mean value of ADA enzyme was medium between the two mentioned groups and was 3.73 u/mgp. On the 32 weeks age the local gave a higher level of SA for ADA as compared with other groups. Higher level of ADA in local breed in different ages and sexes might indicate indirectly the greater immunity in relation with white leghorn breed. Adding the indication that the local chickens have higher immunity level of resistance appeared indirectly through measuring ADA immunity level in it compared with breed of white leghorn in Iraq.

الكلمات الدلالية

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