جدول المحتويات

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: الزراعة
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تأسست مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية في كلية الزراعة جامعة بغداد عام 1966. كانت المجلة تصدر بعددين في العام فقط. بدأت المجلة عام 2000 باصدار ستة اعداد في السنة لكل مجلد, وهي الان في عام 2016 بالمجلد (47). تشمل ابحاث المجلة كافة العلوم الزراعية المرتبطة بالعلوم النباتية والحيوانية فضلاً عن المكننة الزراعية والاقتصاد الزراعي والارشاد الزراعي والعلوم الداعمة للعلوم الزراعية مثل الكيمياء والفيزياء لاسيما المرتبطة بالضوء والالحرارة والرياح وغيرها. يتضمن المجلد الواحد حالياً اكثر من 75 بحثأ حيث يتضمن العدد الواحد بين 20-25 بحثاً بحسب عدد الابحاث المقبولة في كل عدد

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معلومات الاتصال

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2009 المجلد: 40 العدد: 3

Article
CELL SUICIDE OR PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH
انتحار الخلايا أو موت الخلايا المبرمج

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الخلاصة

Via mitochondrial genes, eukaryotes: such as plants, animals, human and yeast have evolved ways of cellular suicide that are known as Programmed Cell Death (PCD). In multicellular organisms, the organized destruction of cells is important in development and immunity and for forming body and specific organ shapes, as well as for removing superfluous, unwanted, damaged or infected cells. Furthermore, disfunction of PCD could lead to various diseases in humans, including cancer and several degenerative diseases. Two characterized systems for the study of plant PCD are those of the Hypersensitive Response (HR), which is often observed during plant–microbe interactions, and the development of tracheary elements in the xylem of vascular plants. A simplified depiction of the sequence of cytological events that take place during these forms of plant PCD is contrasted with those of "apoptosis", the well studied form of animal PCD. The "clean" process of apoptosis effectively contains the contents of the dead cell for removal by other cells and avoids activating an inflammatory response in animals. In the case of HR-associated cell death and the terminal differentiation of tracheary elements, the contents of the dying cells are not engulfed by other cells. In addition, the "corpse" of the dead cell is held in place by the cell wall, and for mature tracheary elements, the cell wall is reinforced during the early phase of PCD and carries out the essential function of mechanical support and transport after autolysis. The final collapse of the vacuole immediately precedes nuclear DNA fragmentation, which occurs at late stages of the cell death process before the final autolysis of the cell. These "key" characteristics therefore distinguish plant PCD from that of classic apoptosis and indicate that specialized features and pathways have probably evolved to control and execute the death program in plant cells. Taxonomy of all forms of PCD based on inhibitors, activators, and identified biochemical pathways involved in each form of PCD, and that should offer new insight into cell death associated with various disease states, and ultimately introduce new therapeutic approaches in human and animals. In plants, and by controlling PCD mechanism, the system capacity constant could be increased, and ultimately, the economic yield.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
INTRODUCTION HYBRID SORGHUM TO IRAQ
ادخال هجن الذرة البيضاء العلفية الى العراق

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted in the fields of Agricultural College University of Baghdad during fall season 2007 and spring season 2008 . This was to study the effect of row spacing ( 5 , 10 ,15 and 20 cm) to different genotypes of Sudangrass , two sorghum cultivars (Rabeh and Inkath) and two hybrids (Money Maker and High Grazer), using factorial experiment within randomized complete block design .The hybrids Money Maker and High Grazer produced highest forage yield 40,19 , 39.15 , 37.12 and 37.44 tons/ha. in both fall and spring seasons , respectively. Highest forage yield (40.19 34.90 ton/ha) was produced from using 15 cm between rows in fall and spring seasons, respectively . Significant differences were found between genotypes and row spacing in flowering dates , plant height , number of leaves/plant and leaf area. Plants of the Hybrid High Grazer using 20 cm row spacing produced highest leaf area (4948 and 4445 ) cm3 , respectively . It was recommended to use hybrids (sudangrass x sorghum) Money Maker and High Grazer using 15 cm between rows to produce higher forage yield.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
GENE ACTION AND COMBINING ABILITY IN EARLY GENERATIONS OF DIALLEL CROSS IN BREAD WHEAT .
الفعل الجيني وقابلية التآلف في الأجيال المبكرة من التضريب التبادلي في حنطة الخبز

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الخلاصة

To study combining ability and types of gene action controlled on heritability of yield components in bread wheat, diallel cross with one direction was done among six genotypes of bread wheat , Abu-Graib3, A4.10 , IPA99 , M2 , A3103 , Al- Fatah . In the second season 2006-2007, a field trail was conducted for all crosses with parents using randomized complet block design (RCBD) .Genetic analysis showed that significant differences for GCA and SCA for all studied traits. Average degree of dominance was more than one for all studied traits indicating the effects of over dominance and predominant of non-additive gene action . Heritability in broad sense showed high values while heritability in narrow sense was low values except grain yield per plant in F3- generation reached to 47% . The crosses (M2xA3103) in F1 , (IPA99x M2) in F2 and ( IPA99x A3103) in F3 gave highest grain yield per plant reached to 29.1 , 27.5 , 29.2 g/plant, respectively. The main conclusions from these results, that was a continuous variance in genetic parameters, yield and its components for parents and their crosses in all studied generations because they were a segregate generations and the traits not stabilized well till F5 or F6 , so these crosses must be grown to a successive generations to develop new genotypes with high yielding ability.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE ROLE OF MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES IN GENETIC MAPPING, GENETIC DIVERSITY AND FINGERPRINTING.
دور التقانات الجزيئية في رسم الخرائط الوراثية وتقدير التباعد الوراثي والبصمة الوراثية

المؤلفون: M. Sh. Hamdalla ماجد شايع حمد الله
الصفحات: 50-62
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الخلاصة

The study of morpho-agronomic characters for evaluation the genetic diversity and assesses the traits that are related to the yield and used in the different programs of breeding, are classical way for breeders. The development of bimolecular science, especially with the techniques of markers, molecular DNA sequencing and data analysis leads to replace the old approaches by these techniques. The advanced in PCR technique principally, leads to powerful the rest techniques which can be used for screening characterization and evaluation of genetic diversity like RFLP, RAPD SSLP, STS, SSR, DAF, AFLP, RPCP and Real time PCR, ....etc. Each technique has some merit and negativism, therefore, screening of genetic markers is an important to get the required result, and based on the survey of genetic diversity within and among populations. Genetic markers, which can obtained from Genomic library or DNA Databases, should be rapidly, safely, easy scored, full hybridization with probes, negligible effects on plant growth, in expensive scored and has the ability to produce high polymorphic fragments. The objective of this report is to identify the genetic markers and highlighted them role in genetic mapping, genetic diversity and fingerprinting but we should realize that the advances in this field so far and so varied.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE RELATION BETWEEN FUSARIUM SOLANI THE CAUSAL OF CITRUS ROOT ROT TOXINS AND ITS PATHOGENICITY.
العلاقة بين سموم الفطرFusarium solani المسبب لمرض تعفن جذور الحمضيات وامراضيته

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الخلاصة

This experiment intended determination of the role of Fusarium solani in its virulence. The results showed that spores suspention of the pathogenic isolates induced significant increment in disease severity , isolate DF 7 was the superior (100%) while other tested isolates were 25%-91.7% as compared to control treatment 0%. Heated and unheated culture filterates of two F.solani isolates showed toxigenic effects on sour orange (Citrus aurantium L(. seedling and the toxicity was found to be the concentration and isolate dependence (25%,50%,75% and 100%). The culture filtrate of the isolate Df 7 heated and unheated treatments were more toxic when used at 100% concenration. Thin Layer Chromatography technique for F.solani culture filtrate showed the separation of several compounds in many different colors (purple ,yellow , light and orange) and Rf valus and according to certain puplications we suggested that the purple color represented anhydrofusarubin toxin, the red color represented fusarnbin toxin. However both toxins are from naphthazarin group. The separated toxin exhibited radish root growth inhibition, the mean percentage of root inhibition in the treatments of separated compounds ranged 43.51%-67.51% while it was 0% in the control treatment and caused disease severity on 30 day old sour orange seedlings, the mean percentage of disease severity in their treatments was 46.57%-67.39% compared with 0% in the control treatment.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGI CAUSED POSTHARVEST FRUIT ROT ON LOCAL APPLE
تشخيـص الفطــريـات المسببـة لتعفـن ثمـار التفـاح المحلي بعد الجني

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الخلاصة

The percentage of perished local apples caused by decay fungi in Baghdad markets was estimated, and the causal fungi of postharvest decay of local apples were isolated . The most effective fungi that cause fruit decay was also detected. Results showed that percentage of perished local apples caused by decay fungi in Baghdad markets was 43.2% in the period from 1-6-2004 to 20-8-2004, and revealed that Rhizopus stolonifer ,Penicillium sp.,Mucor piriformis, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Alternaria alternata caused local apple fruits decay in markets as well as in storage as was manifested by the results of the pathogenicity tests on apple fruits. The implecation of P.citrophthora as a causal pathogen of apple fruits decay under storage conditions is considered as the first record of this species as a causing agent of apple fruits decay in storage . R. stolonifer was the most frequent among the fungi isolated from decayed fruits either in local markets or storages.M.piriformis more frequent in storage samples than that in markets,so that with A.alternata. Pathoginicity experments showed that non of the fungi : Fusarium spp. , Curvularia spp., Aspergillus flavus , A. niger which were isolated from decayed apple fruits were pathogenic on apples.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF SOME MANUFACTURING CONDITIONS ON FISH PELLET QUALITY
تأثير بعض ظروف التصنيع في نوعية الحبيبات العلفية للأسماك

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الخلاصة

The pellet quality can be improved by adjustment the processing conditions. The research was conducted to evaluate some factors effect pellet manufacturing conditions. The factors included: production holes diameter with two levels (7 and 4.4 mm), grinding fineness with two levels (970 and 570 micron), and meal moisture with three levels (35.6, 38.9 and 42.3%). Pellets durability, pellet expansion ratio, pellet settle velocity and pellet temperature were studied in this experiment. A completely randomized design with three replications was used. The Results showed that the changing in production holes from 4.4 to 7 mm gave a significant increase in settling velocity, while both durability and temperature of pellet were significantly decreased, where as there no significant effect in pellet expansion ratio. The hole 4.4 mm recorded both higher durability (92.63%) and lower settling velocity (9.71cm/s). lower pellet temperature (39.4C) recorded with hole 7 mm. The increase of grinding fineness from 970 to 570 micron led to significant increase in pellet durability and settle velocity where as expansion ratio, and temperature recorded lower significant. The fineness 570 micron recorded higher durability (92.93%) lower expansion ratio (-1.69%) and lower temperature(40C) while the fineness 970 micron gave lower settling velocity (9.73cm/s) .The increases of meal moisture from 35.6 to 38.9 and to 42.3% caused significant increase in pellet durability, and expansion ratio, while settle velocity and pellet temperature were significant lowered. the moisture 42.3% gave higher durability (92.87%) lower settling velocity (9.79 cm/s) and lower pellet temperature (39.6C) while The moisture (35.6%) gave lower expansion ration (-1.38%) The meal moisture showed high correlation with studied parameters.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECTS OF SOME INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS AND BIO-INSECTICIDE (ABAMECTIN) IN REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF THE COTTON LEAFWORM
تأثير بعض منظمات النمو الحشرية والمبيد الحيوي (ابامكتين) في القابلية التكاثرية لدودة ورق القطن

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الخلاصة

Studies were conducted to evaluate the biological effects of chitin synthesis inhibitor (Applaud) in the reproductive potential of cotton leafworm when larvae fed on food treated with different concentrations of Applaud a sub sequent effect was obscures adults with females laid an average of 563.60 and 604.30 eggs/female for those early and late stages treated with 0.075 g (ai) /l, respectively. Females in control treatment laid an average 918.70 and 919.30 eggs/female for those early and late stages. The hatchability was also decreased depending on concentrations used and type of mating .The results showed that mating of males and female emerged from treated Larvae during their late stage with concentration of 0.075 g (ai) /l of Applaud, the percentage of hatching reached to 63.30% when treated males mated with untreated females the percentage of hatching were 66.14%, while it was 96.22% in control. Methoxyfenozide negatively affected the fecundity of adults emerged from larvae treated late stages. Results showed that when treated females and males were paired the number of eggs laid was 150 eggs / female at 0.08 g (ai) /l concentration On other hand , when untreated females mated with treated males or treated females mated with untreated males the number of egg/females reduced to reach to 320, 315 eggs / female respectively, at the same mentioned concentration, while it was 920 eggs/female in control. Meanwhile the fertility was reduced to 80% when the treated males and females were mated at 0.08 g (ai) /l. The treatment of late stages larvae by using the concentration 0.045 ml (ai)/l led to a complete prevention of females emerged from lay eggs whether these females mated with treated or untreated males but when untreated females mated with treated males the eggs/females reach to 350, The percentage of egg hatching reached to 24%, while the numbers of eggs laid was 920 eggs/females in control treatment.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
STUDY ON THE EFFICIENCY OF PAD DURING DAY IN COOLING POULTRY FARM
كفاءة نوع الحشوة المستخدمة في النهار في كفاءة تبريد قاعات الدواجن

المؤلفون: Samir B.Al- Badri سامر بدري سلمان البدري
الصفحات: 108-113
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الخلاصة

An experiment was undertaken at Abu-Ghraib to the west of Baghdad to investigate the ability of using best kinds of pads (fillings) used in poultry farms. Three kinds of fillings were used; palm fiber filling, cellulose filling, in addition to the plastic mesh filling. Filling thickness (5cm). This study was performed in a poultry farm belonging to the College of Agriculture – University of Baghdad during the summer 2005. This was to measure temperature, internal-external dew point, static pressure and air speed .The efficiency of cooling for the pads used was calculated through a certain formula. The measurement was taken during the day time from 10:00 am - 4:00 pm. A factorial experiment with a completely randomized design with three replicates was used. There was no effect of time on cooling efficiency when kinds of pads affect on cooling efficiency the highest degree was 92.97% when using palm fiber at 4 pm and the least was 38.40% when using plastic mesh at 4 pm. The variation kind of pad effects on a static pressure, when the highest 0.21 when using plastic mesh and the lowest was 0.09 when used palm fiber. The decrease in temperature, when using pad filling, was 28.88 Cْ while outside degree was 43.04 Cْ. There was no effect of time on air speed during the pads. So that, the pads were suitable for the day time and the best kind of pads was the leaf palm which gave higher cooling efficiency.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE IMPACT OFINFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT ON PRODUCTIVITY IN IRAQI AGRICULTURE
تأثير الاستثمار في البنية التحتية على نمو الأنتاجية في الزراعة العراقية

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الخلاصة

This research has focused on the effect of public infrastructure on economic performance. A model of Iraqi agriculture’s technology and behavior is constructed based on the total cost function framework. The model provides a decomposition of productivity growth into the components technical change, returns to scale, and public infrastructure. The empirical estimates indicate that public infrastructure investment provides a significant return to agriculture and augments productivity growth . Over the period 1970–2000, the impact of public infrastructure on productivity growth in Agricultural production is found to be positive, although it has been declining since the late 1980s. These results strongly suggest that a decline in public infrastructure investment can partly explain the observed decline in the productivity growth of Iraqi agriculture in the 1980s. Accordingly the mean total impact of public infrastructure on private purchased inputs in agriculture production was estimated . Over the whole sample period (1970-2000), public infrastructure is a complement to labour and intermediate inputs, while the opposite is true for private capital stock. This is an interesting result, as it implies that public infrastructure favours production processes that are traditional labour and intermediate inputs intensive as opposed to capital intensive production, thus supporting the lag in modernization and mechanization of Iraqi agriculture.

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Article
EEONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE RESPONSE OF WHEAT TO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS
التحليل الاقتصادي لاستجابة الحنطة لمستويات مختلفة من الاسمدة الكيمياوية

المؤلفون: Mahmood Ali Najim محمود علي نجم
الصفحات: 126-135
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الخلاصة

This study aims at estimating the optimum amount of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers for wheat production in the environment and economic condition similar to experiment region. Seven production functions were estimated ; Linear , Cobb-Douglas , semi logarithmic , quadratic , quadratic with interaction term , square root , square root with interaction term. The results showed that the quadratic function was the most representative according to statistically economical , econometrical and biological criteria. As the coefficient of determination was 85% . The results also showed the absence of the model from autocorrelation as Durbbin-Watson value was less than zero this means the correlation between residual is weak. Also the results also showed the absence of heteroscedasticity according to residual analysis as it does not take a definite shape. Also results showed the absence of multicallinearity according to correlation matrix for independent variables. The results had shown that the optimum amount of nitrogen fertilizer was (37.7) kgs. while the optimum amount of phosphorus was (22.3) kgs . In addition some derivatives from production function were derived such as marginal rate of substitution , isoquant equation , expansion path , isoclines , and ridge lines . the results also showed that the signs of independent variables were consistent with economic logic. The nature of the quadratic function is consistent with biological criteria as the addition of fertilizer would be biologically viable to a certain limit.

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Article
APPLICATIONS OF CHITOSAN IN FOOD PROCESSING
تطبيقات الكايتوسان في التصنيع الغذائي

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الخلاصة

Chitosan is a homogenous cationic biopolymer consisting of glucosamine units derived from chitin which is a major component of shells of crustancean, Insects and fungal cell walls. Chitosan produced commercially from crab and shrimp outershell wastes .The traditional chitosan production involves deproteinization , demineralization, decororization and partially or fully Deacetylation of acetyl groups. The physicochemical and functional characteristics of chitosan affected by variation of production methods and crustacean species. Chitosan has many biological and functional activities including : Antimicrobial activity against bacteria , fungi and yeast , antitumer , lowering cholesterol level in blood, water, fat and dye binding abilities , emulsification, gel formation, chelating of metal ions , edible film-forming property and antioxidant activity. Applications of chitosan in fields of food processing , nutrition ,chemical engineering, pharmaceuticals and environmental protection have received considerable attention in recent years. The antimicrobial activity and film-forming property of chitosan make it a potential material of food preservative because it is a coating material of natural origin. This publication focuses on the application of chitosan for improvement of quality and shelf life of various plant, animal, seafood as well as processed foods.

الكلمات الدلالية

جدول المحتويات السنة: المجلد: العدد: