Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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tijasub@yahoo.com
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009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2008 volume:39 issue:2

Article
EXPOSING POTATO SEED TUBER TO HIGH VOLTAGE FIELD I- EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND YIELD
1 -تعريض تقاوي البطاطا لحقول كهربائية عالية الفولتية 1- التاثير في النمو الخضري والحاصل

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Abstract

A field experiment was carried out at College of Agriculture/Abu-Ghraib, by exposing potato tuber seeds (class Elite) in the spring season and (class A) in the fall season of 2005 to electricity Held (0 as control, 550 volt/cm (AC), 1150 volt/cm (DC) and 2300 volt/cm (DC) respectively for 1, 2 and 4 minutes a week before planting in factorial RCBD experiment design. Results showed that peroxidase enzyme activity was significantly increased in 550 volt/em treatment by 7.84% as compared to control treatment at spring season, in contrast this activity decreased by 35.10% in the same treatment compared to control treatment in the fall season. Results also showed that increasing voltages increased the number of stems/ plant not significantly in the spring season, and significantly in fall season by 21.20% in 2300 volt/cm treatment compared to control treatment. 550 volt/cm treatment increased the plant height by 14.01 and 7.66% compared to control treatment and 19.01 and 10.70% compared to 2300 volt/cm treatment for both spring and fall season respectively. Time of exposing had no significant effect on most of vegetative growth for both spring and fall seasons. 1150 volt/cm treatment increased the number of tubers/plant by 18.17 and 3.36% compared to control treatment and 22.11 and 12.96% compared to 2300 volt/cm treatment for both spring and fall season respectively. Both of marketable and total yield increased in 1150 volt/cm treatment by 18.17 and 18.16% compared to control treatment and 32.87 and 26.41% compared to 2300 volt/cm treatment in the spring season, while in the fall season the increase was 1.20 and 15.14% compared to control treatment and 1.95 and 14.50% compared to 2300 volt/cm treatment for both of marketable and total yields

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Article
DETECTION OF GIBBERELLINS AND AUXINS LIKE COMPOUNDS AND THE PHYTOHORMONETHYLENE IN CULTURE FILTERATE OF THREE ISOLATES OF Trishoderma harzianum.
‏الكشف عن المواد الشبيهة بالجبرلينات والاكسينات وهرمون الا ثلين في راشح نمو ثلاث عزلات محلية من الفطر Trishoderma harzianum.

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Abstract

This study was conducted to detect the efficiency of three local isolates of Trichoderma harzianum (T9, T26 and T28) in producing some plant growth enhancement hormones like gibberellins , auxins and ethylene. The results showed the ability of the three tested isolates T9, T26 and T28 in producing gibberellins and auxins when cultivated on potato sucrose broth medium for 14 days on 25±2 °C , but their production ability was varied significantly in producing the two studied hormones. The results of chemical analysis culture filtrates using (HPLC) High-Performance Liquid Chromatography technique showed the superior of isolate T9 in their ability to produce gibberellins compared to T26 and T28 which recorded 43.39 mg/L compared to 18.24 and 0.59 mg/L for isolates T26 and T28 respectively while isolate T26 recorded high efficiency in production auxins 22.3 mg/L compared to the productivity of isolate T9 and T28 which recorded 0.00 and 0.06 mg/L respectively.Gas chromatography technique showed the occurrence of ethylene in different quantities in me cultures of the three tested isolates of T. harzianum cultivated on Czapek's broth medium for four days on 25±2 °C . This results confirmed the hypothesis of phytohomones production which enhance plant growth by some isolates of Trichoderma spp to be usee! as an important tool for plant growth enhancement.

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Article
EFFICIENCY OF Trichoderma spp. ISOLATES IN ENHANCING SEEDS GERMINATION AND SEEDING GROWTH OF SOUR ORANGE
كفاءة عزلات من الفطر Trichoderma spp. فى تحفيز انبات بذور ونمو شتلت النارنج

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Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of 30 isolates of the fungus Trichoderma spp. in enhancing seed germination and seedling growth of sour orange Citrus aurantium. The results revealed the varied influence of the tested isolates of Trichoderma spp. in sour orange seed germination as manifested by reducing the period required for seeds germination and increasing the percentage of germinated seeds. The influence was ranged from the positive for the most tested isolate to the harmful for few of them, while other tested isolate didn't show any influence. Isolates T2, T3, T5, T7, T7, T8, T9, T12, T14, T19, T20, T21 ,T22 ,T23, T24, T26 , T27 AND T28 showed significant reduction in the period required for seeds germination which recorded 30, 24, 30, 28, 30.6, 28, 22, 30.3, 28.3 ,28 ,29.6 ,25.6 ,27.6 ,30, 30, 22.3 , 30 and 23 days respectively and significant increment in the percentage of germinated seeds which recorded 57.7, 75.5, 64.4, 51.1, 53.3, 75.5, 82.2 , 55.5, 53.3, 66.6 ,59.9 , 71.0 ,62.1 ,56.6 66.6 , 82.2 , 55.5 and 80.0 % respectively. Three isolates namely T9 , T26 and T28 were the superior in both parameters which recorded 22.0 ,22.3 and 23.0 days and 88 , 82, 80% compared to 33 days and 84.8% in control treatment.lsolates T9, T26 and T28 showed significant increment in the following seedling growth parameters: root length, stem highth fresh and dry weight for shoot, fresh and dry weight of roots and total chlorophyll concentration in leaves which recorded (22.0, 20c 19.0) cirn (43.0, 42.0, 40.0cm)c (7.0, 6.8, 6.0gm), (2.9, 3.0, 2.8gm) (3.6, 3.5, 3.0gm), (2.1, 2.0, 1.8gm), and (17.4, 17.3,17.7mg/gm) compared to (12.0cm c 30.0cm, 3.0 gm, 1.7 gm, 1.5 g, 0.9 gm and 10.91 mg/gm ) in control treatment respectively.

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Article
EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZATION ON YIELD OFMAIZE AND POTATO
تاثير التسميد بالنتروجين والفسفور والبوتاسيوم في انتاجية محصولي الذرة الصفراء و البطاطا

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Two field experiments were conducted at the College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad in a silty clay loam soil .The 1st trial included five combinations of elements N-P-K 0-0-0,100-100-100,200-100-100,200-100-200, and 300-100-200 Kg ha-1, and two irrigation scheduling regimes by application of water when 50 and 75 of available water depletion and maize plants were used as plant indicator. The 2nd trial included three combinations of elements N-P-K 0-0-0,100-100-100, and 200-100-200, Kg ha' with potato used as plant indicator. Results of the 1 st trial indicated that significanteffecl of nutrient applied on plant height. The treatment 200-100-200 gave the best results with 7.3% increase lin, plant height compared to control treatment. Pi ant height was higher in the 75% compared to 50% water depletion treatment. Neither nuuient combinations nor water regimes alone gave any significant differences effects on dry matter yield and grain yield. However, there was 3 significant interaction effect on grain yield with control treatment at 50% water depletion giving best results (250 gm plant'). The results of 2nd trial indicated significant effect of nutrients application on potato tuber yield with treatment 200-100-2UO giving showed a highest yield with 20,16 ton ha•1, It was concluded that crop genus, soil type, method of irrigation, and surrounding environmental conditions have affected plant responses to treatments applied .. However, generally speaking the treatment 200-100-200 was almost the best treatment in both trials in terms of plant height of maize and grain and tuber yield of maize and potato respectively. The lacks of clear cut response to water regime treatments in the 1 st trial signify the rationalization of water applications especially for spring sawn corn crop.

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Article
EFFECT OF STORAGE METHODS AND SEED SIZE IN SEEDLING VIGOUR OF SAFFLOWER
تاثير طرانق الخزن وحجم البذرة في نمو بادرات العصفر

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Abstract

safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. cv. Almais) were planted on 21/1/2005, to compare four methods of storage: freezer, refrigerator, room, and outdoor. This was to determine the best method to store seed of safflower. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Speed, ratio, and capacity of emergence were calculated .Roots and shoots length, their fresh and dry weight, total dry weight of plant, leaves no., and shoot to root ratio were estimated. Also seven sizes of seeds: yi = 6, y2 = 5.7, yj = 5J, y4. = 4.5, y5 = 4.2, y6 = 3.7, and y7 = 2.8 g in/100 seed, were planted on 28/2/2006, to investigate best seed size seedling vigour. Speed, ratio, and capacity of emergence were estimated, and root length, fresh and dry weight of root and shoot, and total dry weight of plant, were measured, shoot length and leaves no. were calculated for four periods. The results indicated that seed storage in ventilated room temp. (20-30 c) was superior in ratio and capacity of emergence (93%), root length (27 cm) shoot length (23 cm),no. of leaves (14 leaf for plant) and shoot fresh and dry weight (3.1 and 0.42g/plant), and moderate fresh root weight (0.82 g/plant) and lower dry weight of root (0.18g / plant),besides a higher ratio of emergence of shoot to root (.242%) . Large seed size (5.7g/100 seed) was superior in capacity of emergence (94%), root fresh weight (2.1 g/plant), high shoot and plant dry weight (0.36, 0.69 g/plant), shoot length and speed growth, leaves no. and their formation during four periods.

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Article
SIMPLE METHOD FOR PURIFICATION OF WHEAT GERM LECTIN BY AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY
طريقة مبسطة لتنقية لكتين جنين الحنطة بكروموتوكرافيا الالفة

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Abstract

Because of various application of purified lectin ,the aim of this study was to extract it from wheat germ which is one of the byproducts from wheat processing. The extraction steps including fat elimination from wheat germ by heptan fellowed by lectin extraction by 0.05 M hydrochloric acid solution in ratio (1: 10)(w/v) for one hour at 25C . The crud extract was subjected to different purification steps including concentration by ultrafiltration by this step it was possible to eliminate high portion of low molecular wight compounds which is below 10000 dalton. The difiltration was done to concentrated the sample by 0.01 M Tris-HCL, pH 8.5 .The purification folds and yeild of the lectin were 5.71 and 98.34% respectively. Ion-exchange chromatography by bachwise procedure using Diethel amino ethel cellulose (DEAE¬Cellulose) then affinity chromatography by chitin column, where the chitin itself was prepared from outer shells of shrimp ,we obtained about 40 g chitin which is equel to 20% chitin from the dry shells then the chitin was used as a matrix and a ligand in affinity chromatography for purification of the lectin after this step the purification fold was 20 and yeild of the lectin was 19.51 % . The lectin was purified to homogeneity as indicated by presence of one band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions in presence and absence of the reducing agent 2-mercaptoethanol .The amount of lectin is about 60mg /1000 gm of wheat germ when using the steps which indicated in this study .

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Article
USE OF SOME ANTIOXIDANT TO MINIMIZE OCHRATOXIN ATOXICITY IN RATS
استخدام بعض مضادات الأكسدة لخفض سمية الاوكرا توكسين في الجرذان

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
The present study aimed to minimize ochratoxin A toxicity by use of oral administration of two types of antioxidants, first was a -tocopherol at a concentration of 10 mg/kg body weight and the second was the extract of Hibiscus subdariffa at two concentrations 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg body weight, respectively, Five groups of mature albino rats were used, group 1 was fed on a semi-synthetic feed without toxin, called control group , while group 2 was given ochratoxin A, group 3 was given ochratoxin A with a -tocopherol, group 4 and 5 was also given ochratoxin A with the extract of Hibiscus subdariffa .These groups were fed on a constant semi-synthetic feed free from antioxidants , with daily oral administration of ochratoxin A and antioxidants for a period of 30 days .The efficiency of the antioxidants were then evaluated by monitoring the changes in the serum values of some biochemical parameters. Moreover histopathological examination of tissue specimens obtained from the kidney, liver and skeletal muscle of the rats by the use of light microscope, The group that was treated only with ochratoxin A and without antioxidants showed elevations in the serum biochemical parameters, these were the Malonydialdehyde, glucose , triglycerides , atherogenic index (AI), liver enzymes (Aspartate Amino Transferase , Alanine Amino Transferase), creatinine and blood urea level, but caused a reduction in serum cholesterol level. Other groups which were treated with ochratoxin A and antioxidants showed changes in the above biochemical parameters that were insignificantly differed from that of the control group. The kidney specimens from Group 2 showed changes in proximal convoluted tubules and the liver specimens of the same group showed involvement at the peripheral region of the hepatic lobule. Skeletal muscle specimens showed normal architecture .No changes were observed in all other groups investigated throughout the study regarding kidney and liver specimens, with normal anastomosing columns of hepatocytes that were having normal homogenous cytoplasm

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Article
EVALUATION THE EFFl'CIENCY OF SOME BIOCONTROL AGENTS AND BELTANOL AGAINST RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI AND FUSARIUM OXYSI)ORUM THE CAUSAL OF SEEDROT AND DAMPING OFF DISEASE OF WATERMELON.
تقويم كفاءة عوامل المكافحة الاحيائية والمبيد Beltanol ضد الفطرين Fusarium oxysporum و Rhizoctonia solani المسببين لتعفن بذور وموت بادرات الرقي

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The study include control of seed rot and damping off disease of watermelon by using some of biocontrol agents. The result of antagonistic ability test of Trichoderma spp. on PSA culture media showed that all Trichoderma species (T. viride J T. hamatum and T. pseudokoningiii revealed a high degree of antagonistic against the pathogenic fungus F. oxysporum which were reached 1.9,2.0,1.7 respectively. The two antagonistic fungi T. pseudokoningii and T. vir ide also showed a high degree of antagonistic against the fungus R. solani which were reached 2.0 and1.8 respectively. while J T. hamatum failed to show efficacious antagonistic degree against the pathogenic fungus, the antagonistic degree in its treatment was 2.2. The Paecilomyces lilacinus fungus had a low antagonistic degree against R. solani and F. oxysporum which were 3.2 and 3.0 respectively. The bacteria Bacillus subtilis showed a highly antagonistic ability, where its using caused 66.6% and 44.4% growth inhibition against the two pathogenic fungi respectively . The Beltanol fungicide showed a higher efficiency in the growth inhibition of R. solani and F. oxysporum where the growth of two fungi completely inhibited . The two Biocontrol agents , T. pseudokoningii and B. subtilis and Beltanol fungicide showed efficiency in the protection of watermelon seeds and seedling from the infection by the two pathogenic fungi R. so/ani and F. oxysporum . The use of the two biocontrol agents cause increase the percentage of seed germination in the presence of the two pathogenic fungi R. solani and F. •oxysporum , the percentage of seed germination in their treatment reached 53.3% and 66.6% and 60%, 70% respectively , and reduced the percentage of disease severity with the presence of the two pathogenic fungi to 55.4% , 32.3% and 53.2% , 30.6% respectively, while the percentage of seed germination and disease severity in the Beltanol treatment in the presence of the two pathogenic fungi were reached 76.6% ,80% and 33.8% , 18.5% respectively compared with control treatment with the presence of the two pathogenic fungi R. solani and F. oxysporum only where the seed germination and disease severity were reached 6.6% , 10% and 93%, 90% respectively. All the biocontrol agents and the BeItanol fungicide treatments showed .increase in shoots and root in dry weights of compared with the treatment of the two pathogenic fungi only

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Article
COMPARSION STUDY BETWEEN CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL TREATMENTS OF GROUND AND CHOPPED FROND AND BARLEY STRAW
مقارنة تأثير المعاملة الكيميائية والميكروبية فى تحسين القيمة الغذائية لسعف النخيل وتبن الشعير المقطع والمجروش

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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chemical treatment ( CT ) using sodium hydroxide and microbial treatment (MT) using the fungi Plearotus ostreatus on the chemical composition in vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD), concentration of phenolic compound and anaerobic bacteria for frond and barley straw grounded or chopped.The results indicate that the chemical and microbial treatments of frond and barley straw had a significant effect (P< 0.0 I) on the chemical composition and DMD as compared with untreated. Chemical and microbial treatments significantly (PO.Ol) reduce lignin content and phenolic compound concentration and significantly (P

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Article
USING OF MICROBIAL TREATMENT TO IMPROVE THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF GROUND AND CHOPPED FROND
أستخدام المعاملة الميكروبية في تحسين القيمة الغذائية لسعف النخيل المقطع والمجروش

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Microbial treatment (MT) has been done using fungi Pleurotus ostreatus for grounded and chopped frond using four levels of moisture 0,20,40 and 60% (on dry matter bases), and four incubation periods 0 , 2 ,4 and 6 weeks at four Jegrees of temperatures 0,20, 30 and 40 DC. This work was to study the effect of MT of frond on chemical composition, in vitro digestibility of organic matter (DaM) phenolic compound concentration, activity of laccase enzyme ana number of anaerobic bacteria .The result showed that MT for ground and chopped" frond significantly reduced the content of dry matter (DM ), organic matter(OM) ,neutreal detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) hem cellulose and lignin to 933,831,661,459 and 203 g /kg OM as compared with content of untreated frond 946,848,725,494 and 232 g/kg OM respectively ;also phenolic compound concentration was 18.4 mg 11 00 ml in untreated frond reduce significantly to 12.5 mB 1100 ml as a result of MT. Microbial treatment increased cellulose and in vitro digestibility of OM and OM, activity of laccase enzyme and number of anaerobic bacteria as compared with untreated .Microbial treatment increase DOM from 36.8 % in untreated frond to 69 % in treated frond ,and increased the number of anaerobic bacteria from 6.7 x 10 in untreated frond to 7.3 x 105 in microbil treated frond.Physical form (ground and chopped) of frond had a significantly effect on microbial treatment .chemical composition, in vitro digestibility of OM and DM ,phenolic compr .und and the number of anaerobic bacteria.

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Article
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RIB-EYE MUSCLE OF A W ASI EWES SLA UGTERED AT DIFFERENT AGES
دراسة الصفات الكيمياوية والفيزياوية للعضلة العينية لنعاج العواسي المذبوحة باعمار مختلفة

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This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of age on the meat chemical and physical characteristics of Awassi ewes in different ages. Fifty/,ure Awasi ewes ranging from 1 to 10 years of age were fed concentrate mixture at level 1 % 0 their live body weight plus green roughages. All the ewes were born and grown up at the sheep research station, Ministry of Agriculture, The animals were slaughtered twelve hours after the food was prevented. All the carcasses were chilled at 2 °C for 24 hours, followed by the dissecting of longissimus dorssi muscle (LD) at the loin .The carcasses were cut into identical two halves and the yield half of the (bD) was subjected the chemical and physical analysis. The results showed a significant effect of animals ages on the moisture percentage of the (LD) , where it was ranged from 72 to 75 % of animals aged from 1 to 9 years old, also a significant effect was observed on the moisture percentage of ewes of 10 years old in comparison WIth other animals .A fat percentage ranged from 3.11 to 4.58% for the ewes of 2 to 9 years of age, while the lowest fat percentage was found with ewes of one year old and the highest 8.23% as achieved with ewes 10 years old. Protein percentage was ranged frorn 119 to 21.4% in the groups of seven years of age. Results revealed that there was significant decreasein the percentage of meat capacity for water holding• (WHC) being 54.34 to 47.05%. However, there was significant decrease in the percentage of cooking loss which was 41.51 to 38.27% as regarded back muscle for ewe at the age of one year and ten years, respectively. The study showed a positive correlation between myoglobin concentration and the advanced in age , where the concentrations were 13.6,35.0,43.7 , 51.1 ,55.3 ,71.3,83.6,90.6, 102.1 and 127.9 ppm, respectively .It can be concluded that the meat of slaughtered ewes with older ages were not different from those of younger ewes in their palatability and nutritional value.

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Article
EVALUATION OF LOCAL AND IMPORTED PLANT PROTEIN CONCENTRATES ON SOME PRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF LAYING HENS
تقييم مركز البروتين النباتي المحلي والمستورد في بعض الصفات الأنتاجية لدجاج بيض المائدة

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Seventy five layer hens (lSA - Brown commercial strain) 24 weeks old were used in this experiment. They were randomly distributed on five treatments (15 hens each treatment, 3 replicated in each treatment.) . The treatments were: T, (control) = 100% imported plant protein concentrate, T2 = 75% imported plant protein concentrate + 25% locally plant protein concentrate, T3 = 50% imported plant protein concentrate + 50% locally plant protein concentrate. T4 = 25% imported plant protein concentrate + 75% locally plant protein concentrate and T s = 100% locally plant protein concentrate. Results indicated that no significant difference in live body weight between the different treatments were found during the different eg& production periods. Weight gains were significantly (P<0.05) differ among egg production periods. SIgnificant differences in e~g production among treatments were found in which T3 and T4 showed the highest H. D.Yo among the treatments . Egg production period (32 - 36 wk.) were the highest among the different egg periods. Significant increase in egg weight and egg mass for T2, T3 , T4 and T, as compared with TI( control) during egg production periods. There were significant differences in feed consumption among treatments during egg Production periods, There were significant differences in feed conversion ratio (g. feed / egg) noticed among treatments. T3 and T4 gave the best feed efficiency during the whole production period. Egg production period (28 - 32 wk.) showed the best feed efficiency 018.2 g. feed / egg) among egg production periods. No significant difference in mortality rate due to the replacement of locally Plant protein concentrate for the imported plant protein concentrate in hens diets. Results of this experiment refer to the possibility of partial substitution (at level of 50 - 75%) of the locally plant protein concentrate instead of the imported plant protein concentrate in layers diets.

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