Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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tijasub@yahoo.com
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009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2008 volume:39 issue:5

Article
CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT OF MAIZE HYBRID AND INBREDS AS INFLUENCED BY TWO LEVELS OF DENSITY AND NITROGEN
محتوى الكلوروفيل في هجين وسلالات الذرة الصفراء بتأثير مستويين من الكثافة النباتية والنايتروجين

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Abstract

A field experiment was undertaken on the Research Station of the Dept. of Field Crop Sci. of the College of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad . This was to study chlorophyll content (CC) and disappearance in a cross of maize and its parents, and its relationships to hybrid vigor under two levels of N (150 and 300 kg/ha) and two population densities (35 and 70 thousands plant/ha). Near 75% silking , (CC) in the ear leaf was 20.4 and 23.6 mg /g for the parents, and 21.3 and 23.8 mg/g fresh weight for hybrid under 150 and 300 kg N/ha , respectively with the density 35 thousands plant/ha. Whereas, at the higher density (70,000 ppha), the values became 17.2 and 18.8 for the parents, and 19.2 and 19.7 mg/g fresh weight for the hybrid, for the two levels of N, respectively and D2. However, at physiologic maturity, at higher density and N, (CC) values in the ear leaf became; 15.8 mg/g as average of parents, and 17.4 mg/g for the hybrid. This shows the higher level of (CC) in the hybrid and its stability at maturity .Higher nitrogen (150 to 300 kg N/ha) increased leaf area duration. The hybrid gave wider leaf area and higher chlorophyll content compared to its parents. One of the features of hybrid was the early transition from vegetative to reproductive stage compared to its parents. So, the hybrid produced 508 kernal / ear , while the inbreds gave 365 kernal /ear. Process of grain filling period and maturity depended on system capacity constant (SCC). The hybrid gave 47% HI compared to 31% for the inbreds. This led the hybrid to produce grain yield 11.98 t/ha and the inbreds 7.3 t/ha . The conclusion from results indicate that hybrid stability of (CC) in the leaf at maturity led to increased TDM and faster transition from vegetative to reproductive stage ; higher number of kernel /ear , and the higher grain yield in unit of area.

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Article
IMPROVEMENT OF SOME SUNFLOWER TRAITS BY HONEYCOMB SELECTION
تحسين بعض صفات زهرة الشمس بالانتخاب بخلية النحل

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Abstract

To investigate the effect of honeycomb selection in improving crop grain yield , field trials were undertaken for five seasons on the farm of Dept. of Field Crops, Coll. of Agric./Univ. of Baghdad during 2005-2007. The sunflower Akmar cv. was used. Seeds were planted in the first three seasons using honeycomb design of 1.3 m between furrows and 1.5 m between plants. Parameter used for selection was, head area. Desired plants were selected, tagged and selfed for three cycles. Seeds then taken, mixed, planted and hand cross-pollinated (panmixia). The resulted seeds were planted for yield trial along with original population. Plant leaf area of selected sunflowers increased from 0.78 to 1.15m² under planting population of 60,000 p/ha. This increase was reflected on head area that increased from 294 to 435 cm², growth rate from 2.87 to 3.38 g/plant/d, plant dry matter from 309 to 395g and seed/head from 1370 to 2118. This implies that system capacity constant (SCC) was significantly improved. This selected population yielded 6.92 t/ha compared to 4.41 t/ha of the original population when planted at 80,000 p/ha. Value of heritability for trait used was 45.3% for head area after 2 cycles of selection. It was clear that additive gene action has improved SCC of selected plants. It was recommended to use honeycomb method to develop cultivars of high vigour better than those developed by conventional selection.

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Article
EFFECT OF RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI ON COTTON SEED GERMINATION AND ITS CONTROL BY USING SOME PLANT EXTRACT
تأثير الفطر Rhizoctonia solani في انبات بذور القطن ومكافحته بأستعمال بعض المستخلصات النباتية

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Abstract

This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of Rhizoctonia solani on cotton seed germination and its control by using some plant extracts. Results showed that six of ten isolates of the fungus Rhizoctonia solani completely prohibited seed germination of the cabbage, while the seed germination of the other four isolates ranged from 16 to 95%. The six isolates HS1,HS2,HS3,HS4,HS5 and HS6 significantly surpass decreasing seed germination of the cotton cultivar Cocker-310 which was zero in there treatments compared to 100% in the control treatment. The thermal treated and untreated filtrate of the fungus R. solani had significantly negative effect and completely prohibited seed germination. To control of the fungus R. solani by cauliflower powder at 2% inhibits 50% of its growth comparing to 100% inhibition when the fungicide Beltanol was applied at rate 0.25 CC/l, followed by pomegranate coats and colocynth fruits powder at rate 2% which inhibits the fungul growth 35.55 and 25.55% respectively. Also, it was found that the alcoholic extraction of the cauliflower powder at rate 2000mg/l caused 100%inhibition of the fungus R. solani on PDA culture medium, followed by pomegranate and colocynth which caused 75 and 50% inhibition, respectively and with significant differences compared to the control. To evaluate this efficiency on cotton seeds germination, the results revealed that the treatment of cauliflower alcoholic extraction and Beltanol with the presence of the fungus R. solani significantly surpassed the seed germination compared to the other treatments and was 50 and 60% ,respectively, while the R. solani treatment showed zero seed germination.

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Article
EFFECT OF METHOD PF PLANTING, BULB WEIGHT AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZATION ON SOME GROWTH TRAITS OF Narcissus tazetta
تأثير طريقة الزراعة ووزن البصلة ومستوى السماد في بعض صفات النرجس البريNarcissus tazetta

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Abstract

The experiment was carried out on fall / 2002 , the effect of two levels of bulb weight (22 & 27 gm) ; two methods of planting (under plastic or opened) were tested. Four levels of N.P.K (control ; 0.03 : 0.04 : 0.04 ; 0.11 : 0.12 : 0.13 or 0.23 : 0.25 : 0.27 gm / pot) were added , each rate was divided into three equal doses , the first was added two weeks after planting ; the second was added when the flower bud was visible and the third after flower development. All the treatments were stored at room temperature (27 – 34oc) for 40 days then planted at 10oc until most of the bulbs started rooting , then transferred to 18oc and finally to the room temperature (24 - 28oc) for hardening . A split – split experiment with RCBD with three replicates was designed . All plants grown from bulb weight "(27 gm) were bloomed , but time of flowering was delayed (15.08 days) and the percentage of dry matter was decreased (25.79%) . Planting under plastic condition enhanced the flowering rate (122.5 days) ; length of leaves (24.62 cm) ; also %N , %P and %K were elevated (2.22 , 0.28 , 0.95%) respectively . The lowest level of N.P.K gave the highest number of florets / inflorescence (3.63) . Bulbs contents of N,P and K were increased (2.28 , 0.32 , 0.95%, respectively) .

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Article
THE EFFECT OF ELECTRIC SHOCK ON DNA STRUCTURE OF Antirrhinum majus
تأثير الصعق الكهربائي في DNA نبات حلق السبع

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Abstract

The experiment was conducted in the lathhouse of Horticulture Department – College of Agriculture – Baghdad University in fall season of 2006 to investigate the effect of electric shock (E.S.) on DNA of Antirrhinum majus.Three levels of E.S. severity AC (6,8,10 Ampere) and three timings of treating (2,4,6 minutes ) were tested plus the control. A special electric apparatus was prepared for this purpose. Sprouted seeds and seedlings were soaked (before the E.S. treatments) for 3h in a 1% NaCl solution. Then they soaked in a fresh water for the same period ( 3h ) before they planted in the soil. The genetic study included DNA finger printing for some selected plants of Antirrhinum majus. Testing Genetic Distance by using two DNA markers based on Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was applied. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) were employed. The study was carried out at International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)-Aleppo-Syria. Antirrhinum majus showed clear morphological differences on either the vegetative or flowering growth. The genetic analyses by RAPD or AFLP and Genetic Distance for selected treated plants comparing to untreated (control) was performed. Highest Genetic Distance (42%) by RAPD markers and 27.5% by AFLP markers was recorded on plants that their sprouted seeds were treated by (8A X 6mins).

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Article
STUDYING OF THE OPTIMUM CONDITIONS TO PRODUCE INULINAS FROM A LOCAL ISOLATE OF Aspergillus niger J3
دراسة الظروف المثلى لإنتاج الانيولينيز من عزلة محلية للعفن Aspergillus niger J3

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Abstract

Four isolates of fungi grown on Jerusalem artichoke were subjected to screening process for select the highest producer one of the inulinase enzyme. The isolate J3 was found the highest producer. The isolate J3 was identified according as Aspergillus niger. Result showed that the optimum condition to produce the enzyme by solid state fermentation is by using dried Jerusalem artichoke as carbon source.For nitrogen source we used sodium nitrate, yeast extract, peptone and mixture of yeast extract with sodium nitrate in ratio 1:1 and 0.2% concentration. It has been found that the using mixture of yeast extract and sodium nitrate was given the highest activity of enzyme.Initial pH which was used is between (4-9) and it has been found that the optimum pH for producing of the enzyme was (5).The incubation temp was ranging from 20to 40C it has been found that 30C is the best temperature for incubation.Different incubation periods was taken ranging from 72hrs to 192 hr, and the optimum incubation period was found 168hr which given the highest activity of inulinase enzyme.

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Article
TREATING INFANT`S ROTAVIRUS DIARRHEA BY USING BABY FORMULA SUPPLEMENTED WITH IMMUNOGLOBULINS FROM BOVINE COLOSTRUM
معالجة إسهال روتا فايروس الأطفال باستخدام حليب اطفال مدعم بكلوبيولينات لبأ الأبقار المناعية

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Abstract

Rotavirus was isolated from infant stools suffered from diarrhea. Pregnant cows were vaccinated subcutaneously by the isolated virus. From the colostrums of such cows immunoglobulin (lgs) were precipitated and then passed through Sephadex G-200 column to obtain pure IgG, IgA, IgM. The crude and purified Igs were tested through neutralization of virus in stools of 10 infected infants. It was shown that 1mg of crude antibodies when mixed with 1ml of stool could decrease the virus titer from 1:32- 1:256 to 0- 1:4 in 6 samples. When 1mg of every purified Igs fraction was mixed with 1ml of stool, it was shown that IgM, IgA and IgG reduced virus titer to zero in 10, 9and 7 samples, respectively. The rest of samples, either those treated with crude or purified Igs, showed titers between 1:2- 1:4. The crude Igs, after lyophilization, was used as a supplement in infant formula to treat 20 infants diagnosed with diarrhea. Ten of them received 750- 850 ml of milk supplemented with 1 g Igs/ l, The other ten received the same volume with 1.25 g Igs/ l . The diarrhea episodes were decreased within 48 hrs of the continuous treatment. The higher concentration at the end of treatment cured 60% of initial cases, compared to 20% cured in the lower concentration group, while the control group who received the unfortified milk continued at the same rate of diarrhea episodes.

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Article
THE BIOACTIVITY AND NUTRITIONAL ROLE OF SOME MINERALS AND NUTRITIVE CONSTITUENTS IN THREE GENUSES OF NUTS
الدور الحيوي والتغذوي لبعض المعادن والمكونات الغذائية لثلاثة اجناس من المكسرات

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Three kinds of imported nuts (American almond , Persian pistachio and Indian cashew) were examined for their nutritional and mineral constituents. It was found that the percentages on dry weight basis of total ash , proteins , lipids , total carbohydrates , reducing sugars , crude fibers , total phenolic compounds , free phenolic compounds , tannins and ascorbic acid (mg) for the almond were 3.09 , 18.54 , 48.46 , 18.24 , 4.60 , 9.50 , 10.20 , 9.78 , 0.42 and 0.00 (mg) respectively , and for pistachio were 2.74 , 18.80 , 46.62 , 22.44 , 7.05 , 7.72 , 9.40 , 9.40 , 0.00 and 3.42 (mg) respectively , and for cashew were 3.11 , 19.22 , 49.26 , 18.74 , 1.36 , 1.86 , 8.98 , 7.73 , 1.25 and 0.00 (mg) respectively. The minerals Ca , K and Na were determined using Eppendrof flame photometer and the recorded values for the almond were 2430.00 , 7372.50 and 66.80 µg/g respectively , and for the pistachio 1195.00 , 8868.00 and 12.80 µg/g respectively , and for the cashew 456.60 , 6497.50 and 209.80 µg/g respectively. A colorimetric method was used to determine phosphorus using ammonium vanadate molybdate as indicator and the values were found 5624.00 , 6053.30 and 4856.00 for the almond , pistachio and cashew respectively. The minerals Mg , Fe , Zn , Mn, Cu , S , I , Se , Cr and Co were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and were found 288.25 , 3.51 , 2.84 , 1.91 , 0.77 , 0.33 , 0.15 , 0.079 , 0.00 and 2.85 µg/g for the almond respectively , and for the pistachio were 132.50 , 4.48 , 2.18 , 1.00 , 0.91 , 0.44 , 0.00 , 0.075 , 0.00 and 1.99 µg/g respectively , and for the cashew were 282.50 , 5.27 , 5.22 , 0.99 , 1.96 , 0.66 , 0.00 , 0.26 , 0.19 and 0.00 µg/g respectively. The minerals Ni , Cd and Pb were found as trace elements gave amounts less than 0.05 µg/g .

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Article
EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATIAN OF SOME BASIC COMPONENTS OF LEAVES AND SEEDS OF LOCAL LETTUCE
أستخلاص وتقدير بعض المكونات الاساسية للخس المحلي وبذوره

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This experiment was applied to the leaves parts of a local Iraqi lettuce leaves and its seeds to determine the essential percentages that Continuous extraction method by some solvent. It is found that the oil percentage in lettuce leaves dose not exceed 2 % where as in its Seeds it is 24 % .The protein percentage has been determined by Kjeldhal method and it is found 12.1 % in the leaves and about 13.15% in the Seeds. The percentage of Carbohydrate has been found to be 23% in the leaves and 18 % in the seeds. The percentage of moisture 9.15 % in the leaves and 2.21% in the seeds.The percentage of crude fiber is found to be about 12.5% in the leaves and14.3% in the seeds. The study has also included measuring the percentage of the total ash and ash in soluble in acid and that soluble in water for the dried leaves of the local lettuce.This percentage is found to be 11.33% and 24.12 mg/gm and 9.45 mg/gm respectively. As far as the percentage of the total ash of seeds is concerned . it is found to be about 6.1% , where as the percentage of ash which is in soluble acid and that which is soluble in water for seeds has been found to be 12.25 mg/gm and 8.38 mg/mg respectively . Organic identified by using Fourier Transform Infra Red= (FTIR) spectra . The results show the reactive groups in both of the leaves of the local lettuce and its seeds which are represented by hydroxylic (O-H) belongs to carboxylic acid , alcohol or water , Al-carbonyl groub (C=O) which belongs to carboxylic acid , ketons and aldehydes , Al-alkynes groups (C=C) which belongs to aliphatic compounds or aromatic compounds .The experiment for measuring the degree of swelling for the local dry lettuce leaves and its seeds under the normal temperature in dark place and during equal periods of time for the leaves of lettuce and its seeds as well it is worth mentioning here that the leaves require 2-3 hours for reaching the degree of swelling and then to equation whereas the seeds on the other hand take about 24 hours for the same purposes above .

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Article
THE EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC , PREBIOTIC AND SYNBIOTIC ON EGG CHARACTERSTICS AND MORTALITY OF WHITE LEGHORN HENS
تأثيرالمعزز الحيوي(Probiotic) والسابق الحيوي(Prebiotic) والخليطالتآزري (Synbiotic) في صفات البيض والهلاكات لدجاج اللكهورن الابيض

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The present experiment was conducted at poultry farm - Agriculture College –University of Baghdad for the period of 27th May 2005 to first of Jully 2006. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with probiotic , prebiotic and synbiotic on productive characterstics and mortility of White Leghorn (WL) laying hens . A locally prepared probiotic were used each one gram of this probiotic contain at least 1010 Colony Forming Units of Bifidobacterium , L.acidophilus bacteria and 108(CFU)of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and Aspergillus niger fungal , respectivally . The Prebiotic used in this study consist of a non starch oligosaccharide of S.cerevisiae yeast after crashing of cell wall .The synbiotic used in this study were prepared by mixed equael amount from probiotic (Iraqi probiotic) and prebiotic . Atotal of 180 WL laying hens , 16 weeks old were randomly allocated into four treatment groups. Hens in T1 group were fed a standerd laying diet and used as control group . Hen in T2,T3 and T4 were fed diet supplement with 5 Kg/ton of probiotic , prebiotic and synbiotic , respectively . Egg production were measured monthly throughout of the experimental period .The data of the present study showed that feed supplementation with probiotic , prebiotic and synbiotic were significantly (P<0.01)decreased abnormal egg about 23.0% , 18.1% for (T3,T4) , mortality about 40.4%, 47.2% ,87.6% for (T2,T3,T4) , and improved egg weight about 3.0% ,0.8% , 1.0% for (T2,T3,T4) and percentage of settable hatching egg about 1.93% , 1.61% for (T3,T4) . It could be concluded from this study that proiotic , preiotic and synbiotic did have a benifial improvement in egg weight and percentage of settable hatching eggs for the hens that were fed these feed additives for 12 months production period .

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Article
Inhibitory Activity Of Some Plant Extracts On The Multiplication Of Potato Virus Y (PVY).
الكفاءة التثبيطية لبعض المستخلصات النباتية في تضاعف فيروس البطاطا واي Potato Y Potyvirus (PVY)

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This experiment was conducted to determine the inhibitory efficiency of thuja Thuja orientalis L. (leaves, branches, fruits) extract, petal leaves of Eugenia caryophyllala extract and peel of pomegranate Punica granatum L. on the multiplication of potato Y potvirus (PVY). The alcoholic extracts were prepared for the above plants and the inhibitory activity for each plant extract was tested at different concentration levels. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) as a serological test was used to determine the virus concentration in treated plants. Results showed that the application of extracts from Thuja, pomegranate peel and tannic acid on the PVY inoculated plants at 5 g/l led to complete inhibition of the virus multiplication within 8, 16 and 16 days respectively. The spraying of pomegranate peel extract at 3g/l on the PVY inoculated plants was not completely inhibited the virus, while the spraying of thuja extract at the same concentration was inhibited the virus multiplication within 17 days from inoculation. The application of Thuja and pomegranate peel extracts were protected the plants from viral infection for 12 and 8 days respectively. There was no inhibitory effect observed on plants treated with the extract of petal leaves of Eugenia caryophyllala. Results of this experiment also indicated that the major active ingredient in studied plants is tannic acid. There was no significant damage occurred on the treated plants.

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Article
AN EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR OPTIMIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL TOOLS DESIGN
الوسيلة الفعالة للتصميم الامثل للالات الزراعية

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This paper presents an application of an optimization procedure for a mass optimization of a welded framework of a special tractor trailer designed for transport of seeding machines. Optimization procedure, so-called Fully Stressed Design (FSD), based on an indirect approach utilizing optimum criteria has been used. The aim of the optimization was to achieve the lowest possible mass of the construction taking into consideration the allowed resistance. Through reducing the total mass of welded framework by 878.12 kg .This optimization method has saved 35.85 % of maximum stress value .From static analysis for original model that the stresses are 71.25 MPa is enough to provide the secure movement and require of rigidity under a weight of the framework that is 1362.9 kg. It has been shown that optimization procedures have an important and un replaceable role in practice, because they result in significant material savings keeping the required resistance and consistency parameters of constructions within the required specification. That is why the optimum analysis of rigidity were gustivide depending on element geometric method which is advance method problems could by the formation of the calculation model for analysis of the proposed subjects and the correct in mechanics. That are part of the programming system Pro/ Mechanica with the formation of the virtual model by means of the programmed known as CAD product Pro/ Engineer .The finite element method has been used to execute the optimum design in which the problem is solved have been determined. These problems could be the formation of the calculation model for analysis of the proposed subjects and the correct translation of results. It has been concluded that the welded framework weight can by reduced FROM 2000 KG TO 1368.9 KG.


Article
EFFECT OF FUEL OIL APPLICATION AND FUNGI INOCULATION ON MEAN WEIGHT DIAMETER AND ITS REFLECTION ON SOME SOILCHARACTERISTICS
تأثير اضافة زيت الوقود والتلقيح بالفطريات في معدل القطر الموزون وانعكاس ذلك في بعض خصائص التربة

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To study the effect of fuel oil and fungi inoculation on the mean weight diameter and to measure another physical properties as an indicator of the soil structure situation. In this study, six levels of fuel oil 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% and two types of fungi Rhizopus delmar and Phanorochaete chrysosporium have been used, soil samples SiCL textured have incubated for 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. A completely randomized design was used with three replications of each treatment and the values of least significant difference and correlation coefficients were adopted as a source of inference among treatments. In this study, results showed that, the addition of fuel oil and fungi inoculation led to a statistically significant increase in the mean weight diameter (2.88mm) and in turn that reflected to increasing the total porosity (66.4%) and decreasing the bulk density (0.88Mg.m-3). The increasing rate of the mean weight diameter increases rapidly with the time passage until the end of the experiment. In addition to that the fungal colonies diameter (53.66mm) has increased because of improving physical conditions of the soil and as a result of that, the total organic carbon (45.12g.kg-1) produced from the additive fuel oil analyzing and the residues of fungi has increased, thus the soil structure situation has improved.

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