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مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: الزراعة
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تأسست مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية في كلية الزراعة جامعة بغداد عام 1966. كانت المجلة تصدر بعددين في العام فقط. بدأت المجلة عام 2000 باصدار ستة اعداد في السنة لكل مجلد, وهي الان في عام 2016 بالمجلد (47). تشمل ابحاث المجلة كافة العلوم الزراعية المرتبطة بالعلوم النباتية والحيوانية فضلاً عن المكننة الزراعية والاقتصاد الزراعي والارشاد الزراعي والعلوم الداعمة للعلوم الزراعية مثل الكيمياء والفيزياء لاسيما المرتبطة بالضوء والالحرارة والرياح وغيرها. يتضمن المجلد الواحد حالياً اكثر من 75 بحثأ حيث يتضمن العدد الواحد بين 20-25 بحثاً بحسب عدد الابحاث المقبولة في كل عدد

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معلومات الاتصال

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2008 المجلد: 39 العدد: 6

Article
EFFECT OF SPLITTING OF SOME SOURCES AND LEVELS OF POTASSIUM ON CONCENTRATIONS OF N،P AND K IN MAIZE GRAINS.
تأثير مصادر ومستويات البوتاسيوم وتجزئة اضافتها في تراكيز N وP وK في حبوب الذرة الصفراء

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الخلاصة

Field experiment was conducted at private farm in Abu-Ghraib during autumn season of 2003, to study effect of three potassium sources(Potassium, Cloride، Potassium sulfate and potassium nitrate) with in three levels (80,120 and 160) Kg K.ha-1 ,applied in three times, First, All quantity was added at sawing time .The second،1/2 quantity was added at sowing time. And the other 1/2 was added at the end of elongation stage. In the third، 1/3 was added at sawing time، the other 1/3 added at the end of elongation stage, and the last 1/3 was added at tasseling on concentrations of N, P and K in grain. Randomized complete block design was used with three replications.320 Kg N.ha-1 of urea and 100Kg p.ha-1 of super phosphate were added to all treatments. At maturity plants were harvested.Concentrations of N, P and K were determined. The results showed that all potassium sources,levels and time of application significantly increased concentrations of N, P and K in grain(1.6%,0.7% and 0.6%). High increment was obtained when 160 Kg k.ha-1 of potassium nitrate added at three times.The concentrations of N,P and K were (1.8%,0.8% and 0.80%),respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS SOURCE, LEVELS AND TIMING ON CONCENTRATIONS OF N, P AND K IN MAIZE GRAINS
تأثير مصادر ومستويات الفسفور وتجزئة اضافتها في تراكيز N و P و K في حبوب الذرة الصفراء

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted at a private farm in Abu-Ghraib region during the autumn season of 2003, to study the effect of four Phosphorus sources (Trisuper Phosphate (TSP), Mono Ammonium phosphate (MAP), Diammonium phosphate (DAP) and urea Phosphate Up applied in three levels (40, 80 and 120) kg P ha-1 on concentrations of N, P and K in corn grain, in addition to control treatment. Fertilizers were splitted and applied either all the amount at sawing time or by adding half of the amount at sowing and the other half at tussling stage. Randomized complete block design was used with three replications; 320 kg N.ha-1 of urea and 80 kg K. ha-1 of potassium sulfate were added to all treatments at maturity plants were harvested. Concentrations of N, P and K in grain were determined the results showed that all phosphorus sources, levels and time of applications significantly increased concentrations of N, P and K in grain (1.40%, 1.07% and 0.31%) respectively. The highest concentrations of N, P and K in grain were (1.68%, 1.20% and 0.36%) respectively. when 120 kg P.h-1 of urea phosphate added at two times.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF IRRIGATION WITH TREATED WASTE WATER ON SOIL PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
تأثير الري بمياه المجاري المعالجة في الصفات الفيزيائية والكيميائية والبايولوجية للتربة

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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted on silty clay soil from agricultural field in Mahmoudiyah – Baghdad to investigate the effect of treated waste water on soil properties. Factorial experiment was applied in a completely randomized design by three replications and three factors. There were two types of water (waste water & Euphrates water), four levels of addition (0, 10, 20 & 30%) and four durations of incubation (0, 20, 40 & 80 days). Results showed a positive significant impact of waste water in the physical properties of the soil. This impact caused greater increase in the mean weight diameter of soil (1.01 & 0.74 mm), decrease in the bulk density (49 & 9%) and an increase in the total porosity (66 & 12%) for both waste water and river water, respectively. Impact of waste water in the chemical properties was significant throughout increasing cation exchange capacity (41.56 & 27.57 Cmol. Kg -1), and increasing electrical conductivity (4.48 & 3.53 dS.m-1) for both waste water and river, respectively. Also, results showed significant impact of waste water in the biological properties, such as increasing of total nitrogen (4.51 g. kg -1 ) compared with river water (2.50 g. kg -1 ) and increasing available phosphorus for waste water (36.72 mg. kg - 1) and river water (9.53 mg. kg -1 ). A part of biological impact can be related to decrease growth of bacteria with waste water and increase in the growth of fungi, thereby reducing the demand of biological oxygen for the microbiological activity in the decomposition of organic waste.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF APPLICATION LEVELS OF K-SULPHATE, K-CHLORIDE ON K CAPACITY AND RELEASE UNDER CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT AND DRIP IRRIGATION .
تاثيرإضافة مستويات كبريتات وكلوريد البوتاسيوم الى التربة المزروعة بالخيار و الري بالتنقيط في الزراعة المحمية في سعة وسرعة تحرر البوتاسيوم

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted in a heated plastic house belong to AL-Moktadiya company for agricultural staffs situated lies about 24 km south of Baghdad in a soil has a silty clay loam texture to study the effect of potassium sulphate and potassium chloride and their levels applied to soil planted with cucumber at a fall season of 2004 on potassium capacity and coefficient potassium release . The treatments included two potassium fertilizer sources : potassium sulphate and potassium chloride applied to soil in sex rates . Treatments were distributed according to (RCBD) with three replicates . A Lab. Experiment were conducted to estimate the rate and capacity of potassium release . After crop planting the level of 1000 Kg K.ha-1 gave 99.60 and 490.60 mg.Kg-1 soil for potassium capacity from potassium sulphate fertilizer for exchangeable and non exchangeable potassium respectively , while the same level gave 80.70 and 481.10 mg.Kg-1 soil for potassium capacity for exchangeable and non exchangeable potassium respectively in the of potassium chloride. Results also showed rate of potassium release before planting was (45.95 and 30.20) mg.Kg-1 soil for the two depths (0-30) cm and (30-60)cm for the exchangeable pool, while it was (23.34 and 11.30) mg.Kg-1 for the two mentioned depths for the non exchangeable pool respectively. After crop planting the 1000 Kg K.ha-1 level gave (80.70 and 69.99) mg.Kg-1min-1 and (70.20 and 60.90) mg.Kg-1.min-1 for potassium sulphate and potassium chloride for exchangeable and non exchangeable pools respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
POLYPLOIDY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH PLANT BREEDING AND ADAPTATION
تضاعف الجينوم وعلاقته بتربية النبات والتكيف

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الخلاصة

Polyploidy is one of the major sources of genetic variability that can lead to adaptation in new habitats. Genome doubling (polyploidy) has been and continues to be a pervasive force in plant evolution. Recent studies have refined our inferences of the number and timing of polyploidy events and the impact of these events on genome structure. It has been proved that many polyploids experience extensive and rapid genomic alterations for one time or more. Polyploid formation is often accompanied with genome buffering, increased allelic diversity and heterozygosity, losing and silencing of duplicated genes also some genes will undergo subfunctionalization. In addition to number of epigenetic molecular phenomena that do not involve change in DNA sequence which is capable of altering gene expression. All these aspects by providing novel phenotypic variation participate in increasing selection chances of plant species that can tolerate environmental stresses. However, polymorphism is so important too, along with ploidy. Polymorphism has probably higher probability to occur in ploidy species rather than in diploids, and that gives wider adaptation to the polyploids. Polyploidy has a wide spectrum of applications, such as; overcoming barriers to hybridization, production of sterile varieties and DH production, which considered the most important one and has been widely used in plant breeding and improvement.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
STUDY OF POLLEN GRAINS VIABILITY AND GEINATION AND RELATION WITH SELF AND OPEN POLLINATION FOR SEX CULTIVARS FROM APPLE MALUS PUMILA MILL
حيوية وإنبات حبوب اللقاح وعلاقتها بطريقة التلقيح الذاتي لأصناف من التفاح

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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted in local orchard, Abu-Ghraib district for 2006 season while the second season was carried out in local orchard-Falluja district 60 to the west of Baghdad to study the pollen grains viability and germination and also study the set percentage in self and open pollination treatment for Apple cultivar Anna, Aujami, Sharabi, Hajari, Magrabi and Fatimi.The percentage of pollin viability of Anna pollen grains were significantly superior than other cultivars and the percentage was 90.7% and 95.0% while the percentage of pollen grains germination was 70.53% and 75.26% for both seasons.The percentage of self pollination in the Magrabi cultivar was higher than other cultivars and it reached 25.26% and 28.76%,while this percentage was decreased in the cultivar Anna to 1.96% and 0.00% during both seasons respectively. This percentage was increased in the open pollination for the Fatimi cultivar up to 68.00% and 67.33% while it decreased in Anna cultivar to 27.2 and 28.63% for both seasons respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ESTIMATION OF SOME GENETIC PARAMETERS OF EARLINESS AND FIBER QUALITY OF SOME COTTON CROSSES.
تقدير بعض المعالم الوراثية لصفات التبكير والنوعية في تضاريب صنفية من القطن

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الخلاصة

Hybridization has a vital role of induced genetic variations that perhaps leading to improvements in agronomic characters. A field experiment was performed including straight hybridization among cotton genotypes during 2002 season, backcross, second filial generation were obtained in 2003. The six populations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) for each cross were grown during 2004 by using Randomized Completely Block design with three replication to study some genetic parameters for earliness and quality characters.Both methods of estimation gene effects (weighted least square method of Cavalli (10) and weighted least square method of digenec interaction) revealed significant positive gene effects in most earliness and quality characters for Marsoomi 4 X Lashata, Marsoomi4 X W888 crosses and quality characters for Lashata X Marsoomi 4, W888X Marsoomi 4 crosses, days to 60% opening bolls for coker310X pacot 189 and earliness characters for Cafco 1XDise, also dominance effects were important in quality characters in other crosses. Epistasis were existent in most studied characters. Hybrid vigour was most obviously in fineness in Packot 189X Coker310 cross companied with high percent of expected genetic advance (17.11%) in this character.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF SOME TREATMENT ON THE STORABILITY OF LOCAL LEMON
تأثير بعض المعاملات في القابلية الخزنية لثمار الليمون الحامض المحلي

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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of packing of local lemon (Citrus lemon L.). The study was included the control treatment, seal packing with cellophane film (35 mm. in thickness) wrapping with paper treatment with pavisten at a rate of 2cc/Treated, packing in a low density polyethylene film (60 mm. in thickness) with 16 holes/kg fruit 0.5 cm diameter and waxing with vegetable oil at 2% concentration. Fruits were stored at 5 ± 1 ºC and 75-85% RH. CRD was adapted with three replicates, 2 kg per replicate. The results showed that the treatment with oil at 2% concentration gave the lowest percent of weight loss (1.27%) while the highest percent (2.99%) was in the control treatment. Weight loss was increased by increasing storage period. TSS was increased by increasing storage period, while there was no significant effect of the treatments in this parameter. Increasing storage period decreased the percent of juice while treating the fruits with 2% oil gave the highest percent of juice (45.10%). Vit. C content was decreased by increasing storage period and the highest content of 38.74 mg/100ml juice was recorded when fruits treated with 2% oil. No physiological disorder were noticed when fruits were treated with 2% oil and seal packing of fruits and when fruits packed in polyethylene, while packing fruits with paper treated with pavisten reduced the physiological disorder by 75%. The decay percent was the lowest in fruit packed with paper treated with pavisten followed by fruits treated with 2% oil and the seal package, while the control treatment gave 1.91%. The highest percentage of acidity 8.47% was noticed in fruits trented with the oil followed by 8.41% in the seal packaged fruts, while the lowest percentage of 7.73% in the control treatment.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
CONTROL OF ROOT ROT AND STEM CANKER DISEASE OF COWPEA CAUSED BY THE Fusarium UNDER LATHHOUSE CONDITION
مكافحة تعفن الجذور وتقرح ساق االلوبيا المتسبب عن فطر الفيوزيريومتحت ظروف الظلة الخشبية

المؤلفون: I.K.Hasson ابراهيم خليل حسون
الصفحات: 102-110
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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted to evaluate biocontrol agent of Trichoderma harzianum and inducing chemical compound Bion in reducing root rot and stem canker disease of cowpea plant caused by the Fusarium graminearum . Results of isolation and identification from infected cowpea plants , Which was collected from different locations from Babylon, that the main causes for the disease is F. graminearum . Reaults of pathogenicity test showed by using cabbage seeds that the eight tested isolates of F. graminearum was pathogenic with germination rate of 0 – 25% . Comparing with the control which was 92 % . Mean while the isolates of F. graminearum ( Fg3 , Fg4 , and Fg5 ) caused disease incidence of 60 , 80 , 100 on cowpea plants of 60 days age respectively comparing with the control of 0 % infection . Results of biocontol effect of T. harzianum and Bion ( 15 days period spraing ) was effected in reducting disease severity by Fg5 to 20 % comparing with the Pathognic fungus alone which was 100 % . The biocontrol treatment and Bion by spray of each 15 days induce the best growth indexs , the plant length , fresh and dry weight of shoot and root was 26 cm , 18 , and 2. 5 gm and 23 cm , 9.5 , 1.7 gm respectively , while it was 13 cm , 5.1 , 1.4 gm and 8 cm , 1. 3 , 0. 5 gm in the treatment of Pathogenic fungus isolate only .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF IRRIGATION SYSTEM AND SOME SYSTEMIC FUNGICIDES ON CHARCOAL ROT ON MELON .
تأثير طريقة الري وبعض المبيدات الفطرية الجهازية في مكافحة مرض تعفن الساق الفحميعلى البطيخ.

المؤلفون: Ismail Ahmed Ismail إسماعيل احمد إسماعيل
الصفحات: 111-116
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الخلاصة

To determine the best method to control the charcoal rot on melon caused by Macrophomina phaseolina ,two methods of irrigation were tested; furrow irrigation and drip irrigation with systemic fungicide, tebuconazol 2% and fludioxonil 100g / l as a seed treatment in both methods. The result showed that drip irrigation reduced the percentage of infection to 3% as compared to furrow irrigation ( 50.8%) when seeds were infested with fungus in control treatment .It was also found that the pesticide was highly effective in the prevention and control plants from the disease. Tebuconazol 2% prevented incidence in the treatment of furrow irrigation. The percentage of infection was zero, while and in the drip irrigation it was 1.6% .Either fludioxonil 100g / l has reduced the percentage of infection in the treatment of furrow irrigation and drip irrigation to 4.7% and 4.6%, respectively. There was no significant difference between fungicides treatment in both irrigation methods. It also was found that drip irrigation had good crop quality for increased rate of length of plant, it was 248 cm despite of the infestation of seeds.The length of the plant was decreased in furrow irrigation to (192 cm) . No rate varies in the length of plant to the fungicides tebuconazol 2% and fludioxonil treatment in both method of irrigation. There was no significant difference in number of branches plant in both method of irrigation and when using fungicides. The results proved that using drip irrigation with one of fungicides was guarantee effective to prevention of infection of plants in that fungus and to protect it to the later stages as well as the saving of irrigation water and shortening of many service operations such as construction of water carriers, control of weed and reducing the costs of fertilization and agricultural pest control .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
FACTORS AFFECTING THE RIPENING OF AWSHARI CHEESE SLURRY PRODUCED FROM COW MILK'S
العوامل المؤثرة على إنضاج ملاط الجبن الشبيه بالجبن الأوشاري المصنع من حليب الأبقار

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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted to study the factors affecting the ripening of Awshari cheese slurry produced from cow ُs milk.The slurry was prepared from Awshari cheese curd , The factors affecting the slurry ripening studied included different levels of salt (4% , 6%) which added during slurry preparation , different levels of preservatives (sodium benzoate) (0.2% ,0.4%) , different storage periods (3,6 days) and effect of incubation temperature (20°c).These different factors compared with control treatment which prepared with 5% salt , 0.3% sodium benzoate , stored for 4 days at 30°c .Ripening changes in cheese slurry (proteolysis , lipolysis and glycolysis ) were monitored during and the end of ripening period (6 days). The gross chemical composition of the slurry showed detectable decrease in slurry moisture during addition 6% salt when compared with control , Also showed decrease of the moisture and the fat was increased during the storage period when compared with control , while increases were observed in soluble nitrogen level from 0.63%to 1.15%, and the pH value was decreased from 5.15 to 4.85 during storage for 6 days when compared with 0.6% to 0.95% and 5.20 to 5.00 for control .The results also showed detectable changes in soluble nitrogen level and the pH value for the cheese slurry during the the addition of 0.4% sodium benzoate as compared with control . Cheese slurry showed increased in total count bacteria during ripening period as compared with control .The results of Organoleptic evaluation showed an improvment of flavor and body for all treatments with detectable bitterness when compared with control , also observed an increased in scores for rancidity with storage period during ripening .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
INFLUENCE OF BLACK SEED EXTRACTS IN SOME MICROORGANISMS AND SHELF LIFE OF CHEESE
تاثير الحبة السوداء ومستخلصاتها في الاحياء المجهرية المسببه لتلف الغذاء ودورهالاطالة مدة حفظ الجبن

المؤلفون: Saeed, S.A. Al-Obaydi سعيد صاحب علاوي العبيدي
الصفحات: 124-133
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الخلاصة

The black seeds Nigella sativa and their alcohol and aqueous extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria B. subtilis and gram- negative bacteria S. typhimurium ,the tested molds Pen.spp. , Asps. flavus and the yeast Candida. spp and coliform bacteria. They were chosen because they represent the causes of some diseases common to humans and animals as well as food spoilage. Six ratios %40و15و10و5و2و0.5 of 95 and 80% of ethyl alcohol and water extracts of Nigella sativa were used to recognize their effect on the tested microorganisms . The gram positive bacteria B.subtilis and the yeast Candida spp. were most effective than the gram negative bacteria S. typhimurium and the tested molds .The diameters of inhibition zones were increased at %40و15 due to the high levels of black seed oil. The water extract was totally not active against all microorganisms above because it doesn’t contain any of black seed oil in which the active substance being dissolved. The black seed and their powder were added separately to the curd of the laboratory-produced soft cheese at the ratios %5,3,2,1,0.5 . It was found that the numbers of bacteria decrease with higher ratios added and thus prolong the shelf life of the cheese. Although the grades of sensory taste were decreased but nevertheless, it was acceptable at the ratio 3%, but it unacceptable at 5%.

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Article
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF HIBISCUS SUBDARIFFA EXTRACT ON SOME MICROORGANISM.
الفعالية التثبيطية لمستخلص نبات الكجرات على بعض الاحياء المجهرية

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الخلاصة

Inhibition activity of water extract and flavonoid extract of dried and locally produced Hibiscus subdariffa on some microorganism was studied concentrations of 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm was used against Bacillus subtillis, Escharichia coli Pseudomones spp., Saccharomyces spp., Kluveromyces spp. , Candida spp. , Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. Flavonoid extract of Hibiscus subdariffa showed highest lnhibition activity aganist the above mentioned microbes as compared to water extract. Filter paper disc diffusion was used to detect the inhibition activity of Hibiscus subdariffa extract against bacteria and yeasts. B. subtilis was the most sensitive to the flavonoid and water extract with all concentrations , followed by Pseudomones spp. E.coli was less affected by both extracts. The yeast Kluveromyces spp, was the most sensitive to the water extract in comparison to Sacchromyes spp. , while Sacchromyces spp was more sensitive to flavonoid extract than Kluveromyces spp. Both extracts had no effect on Candidia spp. at all concentrations. Poisoned food technique was used to detect the inhibition activity against the molds. A. niger was the most sensitive to both water and flavonoid extracts and at all concertrations , followed by Trichoderma spp, while Pencillium spp. was the least affected by flavonoid extract and its growth was not inhibited by water extract even ander higher concentration.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
MILK COMPOSITION OF AWASSI SHEEP AND THEIR CROSSES WITH D’MAN
تركيب حليب الاغنام العواسيه وتضاريبها بالدمان

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الخلاصة

At the Shula sheep station, Department of Animal Research, Ministry of Agriculture, milk composition was investigated in 9 Awassi and 18 of F1( 1/2Awassi x1/2 D'man) and F2 crosses (3/4 Awassi x 1/4 D'man) sheep together through the 16 week lactation period . Result’s indicated that the overall mean percent 0f fat, protein, lactose, ash and total solids were higher in the D'man milk 9.51, 8.03, 5.41, 1.21, 24.21% respectively. In the second rank was the milk obtained from (1/2 Awassi x 1/2 D'man ) 8.57, 7.25 , 5.31, 1.09, 22.23 % respectively. In the third order was the milk obtained from (3/4 Awassi x 1/4 D’man) 6.98, 6.00, 5.19, 1.05, 19.25 % respectively. While the lower quality of milk was from Awassi ewe’s 6.66, 5.61, 5.01, 1.04, 18.34% respectively. It can be concluded that crossing between D'man and Awassi ewe’s is highly recommended for producing high quality milk as in the Morocco D’man.

الكلمات الدلالية

جدول المحتويات السنة: المجلد: العدد: