Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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Contact info

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2007 volume:38 issue:2

Article
GENETIC CONTROL OF FLOWERING MECHANISM
التحكم الوراثي بأليه التزهير

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Abstract

Number of Flowers and fertility limit seed yield of seed plants. The results obtained from molecular analyses led to construct a simple model for flowering mechanism. The model (A13CDE) Implies 5 classes of genes control that mechanism. It was proposed that flowering takes place into 4 phases: the first is the appearance of plant response signals, the second is the appearance of flower organ identity. the third is activation of flower organ genes. and the fourth is the formation or flowering organ cells, However - time of flowering is supposed to pass via 4 pathways: the response to dark period, response to gibberellins. the autonomous function or the plant. and response to verbalization. There arc genes to specify vegetative meristems, and others to specify flowering meristems. The gene TFL1 controls vegetative c meristem, while AP1 and LFY control the Flowering meristem. Signals of Flowering are controlled by a number of genes, such as; FLC1 and FT. The complementary action of FLC w ith FRI and PIE1 is important to I' flowering. The FLC codes for MADS proteins which are important For flowering, whereas, FLD represses transcription. VRN2 (of vernalization) controls FLC epigenctieally. The genes of the 5 classes of the model include (calss A), AP1 and AP2 that identify sepals and petals in whorls I and 2 of the: Flowcr,(class B), AP3 and PI identify stamens in whorl 3, (class C)" AG identifies the pistil in whorl 4 and represses genes of class A. The class D includes STK ,SHP1,SHP2, related to shattering. The class E includes SEP1, SEP2 , SEP3 , FBP7 and FBP11 that control identity of placenta and ovule. Too many other loci have been found to be involved in flowering such as :

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Article
INFLUENCE OF SOIL AND FOLIAR APPLICATION OF POTASSIUM ON GRO-WTH AND YIELD OF SESAME
تأثير اضافة البوتاسيوم للتربة ورشا على النبات في نمو وحاصل السمسم

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A field experiment was conducted at the Expercimental farm, Department of Field Crops Sciences, College of Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib during 2004 and 2005 seasons to evaluate the effect of soil application , foliar spraying and the combination of soil and foliar application on growth and yield of sesame var. Ishtar. The layout of the experiment was RCBD with three replications. The results showed that the combination of potassium soil addition and three sprays surpassed the other treatments in number of branches / plant, dry weight of plant, capsule number / plant, weight of 1000 seeds, seed yield and percentage of oil in seed, while the control treatment produced a least means of all studied characters. The plant height, number of seed / capsule and potassium concentration in the leaves were not significantly affected treatments compared with the control. The combined effect of potassium soil and three sprays produced the highest seed yield (1764.69 , 1694.73) kg.ha" compared with control (1033.59 , 987.56) kg.ha-1 in both seasons, respectively.

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Article
EFFECTS OF SOWING DATES ON SEED QUALITY OF RAPESEED (Brassica spp. L.) GENOTYPES
تأثير مواعيد الزراعة في نوعية بذور تراكيب وراثية من السلجم (BRASSICA SPP. L.)

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Abstract

المستخلص

لدراسة تأثير مواعيد الزراعة في نوعية بذور تراكيب وراثية من السلجم ،طبقت تجربة في الموسمين 2003-2005 بأستخدام خمسة مواعيد زراعة كمعاملات رئيسية (28ايلول و 18 تشرين الاول و7تشرين الثاني و27تشرين الثاني و17 كانون الاول)وثمانيه تراكيب وراثية (PACTOL ,SPUTNIK ,SREW,PLUTO,STAR,TOPSCORE,PIONEER,CATOLARCIA) كمعاملات ثانويه استخدم ترتيب الالواح المنشقة بتصميم القوالب الكاملة المعشاة بثلاثة مكررات . قدرت النسبه المئويه للزيت وحاصل الزيت لكلا الموسمين والنسبة المئوية للبروتين والنسبة المئويه للاحماض الدهنية . اشارت النتائج الى وجود تاثير معنوي لمواعيد الزراعة والتراكيب الوراثية في الصفات المدروسة كافة . تميزت نباتات الموعد الاول 28/9 في كلا الموسمين بارتفاع نسبة الزيت فيها اذ بلغت 41.1% و 42.2% وكذلك حاصل الزيت (1.4 و 0.9 طن / هكتار) على الترتيب .تميز زيت بذور التراكيب المزروعة في الموعد الخامس 17 /12 بأحتوائه على اعلى نسبة من حامض الاوليك بلغت 45.1% واقل نسبه من حامض الايروسيك بلغت 10.6% مقارنة بالموعد الاول 28/9 . تميزت بذورالتركيب الوراثي PIONEER بأحتوائها على اعلى نسبة من الزيت (38.8% و 37.6 % )للموسمين على الترتيب ،كذلك تفوق التركيب نفسه في الموسم 2003- 2004 والتركيب الوراثي CATOLARCIA في الموسم 2004 -2005 وبلغ 1.2 و 0.7 طن / هكتار لكلا الموسمين على الترتيب ،تميز زيت التركيبين الوراثيين TOPSCORE و STAR بمحتواهما العالي من حامض الاوليك وعدم احتوائهما على حامض الايروسيك ،بعكس التركيب الوراثي PIONEER الذي كان زيته منخفضا بحامض الاوليك وعاليا بحامض الايروسيك .تميز التركيبان الوراثيان CATOLARCIA في الموسم 2003-2004 و PIONEER في الموسم 2004-2005 بأحتواء بذورهما على اعلى نسبة زيت بلغت 45.7 و44.2% لكلا التركيبين عندما زرعا في الموعد الاول 28/9 وكانت النتائج عكسية بالنسبة لنسبة البروتين ،اذ انخفضت من 25% الى21%.

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Article
EFFECT OF 'VITHIN ROV SPACING AND DATE OF PLANTING ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF LUPINE
تأثير مسافات الزراعة بين النباتات ومواعيدها في نمو وحاصل الترمس

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A field experiment was undertaken in three winter seasons, through 2003-2006 in Jadireya Fan11 / Univ. of Baghdad . This was to determine the influence of within row spacings (10 , 20 , and 30 cm.) and dates of planting (9/11 , 23/11 , 7/12 and 21/12) on growth and seed yield of lupine. A split - plot arrangement with RCBD of 4 replicates was used. The main-plots were dates of planting and spacings were sub-plots. Planting was on furrows of 0.4 m , and 6 m long. Each experimental unit included 6 furrows. Data of the mean of the three seasons showed that the highest plant height (49 cm) was obtained of planting in 9/l1 . Plant height was increased from 39 cm to 49 cm as within row spacing increased from 10 cm to 30 cm . This Ins been reflected on plant root length that was increased from 15.5 cm to 17.3 cm . Delayed planting from 9/11 to 21112 reduced plant height from 49 cm to 33 cm and coincided with reduced plant root length from 17.3 cm to 15.8 cm, However, planting spacing did not affect root dry weight, but delayed planting reduced it from 0.27 g to 0.17 g . Plant dry weight was increased from 13g to 15g when plant spacing increased from 10 cm to 30 cm . Whereas, plant dry weight was decreased from 17.4 g to 9.5 g when planting delayed from 9/11 to 21/12. The best seed yield (4.13 t/ha) was obtained from planting by l()x40 cm and 23fll date of planting . Planting late in 21/12 and 30 cm spacing gave the lowest seed yield (0.68 t/ha). It was concluded that the best spacing for lupine was lOx 40 cm when planted during 23/1 1 to 7/12. Th is treatment gave highest growth nne (5.39 g 1m2 / d). This implies that growth rate was the main outcome that balanced total dry matter ofplant and seed yield to give suitable harvest index.considering the conventional formula

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Article
EVALUATION OF SOME CHEMICALS IN PROTECTING APPLE SEEDLINGS FROM SOME PATHOGENIC SOIL FUNGI
تقويم فعالية بعض المواد الكيميائية في حماية بادرات التفاح من الاصابة ببعض فطريات التربة الممرضة

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This experiment was conducted to isolate and identify fungi that associated with apple roots, testing the pathogenicity of the high frequency isolated fungi and evaluating the efficiency of chemical compounds in protecting the seedlings from the infection by some pathogenic soil fungi. Results showed that 16 genera of fungi were associated with diseased plants, with variable percentages of occurrence. Rhizoctonia solani had the highest percentages of occurrence ,followed by Fusarium solani, Cylindrocarpon coprsomae and C. obtusisporum , Alternaria alternatia , Fusarium graminearum, F.eguseti .Verticillum dahliae , Macrophomiua phaseollna and Phoma betae were found in one or two samples and in low frequency. Preliminary pathogenicity test for sixteen isolates of Cylln drocarpon coprsotnae , C. obtusisporum, Fusarium eguseti, F. graminearum , F. so/ani, Macrophomina phaseollna, P/101Il1l betae , Rhizoctonla solani and Verttcillum dahliae by using cabbage seeds showed the superiority of Risolani isolate (Rh.1) in inhibiting seed germination (zero), followed by Risolanl (Rh.2) (1'10), M. Pliaseollna (Mp.1), and Pibetae (Pb.1) isolates (3% gcrrnlnatlou) then c. Coprsonutc (Cy.1) isolate S% germlnation, whereas they ranged 10%-36% for the other fungi. Pathogenicity test on apple seedlings for six fungal species, C. Coprsomae (Cy.l ), Esotant (Fs.2), Risolanl (Rid), Pibetae (Pb.1), Vutottttac (VeI.I), and M. Pttaseolina (Mp.1) revealed that disease severity ranged between 56.0% ¬78.5% ill manifested seedling with fungi compared with the control treatment (no infestation) which had zero disease severity. Treatments with bion, salicylic acid and the fungicide bchanol significantly decrease in severity of pathogenic fungi isolates and significant increased dr)' weight of root and shoot as compared with the check. Resuhs indicated that treatment with behanol of 1.0 mIll significantly decreased disease severity to 15.3%-19.3%. However treatment with salicylic acid 1.0 mM reduced disease severity between 39.3%-55.0% while treatment of bion at 75 mg/l reduced disease severity to 33.3%-50.0% as compared with treatment of pathogenic fungi 58.3%-91.0%.

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Article
FIRST RECORD OF CHARCOAL DISEASE IN HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA L. A' TD ITS BIOLOGICAL CONROL
اول تسجيل لمرض التعفن الفحمي على نبات الكجرات Hibiscus sabdariffa L. في العراق ومكافحته احيائيا

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The results of isolation and indentificatlon of samples of Hibiscus sahdurif]« L. plants revealed wilt and death xympto rns taken from three regions in Anbar.Baghdad and Al-Qndysia governol'ates showed that the disease caused by the fungus Mocrophomina p//{/solina(Maubl.)Ashby which isolated in 100% frum all the samples. This is regarded as the first record of the disease in roselle plants in Iraq. The isolates of the fungus showc.t variation in the daily growth rate and in the dimcntions and morphology of sclerotia in PTA. Sclerotia dimentious for the three isolates M P I ,1'1 1'2 and iVIP3 where 106-131, 112-131 and 116-134 ,II respectively. The three isolates don't produce pycnidia in culture media, while it produce morphologically identical pycnidia in the infected plants. The pathogenicity tests showed that fungus isolates MPI,MP2 and iIP3 caused significant reduction in seed germination and significant increase in disease severity whereas, the percentagcof seed germination and disease severity, in the treatments of fungnal isolates ranged 19%-85% and 30%-700/0, respectively while it was 90% and 0 in control treatment, respectively. The isolates showed differences in their effects in seed germination. The two isolates iIP2 and M 1'3 r;1I1SPlI hi~h rlisf'aSI' ,('verity in 30 rlavs old Roselle plants while the disease sen'dty in their' treatm cnts we re 85°Ir, and 100'1.." respectively after 15 days of inoculation, anrl without infection in the contr» treatment. The two biocontrol agents, Tricoderma hurzianum and Bacillus subtilis showed efficiency in the protection of roselle plants from the infection by the panthogenic fungus. they decreased the disease severity to 25% and 40% respectively compared with the lOO''o in the treatment of pathogenic fungus only. They also caused increase in shoot and root dry weight, since th e shoot dry weight in the treatments of the two biocontrol agents (T./lllrzilll1/1Jl1 and B.sllhtilis) in the presence of pathogenic fungus reached 5.50 and 3.07 g/planl, respectively and for the root dry weight 1.42 and 0.97 g/plant, respectively. The shoot and root dry weights in the control treatment inoculated with pathogenic fungus only were 1.37 and 0.47 g/plant, respectively,

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Article
EFFECT OF AGRICULTURE SULFUR, POULTRY IVIANURE AND ROCK PHOSPHATE ON PHOSHOROUS, SOME NUTRIENTS AVAILABILITY ANO GHOWTH AND YIELD OF BREAD WHEAT.
تأثير الكبريت الزراعي ومخلفات الدواجن والصخر الفوسفاتي في جاهزية الفسفور وبعض العناصر الغذائية ونمو وحاصل حنطة الخبز

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Pots experiment was conducted in lath house at Dept ofSoil and Water Sciences. College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad. Treatments included three levels of agriculture sulfur (95% S) which were 0, 500 and 1000 kg S.ha-I, three levels of poultry manure 0, 20 and 40 tone. ha-' and three levels of rock phosphate (1O.22°/.,P ) which was 0, 80 and 160 kg P.ha-I. Bread Wheat seeds IPA99 were planted. Addition of agriculture sulfur showed a significant increase in availability of 1', N, K, and S04-2 with increasing level of addition up to level of 1000 kg S. ha-' reaching 14.04rng P.Kg-' , IS.811l1g N.Kg-'• 230.76mg K.Kg- 250.33mg. S04-2 Kg-I respectively .. The results showed that addition of organic fertilizcr significantly affect availability of P, N, K, and S04-2 with increasing addition levels up to 40 tou.ha' giving highest availability 13.88 mgP.Kg-1, 15.53111g N.Kg-'• 228.68111g K.Kg-1, and 228.51 mg. S04-2 Kg-I respectively .. Addition of rock phosphate increased significantly availability of P N, K, but not S04-2 .with increasing additir-n levels up to 160Kg P.ha-' giving highest availability 12.87mg PKg-', 13.51mg N.Kg-'• 227.18mg K.Kg-', respectively .Addition of rock phosphate, agriculture sulfur and organic fertilizer increased significantly all parameters or piant growrn anti Piant height, number of tillers, dry matter yield, grain yield, and percent 01' protein with increasing level of addition and highest mean for growth parameters was at level of 1000 kg.S. ha', 40 ton ha-' organic fertilizer, 160Kg P. ha', reached to 83clll, 26 branches, 74.6Ig.por', 27.8Ig.por' and 12.20% respectively.

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Article
ESTIMATES OF VARIANCE COMPONENTS TO MATERNAL AND DIRECT EFFECTS FOR SOME GROWTH TRAITS OF HOLSTEIN CATTLE
تقدير مكونات التباين وفق التأثيرات الامية والمباشرة لبعض صفات النمو لدى أبقار الهولشتاين في محطة الاسحاقي

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". This experiment included 3412 records.of birth weight and 1378 records of weaning weight, gain, daily gain and age at weaning related to 27 sire .through the period from 1993 to 2000, at the Eshaqi dairy cattle station . The purpose was to study genetic evaluation of sires and dams according to their calves birth weight, weaning weight, gain ,daily gain, weaning age before adjusting to some fixed effects and to estimate heritability. The General Linear Model by using SAS (2001) program was used to study the effect of fixed factors ( season and year of birth, parity and sex) on the studied traits. Components of variance for the random effects in the employed mixed model were estimated by the Minimum Variance Quadratic Unbiased Estimation .The Harvey program (1991) was also used to estimate BLUP values for 27 sires and 1164 dams. The effect ofall fixed factors were significant, except parity. The overall means of birth weight, weaning weight ,gain, daily gain and age at weaning were 34.28 kg , 88.58 kg , 53.69 . kg, 438.64 g and 123.46 d , respectively. The heritability of maternal effects of the studied traits were 0.06 , 0.06 ,0.03 ,0.05 and 0.01 , respectively and for direct effects were 0.16 , 0.16 , 0.21 .0.06 and 0.23 , respectively. There was a wide range in BLUP values estimated which reflected the importance of genetic additive variance. This could be used latter via selection methods to improve the mentioned characteristics of Holstein cattle in Iraq.

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Article
AVEREG MILK YIELD AT SECOND BIRTH AS INDICATOR OF PRODUCTION LIFE IN HOLSTEIN
معدل انتاج الحليب لكل يوم للمدة من الميلاد الى ثاني ولادة كمؤشر على الحياة الانتاجية للهولشتاين

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At the Nasr Dairy Cattle Station, United Company for Animal Resources Ltd., Al-Soueira ( 50 Km South of Baghdad ) , recoreds over period from 1998 to 2004 belonged to 944 Holstein cows were statistically analyzed. This was to evaluate sires genetically according their daughters average milk yield per day of age at second calving . The General Linear Model (GLM) within the SAS program was used to study the effects of fixed factors (season and year at first calving, age at first calving) on the average milk yield per day of age at second calving. Components of variance for the random effects in the employed mixed model were estimated by the Minimum Variance Quadratic Unbiased Estimation procedure (MIVQE). The Harvey program was also used to estimate Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) values for 23 sire. The overall means of average milk yield for the period from birth to seconed calving ".vas 2.79 !;g and the effect of "all fried factors (season , year of first calving and age at first calving ) was significant. Heritability of the studied traits was 0.39. The genetic correlation between the average milk yield per day of age at second calving and each of first total milk yield , first calving interval , productive life and number of lactations were 0.89 ,0.43 , 0.47 and - 0.15 respectively, the corresponding phenotypic correlation were 0.93 , 0.54 , 0.59 and - 0.16 respectively. Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) estimate displayed a wide rage among 26 sires included in the current study. Therefore there are of utmost importance for reducing and curtailing the average milk yield per day of age at second calving (ranged from 0.71 to - 0.73 kg respectively). There was a wide range in BLUP values estimated which reflected the importance of genetic additive variance. This could be used latter via selection methods to improve the mentioned characteristics of Holstein cattle in Iraq.

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Article
THE RELATIVE GROWTH COEFFICIENT AND SOME BADY MEASURMENTS IN FRIESIAN HEIFERS
معامل النمو النسبي وبعض قياسات الجسم في عجلات الفريزيان

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An experiment was carried out in Arabic Iraqi state Cattle station located in Nahuruan area (50 KM south of Baghdad). Sixteen Friesian Heifers from birth up to (6) months, were divided into four groups weaned at different ages on same quantities of full milk of ( 4 ) KG / day / heifer . Group 1,2,3 as well as 4 were fed on whole milk until 12 , 10 , 8 and 6 weeks from the beginning of the experiment. Concentrate was offered as (starter) 10 days from beginning of experiment up to the end of the study. Body weights and some measurements ( heart girth , abdomen round ,body length .chest width ,height of front and tailing ) were performed monthly from the beginning of the experiment up to the its end at (6) months of age . The effect of the weaned groups was significant on relative growth coefficient between the weights from beginning of the experiment and the months (2nd , 3rd , 6lh ) , while the fourth group apostates over the all groups were as group three postdated on the first and second groups in relative growth coefficient for the 5lh and 6th where that third group months .Negative correlation coefficient between relative growth coefficient and heart girth between 4th , 5th , months highly significant ( r= -0.65, -0.63, -0.77, -0.66) with all measurements from 2nd up to 5lh month was noticed, whereas it was positive with the 6lh measurement ( r = 0.62 ). Correlation between relative growth coefficient and abdomen round mostly tended to non -— significant with some highly negative significant values. Most of correlation values between relative growth and body length tended to be non significant with same of highly negative significant values. Most of values between relative growth coefficient of front and tailing were negative and non -significant, and the highly significant values were negative and exceeded (r = 0.8) for both measurement.

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Article
INFLUENCE OF LIFTING TIME , DURATION AND SHADING PROCESSES ON PERIDERM THICKNESS AND RESPIRATION RATE
تأثير وقت القلع ومدة البقاء في الحقل وعملية التظليل في سمك طبقة البشرة ومعدل سرعة التنفس لدرنات البطاطا

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Potato tubers Solatium tuberosum L. cv. Desire produced during the spring seasons of 2001 and 2002 , were stored in the Storage Unit , Dept. of Horticulture. Tubers were lifted for three times : Early morning , mid-day and in the evening , then tubers were stored either immediately after lifting or left for one , two , or three hours in the field under shade or without it. Results indicated that the lifting at morning significantly increased the thickness of periderm layer at the end of storage period to 71.38 and 63.78 im as compared with tubers that lifted in the mid-day in which periderm layer was reduced to 61.16 and 56.47 im for both seasons. Respiration rate was retarded in potato tubers lifted in both early morning and in evening time as compared with the mid-day time in which respiration rate was increased for both seasons. Tubers lifted and then left for one hour significantly increased the thickness of periderm layer to 67.83 and 61.68 i.m , but it was decreased to 62.58 and 56.11 xm for tubers lifted for three hours before storing. Tubers stored immediately after lifting reduced the respiration rate , while this rate was increased as the lifting time increased. Shading tubers significantly increased the periderm thickness to 68.35 and 61.58 (im as compared with the periderm thickness of unshaded tubers which were of 65.86 jim and 59.98 Jim for both seasons , respectively .

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Article
INFLUENCE OF LIFTING TIME , DURATION AND SHADING ON QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND STORABILITY , OF POTATO*
تاثير وقت القلع ومدة البقاء والتظليل في الصفات النوعية والخزنية لدرنات البطاطا

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Potato tubers Solatium tuberosum L. cv. Desire produced form the spring seasons of 2001 and 2002 , were stored in the Storage Unit , Dept. of Horticulture . Tubers were lifted either , early morning , mid-day or in the evening , then stored either immediately after lifting or left for one , two , or three hours in the field under shade or without it. Results indicated that lifting tubers in the early morning and at the evening significantly decreased sun-sca!d disorder to 8.97% and 7.28% in the first season and to 3.72% and 3.35% in the second season. At the same time , the thickness of the damaged tissues caused by sun scald was decreased to 4.02 and 4.11 mm for the second season. However , the percentage of this disorder significantly increased to 16.25% and 10.21% when tubers lifted in the mid¬day for both seasons , respectively . The thickness of damaged tissues was 14.22 mm for the second season. Lifting tubers at the early morning and mid-day significantly increased each of sprouting to 11.99% and 10.68% in the first season and to 13.60% and 12.42% in the second season , weight loss to 3.93% and 4.02% in the first season and to 2.69% and 2.94% in the second season. Lifting tubers in the evening time , significantly reduced decay to 3.93% in the first season , but lifting tubers early morning in the second season significantly decreased decay to 3.13% . However , lifting tubers at the mid-day significantly increased sprouting to 12.39 % and 15.02% , weight loss to 4.53% and 3.21% , decay to 8.68% and 6.03% for both seasons , respectively . Concerning the duration of tubers lifted in the field , results indicated a significant decrease in sun scald tubers to 0.13% in the first season and there was neither disorder nor damaged in the thickness of tuber tissues when tubers stored immediately . Tubers left for three hours in the field significantly increased sun scald disorders to 6.74 and 5.43% for both seasons in which the thickness of damaged tissue was 9.75 mm. Shading tubers significantly decreased each of weight loss to 3.99 and 2.77% , tubers decay to. 5.66% and 2.86% as compared with unshaded.

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Article
INFLUENCE OF LIFTING TIME , DURATION AND SHADING ON QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND STORABILITY , OF POTATO*
دراسة تاثير درجه حرارة الحقل في بعض الصفات النوعية والخزنية لدرنات البطاطا

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Abstract

Potato tubers Solatium tuberosum L. cv. Desire produced form the spring seasons of 2001 and 2002 , were stored in the Storage Unit , Dept. of Horticulture . Tubers were lifted either , early morning , mid-day or in the evening , then stored either immediately after lifting or left for one , two , or three hours in the field under shade or without it. Results indicated that lifting tubers in the early morning and at the evening significantly decreased sun-sca!d disorder to 8.97% and 7.28% in the first season and to 3.72% and 3.35% in the second season. At the same time , the thickness of the damaged tissues caused by sun scald was decreased to 4.02 and 4.11 mm for the second season. However , the percentage of this disorder significantly increased to 16.25% and 10.21% when tubers lifted in the mid¬day for both seasons , respectively . The thickness of damaged tissues was 14.22 mm for the second season. Lifting tubers at the early morning and mid-day significantly increased each of sprouting to 11.99% and 10.68% in the first season and to 13.60% and 12.42% in the second season , weight loss to 3.93% and 4.02% in the first season and to 2.69% and 2.94% in the second season. Lifting tubers in the evening time , significantly reduced decay to 3.93% in the first season , but lifting tubers early morning in the second season significantly decreased decay to 3.13% . However , lifting tubers at the mid-day significantly increased sprouting to 12.39 % and 15.02% , weight loss to 4.53% and 3.21% , decay to 8.68% and 6.03% for both seasons , respectively . Concerning the duration of tubers lifted in the field , results indicated a significant decrease in sun scald tubers to 0.13% in the first season and there was neither disorder nor damaged in the thickness of tuber tissues when tubers stored immediately . Tubers left for three hours in the field significantly increased sun scald disorders to 6.74 and 5.43% for both seasons in which the thickness of damaged tissue was 9.75 mm. Shading tubers significantly decreased each of weight loss to 3.99 and 2.77% , tubers decay to. 5.66% and 2.86% as compared with unshaded.

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Article
SESSION STRATEGY TO DEVELOP AGRICULTURAL EXTENDSION WORK WITH RURAL WOMAN
ستراتيجية مقترحة لتطوير عمل الارشاد الزراعي مع المرأة الريفية

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Abstract

Agricultural extension is considered as an essential component in agricultural rural development which is consisted of three main parts ; agricultural , research , and agricultural extension . These components represent the essential basic corners for a correct agricultural sector construction and achievement of a sustainable agricultural development. Agricultural extension should not be limited solely to male farmers .It should include the other half of the rural society . (i.e. rural woman ) Woman in rural society performs different agricultural roles in agricultural production through her participation in various agricultural activities . She also manages agricultural and non- agricultural activities by her self only . This is to meet family needs for economical purposes . According to the importance of rural woman's role , a specific strategy to deal with woman is needed . Such strategy will help to make qualitative push for rural society in general and rural family in particular . Therefore , it became necessary to give special attention to rural woman through adoption of such strategy on local level. The suggested strategy is based upon the following principles . establishment of acoordination between agricultural extension and agricultural offices .establishment rural centers of women . preparation the needs of extension work , and planning programs of rural woman , execution , the social and economics studies .

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Article
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DILUENT PROVISION OF GREEN TEA INFUSION AND LIPID PEROXIDATION DURING IN VITRO STORAGE OF ROOSTERS' SEMEN
العلاقة بين اضافة نقيع الشاي الاخضرفي مخففات السائل المنوي وتاكسد الدهون اثناء فترة خزن السائل المنوي للديكة

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Abstract

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementation roosters' semen diluent with green tea infusion on semen quality during in vitro storage for up to 72 h. Sixty males (White Layers, 24 wk of age) divided in six groups of 10 cocks were used for experimentation. Semen samples were collected twice a week from all roosters during the whole period of experiment (12 weeks). Treatment groups were as follows: Tl : fresh semen (control group). 12 : semen diluted 1:2 with Lake diluent (LD) alone, and T3 - T6 : semen samples diluted 1:2 with LD supplemented with 2, 4, 6 or 8 ml of green tea infusion / 100 ml of diluent, respectively. Results indicated that the inclusion of green tea infusion in LD diluent resulted in a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in percentages of dead and abnormal spermatozoa and acrosomal abnormalities and significant increase (p < 0.05) in mass activity and individual motility in comparison with Tl and T2 groups when semen samples were evaluated directly after collection (Oh) or after 24, 48 or 72 h of in Vitro storage at 4 - 6 °C. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between T3, T4 and T6 groups concerning all semen characteristics involved in this study. However, T5 group (6 ml green tea / 100 ml of diluent) recorded the lowest values of percentages of dead and abnormal spermatozoa and acrosomal abnormalities and highest values of mass activity and individual motility as compared with other treatments of green tea (T3, T4 and T6). In conclusion, the addition of green tea infusion into semen diluent can be used successfully for suppress the detrimental effects of lipid peroxidation that naturally occurred during in xitro storage of avian semen.

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