جدول المحتويات

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: الزراعة
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تأسست مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية في كلية الزراعة جامعة بغداد عام 1966. كانت المجلة تصدر بعددين في العام فقط. بدأت المجلة عام 2000 باصدار ستة اعداد في السنة لكل مجلد, وهي الان في عام 2016 بالمجلد (47). تشمل ابحاث المجلة كافة العلوم الزراعية المرتبطة بالعلوم النباتية والحيوانية فضلاً عن المكننة الزراعية والاقتصاد الزراعي والارشاد الزراعي والعلوم الداعمة للعلوم الزراعية مثل الكيمياء والفيزياء لاسيما المرتبطة بالضوء والالحرارة والرياح وغيرها. يتضمن المجلد الواحد حالياً اكثر من 75 بحثأ حيث يتضمن العدد الواحد بين 20-25 بحثاً بحسب عدد الابحاث المقبولة في كل عدد

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معلومات الاتصال

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2009 المجلد: 40 العدد: 4

Article
EFFECT OF PRUNING SEVERITY ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF TWO GRAPE CULTIVARS
تأثير شدة التحميل في نمو وصفات الحاصل الكمية والنوعية لصنفين من العنب

المؤلفون: Rajaa A. Kadhum رجاء عبد الهادي كاظم
الصفحات: 1-8
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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted in the grape orchard of the Agricultural Research Station in the area of Fazan, Libya in 2002 and 2003, to this was investigate the effect of pruning severity on the growing and yield quantity and quality of the grape cultivar Cardinal and in 2003 for Sultanina cultivar.Grape vines were planted in 1991 and trained by bilateral cordon system. This experiment was carried out with a randomized complete block design using three pruning levels; 60 ,90 ,120 node/vine distributed as 4-7 nodes cane in Cardinal and 8-10 node/cane in Sultanina.The growth parameters including leaf area and number of berries per bunch, besides the percentage of shot berries,and quantitative parameters including yield, bunch and berry weight,and bunch length and diameter, and some qualitative parameters were studied. Results of the experiment showed that the highest leaf area obtained with 90 node/vine for both cultivars ,also the highest significant values of numbers of berries per bunch and lowest percentage of shot berries obtained with 90 node/vine for both cultivars. The yield was significantly affected by pruning levels and the highest yield per vine were obtained with 90 node /vine for both cultivars. The qualitative criteria were significantly affected by pruning levels, the highest significant values obtained with 60 and 90 node/vine for both cultivars Cardinal and Sultanina. In conclusion, the pruning severity 90 node / vine has an important effect in improving the growth and yield quantity and quality of Cardinal Sultanina cultivar.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF PRESERVATIVE SOLUTIONS DURING WET STORAGE IN VASE LIFE OF ZINNIA FLOWERS
تأثير المحاليل الحافظة اثناء الخزن الرطب في العمر المزهري لأزهار الزينيا المقطوفة

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الخلاصة

This research was undertaken in Cold Storage Units Dept. of Hort College of Agri. /Univ. of Baghdad in spring season/2007 to prolonge vase life of (Zinnia .elegans) flowers after cold storage by treating with different preservative solutions ; (sucrose5and10gm/l),(8HQS200and400gm/l),(AgNO350and100mg/l),(CONO3100and 200mg/l),(STS200and400mg/l) and control treatment(distilled water). Water uptake was studied (cm3)and the change in fresh weight(g)and total sugar(g/l)and Peroxidase enzyme activity during cold storage, and vase life of flowers(day)after store in preservative solutions. A completely randomize design was used with three replications Each replicate contained five flower stalks. The results showed sucrose treatment at10gm/l significantly increased total sugar content in flowers to 7.24gm/l, then 5gm/l(7.23gm/l)as compared with control (5.76gm/l). Peroxidase activity was reduced significantly in flowers preserved in STS and AgNO3 with both conc. (33.67,32.90) and (34,34.44), respectively. Sucrose at 5 and 10gm/l significantly increased vase life to 6.67 and 5.67 days as compared with control (2.67 days).Then AgNO3,STS and 8HQS treatments at all concentrations. The results showed considerable increases in the water uptake and fresh wet of flowers during storage period for all preservative solutions tested as compared with the control.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFICIENCY OF HERBICIDES TO CONTROL WEEDS OF RICE
تقييم فعالية مبيدات ادغال في معدلات استخدام مختلفة في مكافحة أدغال الرز

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted during summer season of 2007 and 2008 at Mishkab Research at Al-Najf Governorate. The objectives were to evaluate ability of herbicides Gulliver , Stam.F.34 and Rainbow to weed control in rice and some agronomic characters and Paddy yield of rice. The design was used RCBD with three replications. Rainbow gave lower number of weeds 8.1 plant.m-2 than other herbicides , also reduced the dry weight of weeds about 84.0% compared with control treatment. Gulliver use by dosage 25gm.ha-1 gave higher number of grains per panicle (84.8 grain) than other, also gave highest Paddy yield of rice 603.0 gm.m-2.We can conclude that the difference of dosage among herbicides ranged from 25gm.ha 1 to 3400 ml.ha-1 it gave the same result of weed control and increasing yield of Paddy rice according to control.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF FOLIAR FEEDING OF IRON , ZINC AND POTASSIUM ON GRAIN YIELD , AND PROTEIN PERCENTAGE OF BREAD WHEAT
تاثير التغذية الورقية بعناصر الحديد والزنك والبوتاسيوم في حاصل الحبوب ونسبة البروتين لحنطة الخبز

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted during the growing seasons (2002 – 2003) and (2003 – 2004) at the experimental fields of college of Agriculture – Abu – Ghraib – University of Baghdad in a silty clay loam (Typic Torrifluvent) to investigate the effect of foliar feeding of Iron , Zinc and Potassium on yield , yield components and quality of wheat , cultivar – IPAA – 99 . The experimental design was split – split plots with using the RCBD with three replicates . Potash treatments occupied the main plots , K0 :control treatment , K1 :120 kg K.ha-1 applied to the soil , K2 :5000 mg K.l-1 foliar , K3 :120 kg K.ha-1 applied to the soil + 3000 mg K.l-1 foliar , K4 :120 kg K.ha-1 applied to the soil + 6000 mg K.l-1 foliar , and K5 :120 kg K.ha-1 applied to the soil + 9000 mg K.l-1 foliar . Zinc treatments 0,15, and 30 mg Zn.l-1 occupied the sub plots , while the iron treatments 0 , 50 and 100 mg Fe .L-1 occupied the sub – sub plots . Results showed that the combination of 120 kg K.ha-1 applied to the soil and spraying with the conc. of 100 mg Fe . l-1 as foliar feeding gave significant dada for the middle number of grain per ear , that was 6.5 g grain/ear . Also , results showed that the combination of Fe0 × Zn0 × K5 had significant dada compared with other combinations and gave the highest middle of grain weight which was 37.33 mg . Also spraying with 100 mg Fe .l-1 +30 mg Zn .l-1 had significant increase and was superior compared with other combinations and gave the highest grain yield that was 6.93 ton.ha-1 and 715 ton.ha-1 for the first and second growing seasons respectively . Also results indicated that the combination of 120 kg K.ha-1 applied to the soil and spraying with the conc. of 100 mg Fe . l-1 as feeding gave significant dada for the protein percentage and gave the highest protein percentage that were 13.99% and 13.77% for the first and second growing seasons respectively .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF LEVELS AND METHODS OF P AND K APPLICATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF TOMATO UNDER PLASTIC HOUSE
تأثير طريقة إضافة الفسفور والبوتاسيوم ومستوى إضافتهما في نمو وحاصل الطمامة بالزراعة المحمية

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الخلاصة

An experiment under plastic house was conducted during season 2000-2001 in a loam texture soil Typic Torrifluvent to study the effect of levels and methods of triple super phosphate fertilizer 20% P and potassium sulfate fertilizer 41% K as P- and K- sources on growth and yield of tomato lycopersicon esculentum Mill, Carmello cultivar at the College of Agriculture- Univ. of Baghdad- Abu-Ghraib. A factorial experiment in RCBD included two methods of application: soil application an foliar application. Four levels for each method S1O + O1S2 75+100, S3 150-200, S4 225-300 (P+K).ha-1 were applied to soil, half soil application fertilizer was carried out in band beside plants after 30 days of transplanting, whereas the second half after 60 days planting. The foliar spray of fertilizer was started 66 days after planting and repeated every 30 days five times. F1 0+0, F2 7.5+10, F3 15-20, F4 22.5+30 (P+K) kg.ha-1 were applied in foliar applications with five consecutive time. All treatments received 1000kg N.ha-1. Urea 46% as N-source was used. Results showed that the combination treatment S3F3: 150-200 (P+K)kg.ha-1 added to soil +15+20 (P+K) kg.ha-1 as foliar had significant data in most growth characters, yield and P+K concentration in plants compared to percent of fertilizer efficiency for yield, fertilizer use efficiency, average fruit weight, P, K % in plant leaves, early yield and total yield were 51%, 8.6%, 29%, 40.9%, 36.1%, 50.2% and 50.0% respectively for the above mentioned characters compared to control treatment S1F1. It was concluded that the use of foliar and soil application together was important to get better yield of tomato.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF FUEL OIL AND SHEMBLAN TRITURATE CERATOPHLAM DEMERESM L. ON SOME SOIL PROPERTIES AND YIELD OF PEAS UNDER RAIN CONDITIONS
تأثير استخدام زيت الوقود ومسحوق الشنمبلان المائي CERATOPHLAM DEMERESM L. في بعض الخصائص التربة الفيزيائية وحاصل البزاليا تحت ظروف الأمطار لمدينة الرمادي

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted in Ramadi town (110Km west of Baghdad )in 2003. The objective of this research to study the effect of tow type as soil conditioner that one artificial ( fuel oil ) and normal ( shemblan triturate ) as medley with the soil on the some soil physical properties and yield of pea. Three levels to medleyapply to soil ,0.75%shemblan triturate +0.125 fuel oil , 1.5%shemblan triturate +0.25% fuel oil ,3.5%shemblan triturate +0.5%fuel oil and control treatment with 0% for all. The dimensions of experimental units and designed with randomized complete block design (RCBD) in three replicates . mean weight diameter( MWD) , infiltration , available water, penertration , bulk density and hydraulic conductively were measured. Also the yield of pods of pea and dry matter were measured . all level increased MWD , by 193% , 194% and 263% for the first , second and third level respectively as compared with control . on the other hand. A significant decrease in bulk density was observed all level . with percent of decrease 10% , 16% and 10% to first , second and third levels respectively . the penetration increased to the all application levels in the seam time the third level was effected significantly by increased percent 15% , 15% and 23% to the All application levels respectively . there was an increased in seed emergence for all levels as compared with control , 37% , 12% and 21% to the first , second and third level respectively . in other hand . there was an increasing in yield pods and dry matter of pea by the all levels application with soil , the percent of increasing to yield pods was 192% , 108% and 87% gm/ one plant respectively. The dry matter increasing with percent 72% and 51% for first and third levels respectively as compared with control. In the seam time, the biomass increased with 161%,80% and 78% to all levels respectively . Quantity of rain was 67 mm with break rain period content tow month in planting sesame.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ASSESSING SOME OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERSTICS OF ALKALI PREPARED CHITOSAN FROM SHRIMPS SHELLS
تقويم بعض الخصائص الفيزوكيميائية والوظيفية للكايتوسان المحضر بمعاملة قلوية من قشور الروبيان

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الخلاصة

The physiochemical characteristics included: Moisture, Ash, Nitrogen, Refractive index, Specific rotation, Density, Viscosity, Solubility, molecular weight, Degree of Deacetylation, Optimum wave length and Functional properties like fat and water binding capacity were studied for two types of chitosan designated as A and B that prepared from shrimp shells. The first product prepared by treatment of chitin with alkaline solution at 100 Cْ / 4 hour and the second for 20 hour. The yield of chitosan A and B were 72.8 and 69.8% respectively as dry weight of chitin. The moisture content for both types A and B was 7% and 5.6% and 0.74 and 0.88% ash respectively. It was observed that a relationship is existed between physiochemical and functional characteristics for each type of chitosan.The nitrogen content , solubility, water and fat binding capacity increased with higher rate of Deacetylation Offset by a decrease in molecular weight and viscosity. The degree of Deacetylation for chitosan A 81.4% and chitosan B 89.8% the nitrogen content for both types A and B were 1.92 and 2.93% respectively. A highly viscosity showed for chitosan A being 93.7 centipoise compared with low viscosity for chitosan B (61.1 centipoise ).The molecular weight for chitosan A and B were 1115kDa and 720kDa respectively. A maximum absorbency was shown for chitosan A was at 340 nm and was at 310 nm for chitosan B.The chitosan B had a higher solubility in 1% acetic acid solution (100%) compared with 60.87% for chitosan A .The chitosan B had a higher capability for water binding being 788% compared with 621.5% for chitosan A . There was a difference in fat binding ability for both types of chitosan with source of oil. The fat binding capacity for chitosan A ranged between 426-665% while 400-678% for chitosan B. The later has a higher ability for fat binding compared with chitosan A except for olive oil.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ROLE OF INULIN FROM JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE IN ABSORPTION OF Ca AND Cu IN MICE
دور أنيولين درنات الالمازة في امتصاص الكالسيوم والنحاس في غذاء الفئران

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الخلاصة

This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of inulin from Jerusalem artichoke powder and pure inulin on the absorption of Ca and Cu by mice. Forty male weanling mice were divided into 4 groups. The first was a control, the second was given 2.5% pure inulin, third was given 5% pure inulin, and the fourth was given 5% inulin from dry J.artichoke powder. All diets were formulated to be balanced and fed for three weeks.The fourth group (with 5% inulin in J.artichoke powder) gained the least weight (0.2 gm). The control gained 1.49 gm. The average food consumed (46.9 gm) was the lowest in the third group (5% pure inulin) in comparison to control (56.01 gm). This differences was statistically different. Fecal weight was the lowest with the third group (2.85), in comparison to control (5.87 gm). No statistical differences were observed between the group in the dry matter absorption the apparent digestible nitrogen. The highest Ca absorption was with the fourth group (89% absorption) in comparison to the control (68% absorption). This difference is significant. As well as Ca showed the higher absorption (83%) in group 4 in comparison to control (55%), this is a statistically difference. In conclusion pure inulin or inulin in J.artichoke powder the absorption of Ca and Cu in mice balanced diets.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
CONSTRAINTS TO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AS VIEWED BY EXTENSION FARMERS
معوقات عملية نقل التقنيات الزراعية من وجهة نظر المزارعين

المؤلفون: AHMAD H. LAFTA أحمد حمدان لفتة
الصفحات: 86-91
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الخلاصة

The process of technology transfer was prominent for many years back but productivity levels remained low and there was no improvement of its efficiency . The objective of the research to identify obstacles to the transfer of agricultural techniques from the viewpoint of the farmers themselves, and constraints on the order of each area of the transfer of agricultural techniques from the viewpoint of farmers, and identify impediments to the arrangement of the areas of transfer of agricultural techniques according to their importance from the viewpoint of farmers. Follow a researcher in the conduct of this research method using descriptive method surveys it commensurate with the nature of the study, which aimed primarily to identify impediments to the transfer of agricultural techniques from the viewpoint of farmers Themselves. The population of the study included all of the farmers in Tarmiya region in Baghdad . Five percent of the population totaling (150) farmers was chosen randomly . A questionnaire was prepared and sent to all members of the sample . The results showed that the priority of constraints was as follows : economic , technical , organizational and finally the social constraints . The study recommended lending support to all of the farmers and strengthening the extension , research and service organizations.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF LATE INSTARS TREATMENT WITH JUVINILE HORMONE ANALOGUE PYRIPROXYFEN ON THE BIOLOGY OF GERMAN COCKROACH .
تاثير معاملة الاطوار الحورية المتاخرة بمشابه هرمون الحداثة (بايريبروكسيفين) في حياتية بالغات الصرصر الالماني .

المؤلفون: M.H.Abed-Ali مكي حمد عبد علي
الصفحات: 92-98
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الخلاصة

The effects of dietary juvenile hormone analoge pyriproxyfen were investigated on nymphs of German cockroaches , Blattella german (L.) . Laboratory studies of late instars feeded on treated diet with different concentrations of 0.001 , 0.025 , 0.05 , 0.125 , 0.25 mg pyriproxyfen / 10 mg diet showed three morphological phenotypes changes in both sexes ; the first , normal adults declined with the lower concentrations ; second abnormalities in wings formation such as divergent and curly wings that increased with high concentrations ; third , giant nymphs appeared at high concentrations . Also studies showed reduction in reproductive potential of normal females resulted from treated nymphs indicated by reduction of mean number of ootheca/ female , hatching of ootheca and inhibition of nymphs hatched by ootheca / female that reached to 100 percent at concentration 0.25 mg pyriproxyfen /10gm diet . Also the use of dietary juvenile hormone analogue caused the sterility of the normal and abnormal adults resulted from treated nymphs reached to 66.7 and 100 % respectively . Static analysis revealed a significant increase in sterility among normal and abnormal females at high concentrations . Also results indicated that the percent of sterility in abnormal females significantly greater than normal ones .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF BROILERS RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF SOYBEANS MEALS AND CORN
تحليل اقتصادي لاستجابة انتاج فروج اللحم لمستويات مختلفة من كسبة فول الصوياوالذرة الصفراء

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الخلاصة

The main of this study is to estimate the production function which represents the optimum relationship between broiler weight as an dependent variable and soybean meals and corn as independent variables and then to calculate the quantity of the two factors which achieve the economic efficiency . To accomplish this goal seven production functions were estimated : Lineary , double logarithm , semi-logarithm , quadratic , quadratic with interaction term , square root and square root with interaction term by using OLS technique. The results showed that that double logarithmic function was the most suitable function according to statistical criteria , econometric criteria, economic criteria and biological criteria. The results also showed that the optimum quantity of soybean meal is 33% of corn quantity as the nature of logarithmic function entails a continuous increase as long as the ration is introduced to broiler and the producer would stop this when the production reaches the marketing age. In this age broiler meat would be acceptable to consumer in addition to that producer would evade an extra costs. Some economic derivatives were derived such as marginal rate of substitution , elasticity of substitution , Isoquant equation , Isoclines and elasticity of production.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
GRADUAL SUBSTITUTION OF REED SILAGE WITH ALFALFA HAY FED WITH OR WITHOUT PROBIOTIC TO AWASSI LAMBS.1- Daily feed intake, live weight gain and feed conversion ratio
إحلال نسب تصاعدية من سايلج القصب محل دريس الجت المغذات بدون او مع المعزز الحيوي للحملان العواسيه كمية الغذاء المتناول اليومي والزياده الوزنيه اليوميه وكفاءة التحويل الغذائي -1

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الخلاصة

The effect of three ratios of alfalfa hay to reed silage (40:0, 20: 20 and 0: 40 H: S ratios) fed with two levels of Iraqi local probiotic (0 and 7.5 g IP / kg DM) on daily feed intake, live-weight gain and feed conversion ratio were investigated in a 2x3 factorial experiment. Twenty four individual Awassi male lambs were used. They were weighing approximately 17kg live weight and 3-4 months of old at start of the experiment. The diets were formulated to be given as a 40 parts alfalfa hay or/and reed silage DM to 60 parts concentrate DM. There were no differences between treatments in daily DM, OM, NDF, ADF, Hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin intake when expressed as g/day or g/kg W0.75. The daily intake of total N was followed the intended treatments composition. The live weight gain differences for overall period and feed conversion ratio were not significantly affected by substitution gradually percentages of reed silage with alfalfa hay; However, live weight gain (29.8g/day) and feed conversion ratio (6.0gDM intake/gLWG) were significantly improved for lambs fed diets supplemented with probiotic as compared with those fed diets without probiotic (27.7g/day, 7.0gDM intake/gLWG) respectively. It's recommended that substitution alfalfa hay with reed silage have no effect on live weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Diets supplemented with Iraqi probiotic were clearly improved live weight gain and feed conversion ratio of Awassi lambs.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
GRADUAL SUBSTITUTION OF REED SILAGE WITH ALFALFA HAY FED WITH OR WITHOUT PROBIOTIC TO AWASSI LAMBS.2- Carcass characteristics
إحلال نسب تصاعدية من سايلج القصب محل دريس الجت المغذاة مع او بدون المعزز الحيوي العراقي للحملان العواسيه2- صفات الذبيحة

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT
The effect of three ratios of alfalfa hay to reed silage (40:0, 20: 20 and 0: 40 H: S ratios) fed with two levels of Iraqi local probiotic (IP) (0 and 7.5 g IP / kg DM) on live-weight gain and carcass characteristics were studied. Twenty four individual Awassi male lambs (mean weight 17 kg and 3-4 months of old) were used. The diets were formulated to be given as a 40 parts alfalfa hay or/and reed silage DM to 60 parts concentrate DM. There were no differences in daily feed Intake. Live weight gain, slaughter weight (SW), hot carcass weight (HCW), cold carcass weight CCW, empty body weight ( EBW) and killing –out proportions of lambs fed diets supplemented with IP were significantly higher than those fed diets without IP. Differences in live weight gain, SW, HCW, CCW, EBW and killing –out proportions, were not significantly affected by substitution reed silage with alfalfa hay. IP significantly increased lean percentage and reduce bone tissue in leg cuts, while no effect on fat tissue. Carcass cuts weight and fat tail weight were not significantly affected by increasing substitution of reed silage with alfalfa hay and IP supplementation, except the leg and shoulder cuts weight of lambs fed IP diets (31.07, 21.64)% which were significantly higher than those lambs fed diets without IP (29.36, 20.01)%.


Article
GRADUAL SUBSTITUTION OF REED SILAGE WITH ALFALFA HAY FED WITH OR WITHOUT PROBIOTIC TO AWASSI LAMBS. 3-Some blood parameters

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT
In this study, twenty four individual awassi male lambs (mean weight kg and 3-4 months of old) were used to investigate the effect of three ratios of alfalfa hay to reed silage (40:0, 20: 20 and 0: 40 H: S ratios) fed with two levels of Iraqi local probiotic (IP) (0 and 7.5 g IP / kg DM) on daily feed intake, live-weight gain (LWG) and some blood parameters during 63 days feeding trial. The diets were formulated as DM to give a 40 parts alfalfa hay or/and reed silage and 60 parts concentrate. Within 2-3 days before ending the period, blood samples were taken for measuring Packed Cell Volume (PCV), blood protein (BP), blood sugar (BS) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration. Then all lambs were slaughtered and their carcasses were dissected into lean, fat and bone tissue. No differences among treatments were found in daily feed intake for all nutrients. Substitution gradual percentages of reed silage with alfalfa hay have no effect on live weight gain, BUN, PCV, BP and BS. Lambs fed diets with IP tended to increase live weight gain, blood PCV and BP and decrease blood urea concentration as compared with those fed diets without IP. In conclusion, substitution reed silage with alfalfa hay has no effect on LWG and blood parameters. Additives of IP were associated with higher LWG, lean tissue and lower BUN concentration.

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