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The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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Contact info

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2007 volume:38 issue:5

Article
AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF BARLEY PRODUCTION RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZERS
تحليل اقتصادي لاستجابة إنتاج الشعير لمستويات مختلفة من السمادين النتروجيني والفوسفاتي

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Abstract

The objective of this work was to estimate the optimum levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. To achieve these different forms of production functions were estimated. The quadratic function was the best function according to statistical, econometrical, economical and biological criteria. The results had shown that the optimum quantity of nitrogen was 200.56 kg/ha while the optimum quantity of phosphorus was 149.35 kg/ha. Other economic derivatives were derived for these functions such as isoquant equations, marginal rates of substitution and isoclines. The results showed also that there were differences between the quantities of the two fertilizers used in barley fertilization that were recommended by agricultural researchers and the optimum quantities that were estimated by this paper. It was recommended that there should be a coordination between agricultural specialists and economists to decide which level to use according to food security situation of the country concerned. Also it was recommended that small farmers should be followed up by extension workers to advise them in using fertilizers and supplying them with these fertilizers.

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Article
AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF APPLYING ZINC AND PHOSPHORUS ON MAIZE GRAIN YIELD
تحليل اقتصادي لتاثير اضافة الزنك والفسفور في حاصل حبوب الذرة الصفراء

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Abstract

Specialists in agricultural sciences carry out field experiments on fertilizers use on different field crops. The aim of such work is to determine the fertilizers quantities which are statistically significant in producing these crops. These quantities of fertilizers are the required quantities technically. On other side the agricultural economists analyze the results of these experiments to determine the optimum quantities of these fertilizers which achieve the economic efficiency to produce certain crop. In addition to the statistical criterion used by pure agricultural scientists, the agricultural economists uses other criteria in choosing the suitable production function such as biological, econometrical and economical. The aim of this work was to estimate the optimum level of the effect of interaction between Zinc and Phosphorus fertilizers which maximize profit for the production function of corn for the season 1999 for Abu-Ghraib experimental station. Seven production functions were estimated. The quadratic function was the most suitable function according to economic, biological, statistical and econometrical criteria. The results showed that the optimum level of phosphorus was 65 kgs / ha, while for zinc was 8 kgs / ha.

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Article
THE LEVEL EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE ON WORKERS IN THE GENERAL BOARD OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND COOPERATIVE IN IRAQ
مستوى تأثير المناخ التنظيمي على العاملين في الهينة العامة للأرشاد والتعاون الزراعي في العراق

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Abstract

For the purpose of promoting and developing workers in the General Board of Extension , and due to the important and effective impact of the organizational climate (environment) on workers , the present research aims at examining the effect of the organizational climate on workers in the general board of agricultural extension and cooperative in Iraq, as well as identifying the differences according to research variables related to department , number of service years , and academic degree . The study was conducted on a sample of 70 civil servants who work within the permanent staff of the General Board of Extension. To collect information , the researchers prepared a questionnaire form including the organizational climate scale which contains five fields : communication processes , decision making , administrative supervision , defining and formulating objectives , and leadership in organization , in addition to a specific scale for measuring each independent variable. The research findings have indicated that the effect of the organizational climate level on workers is moderate tending to relative decrease . There was a significant positive relationship at 0.01 level between organizational climate and the fields : decision making processes , administrative supervision , defining and formulating objectives , and leadership in organization , and there was also a significant positive relationship at 0.05 between organizational climate level and communication processes field . However , findings have not shown any significant relationship between organizational climate and independent variables .

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Article
JOP SATISFACTION OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN IRAQ
الرضا الوظيفي للمرشدين الزراعيين في العراق

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Abstract

Job satisfaction is one of the behavioral concepts that measure the extent of an individuals acceptance of all aspects of his job. So , the main aim of the present research is investigating the level of job satisfaction of agricultural extension workers in Iraq , as well as identifying the differences according to the following relevant variables : age , sex , effort estimation , and agriculture directorate . The study was conducted on a sample of 90 agricultural guides specialized in agricultural extension in the governorates of Ninevah , Karkuk , Salahil-Din , Diyala , Baghdad , Babylon , Basrah , Muthana , and Nasiriya. To collect information , the researchers prepared two research instruments . The first one is represented by the job satisfaction scale including six fields : relationship with employers , relationship with colleagues , job stability , administration policy , salary , and incentives . The second one is a questionnaire of independent variables. Some statistical tools were used for data analysis . several statistical tools have been used in data analysis such as standard scoere , person correlation formula . The study findings have revealed that the level of job satisfaction of agricultural extension workers in Iraq is medium tending to relative increase , and that there is a significant relationship between these workers job satisfaction and the variable of effort estimation. The researcher has recommended and veinforcing motives for workers and offering material and moval incentives for then to increase their jobs satisfaction to work.

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Article
CELLULASES PRODUCTION FROM LOCAL ASPERGILL US SP. ISOLATE AND ASSESING SOME OF THEIR PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS4- STUDYING SOME PROPERTIES OF CELLULASE AND CELLUBIASE
انتاج السيوليزات Aspergillus sp. المعزول محليأ ودراسة بعض خصانصها واستخداماتها التطبيقية4 - دراسة بعض خصائص انزيمي السليوليز والسلوباييز

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Abstract

Certain properties of two enzymes cellulase and cellubiase which produced by Aspergillus sp. A18 were investigated. The optimum pH were 5.0 and 7.0, respectively, pH stability were between 5.0-7.0 for both. The enzyme (BC1) retained 100% of its original activity after incubation at 40°C for 60 min., while 30% of the original activity was lost at 50°C for 60 min. The enzyme (BCb2) retained 100% of its original activity after incubation at 60°C for 60 min. The optimum temp, for (BC1) was 40°C while it was 50°C for (BCb2).The values of Km for BC1 were estimated by using three kinds of substrates, cellulose, treated CMC and treated wheat straw, were 4,0.8 and 0.33 mg respectively. Vmax values were 41.66,20 and 10 u mole/hr., respectively. For BCb2, Km and Vmax values were estimated by using two substrates which were cellobiose and treated CMC. Km values were 7.69 and 0.28 mg, respectively, while Vmax values were 57.14 and 16.66 p mole/hr., respectively. Isoelectric point for BC1 was found to be at pH 3.6 and for BCb2 at pH 4.2. Molecular weight determinations for BCI and BCb2 by gel filtration were 104 and 95 KD respectively, while they were 81.28 and 72.44 KD, respectively as determined by SDS- electrophoresis. It was found that BCI without any carbohydrate while BCb2 consisted of 13.7% carbohydrates. The main final reaction products as analyzed by (PC) and (TLC) were shown to be glucose and cellobiose.

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Article
EFFECT OF GARLIC EXTRACT, BELTANOL AND AGROMYCIN ON THE BACTERIA RALSTONIA SOLANACERUM
تأثير مستخلص الثوم والبلتانول والاكرومايسين في بكتيريا Ralstonia solanacaerum

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Abstract

This tests was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of water extract of garlic on Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt on tomato. Results showed that the addition of garlic extract at a concentration of 1%, 2%, 4% and 8% to the culture media containing Ralstonia solanacearum was efficient to prevent bacterial growth. The percentage of inhibition reached 14.8%, 100%, 100% and 100% for the four concentrations respectively. Filter paper discs 4 mm diameter saturated with 2% of garlic water extract, 0.2% Beltanol and 0.5 g/l Agromycin placed on the culture media led to prevent bacterial growth; it was found that garlic water extract was more efficient, with halo diameter in its treatment reached 19.90 mm compared with 14.60 mm for Belatnol of 0.2% concentration and 11.80 mm for the antibiotic Agromyicn 0.5 g/l concentration. Tomato plants inoculated with bacteria and treated with 2% garlic extract and the fungicide Beltanol (0.2 ml/l) showed to significant reduction in disease severity for all the treatments, so the different between the three treatments and the control became non significant. The percentage of disease severity for the plants treated with garlic water extract added to the irrigation water, Beltanol and garlic extract sprayed on plant shoots reached 2.5%, 2.5% and 6.25% respectively after 3 days of treatment. It has been found that the addition of garlic water extract with irrigation water was more efficient than Beltanol and garlic extract sprayed on plant shoots in the following days of the treatments. The disease severity was reached 5.00% for the plants treated with the garlic extract as soil treatment after 15 days of treatment compared with 11.5% for the plants treated with Beltanol and 16.25% for the plants sprayed with garlic extract. It has been found that addition of garlic extract to the plant gave a protection period of 24 days as determined by immunodouble diffusion test.

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Article
USE OF Cressa cretica EXTRACT TO CONTROL DODDER
استخدام مستخلص الشويل لمكافحة الحامول

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Abstract

This experiment was carried out at the field of the College of Agriculture /Univ. of Baghdad during the season 2006 .The study aimd to evaluate the extract of Cressa cretica L. to control dodder Cuscuta campestris. The result showed a decrease in the average weight of dodder stem diameter by all treatments after four days from spraying as compared with control treatment (water only).After eight days from spraying, the 1:1 (water : extract) and crude treatment showed significant decrease in dodder average stem weight 0.069 and 0.065 g plant , respectively as compared with control treatment (0.169 g). The stem diameter showed a decrease by all treatments after two days from spraying as compared with the control. The highest loss in the stem diameter was shown after eight days from spraying with crude,1:1 and 1:2 treatment as compared with control. They were 0.20,0.23, 0.28 and 0.51mm, respectively. The results showed that intensity of dodder stem sprayed with C.cretica extract was affected through scale consisting of five degrees. After eight days from spraying the treatments of crude and 1:1 showed the highest degree (4) (complete death) as compared with control treatment (0) degree (not affected).

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Article
COMPARISON BETWEEN BROWN AND WHITE JAPANESE QUAIL INGROWTH PARAMETERS
مقارنة السلوى الياباني البني مع الابيض في مؤشرات النمو

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Abstract

This study was carried out at the poultry farm of animal resources of the College of Agriculture / University of Baghdad to compare two strains of japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) which were brown and white in production parameters during rearing period ( 1 - 6 weeks ) . A total of 75 day old chicks of each strains distributed into three replicates and reared at 2 m3 metallic cages .The data obtained revealed that brown quail significantly predominant in live body weight which were59.46 , 57.53 gm at 2 weeks of age , 122.53, 114.12 gm at 4 weeks of age and 171.15 , 167.11 gm at 6 weeks of age for brown and white quail respectively . Also brown quail significantly predominant in weight gain which were 63.07 , 56.59 gm during the first rearing period (period from 14 – 28 days) and 46.62 , 42.99 gm during the second rearing period (period from 29 – 42 days) , the average weight gain were 54.85 , 49.79 gm during the total rearing period for brown and white quail respectively , feed consumption were high in brown quail which were 152.6 , 138.8 gm during the first rearing period (period from 14 – 28 days) , 201.3 , 188.0 gm during the second rearing period (period from 29 – 42 days) , and the average feed consumption were 176.9 and 163.4 gm during the total rearing period ( 1 - 6 weeks ) for brown and white quail respectively . No significant differences between the two strains of japanese quail were appeared . feed consumption were high in brown quail compaired with white quail due to his high requirement of nutrients for high metabolic and growth rate , brown quail are fit for meat production and breeds crossing .

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Article
THE EFFECT OF SODIUM FLUORIDE (NaF) ON FERTILITY OF FEMALE MICE
تأثير فلوريد الصوديوم في خصوبة إناث الفئران

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Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of oral administration of sodium fluoride (NaF) on fertility of female mice. Sixty four mature female mice were divided into four major groups including: control (C) group and three treatments groups (T1 , T2 and T3) according to NaF dose which were: 0, 200 ppm, 400 ppm and 600 ppm respectively. Each major group was subdivided into two minor groups according to the period of NaF administration (10 or 15 weeks). Therefore, each minor group contains eight females. Parameters studied were: weight of female reproductive organs, level of serum estradiol, percentage of live birth and fertility. Results revealed significant reduction (P<0.01) in the weights of whole female reproductive system, ovaries and uterine horns for all treated groups as compared to control group for both periods of experiment. Serum estradiol for all treatment groups was reduced when compared to control group for both periods of experiment. A significant reduction (P<0.05) was observed in the percentages of live birth and fertility for all treated groups as compared to control group. Therefore, it was concluded that the NaF administration reduced fertility of female mice, number of mice born and level of serum estradiol.

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