Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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Contact info

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2007 volume:38 issue:6

Article
CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY FOR GROUND WATER IN COLLAGE OF AGRICULTURE AND ITS SUITABILITY FOR AGRICULTURER USE ACCORDIN TO INTERNATIONAL GUIDE SYSTEMS.
تقييم نوعية مياه ابار الزراعة كيميائياً واحيائياً وصلاحيتها للاستخدامات الزراعية طبقاً لتصانيف عالمية

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Abstract

The chemical and biological quality of wells water, were evaluated, classified and compared with other water sources in Baghdad. For the period from October 2005 to March 2006, six wells in College of Agriculture-Abugraib were selected. Results revealed an electrical conductivity (EC) ranged from 0.60-5.50 dS.m-1 and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) 1.50-4.58. Water quality of wells water were evaluated according to three classifications systems, USDA 1954; the classes were C3-S1, C3-S2, C4-S1 and C4-S2, FAO 1985; the classes were severe problem, slight-moderate saline and according to FAO 1992; they were moderate saline water, primary drainage water and ground water. With all above classification systems, there was no risk from Sodium Adsorption Ratio to affect soil permeability. According to WHO 1998 recommendation for microbial water evaluation, wells water was free from aerobic and anaerobic E.coli Wells water can be consider as ground water, suitable for irrigation under good management, by using extra amount of water with leaching requirement of 15%-20%, according to FAO guide 1985 and 1992 and under certain conditions under good management, drainage system, deep ground to keep soil salt balance and highly salt tolerant plants.It is important to avoid using wells water for animal consumption because of its high salt content and the risk of diarrhea or even death of the animal. But still they are free from microbes.

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Article
INFLUENCE OF GROUND COBS AND FUEL OIL APPLICATION ON WIND EROSION PARAMETER AND DESERTIFICATION OF BAIJI SAND DUNES
تأثير اضافة قوالح الذرة الصفراء المجروشة والنفط الاسود في معايير التعرية الريحية والتصحر للكثبان الرملية في بيجي

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Abstract

The experiment was conducted to study the effect of different rates of corn cobs and fuel oil application on water retention and crodobility parameters of Baiji . Four rates (0 , 10 , 20 and 40 gm. kg-1 and 0 , 1% , 2% and 4% fuel oil were used. Soil samples (0-5 cm deep) were collected from Baiji and treated with these materials . The materials added and the sunddunes were mixed thoroughly and pour in 2kg plastic pot. The pote were incubated for 90 days at 30 F 2o C at moisture content of soil of the field capacity of the sanddunes. Sanddunes treated samples were taken after the incubation the moisture control at 0 , 33 and 1500 kpa were determined. The mean weight diameter of aggregates , the percentage dry aggregate 0.84 mm, deaggregation and the time of dry sieving needed for complete deaggregation were measured. The parameters were measured to use as index for the materials added instabiliz and fixation the sunddunesThe results showed that materials added increased the sanddunes water retension at 0 , 33 and 150 kpa , also the availals water increased as rate application of materials increased.The corn cobs and the fuel oil application increased the mean diameter of aggregates , also the percentage of 0.84 mm aggregates. The materials added decreased both the deaggregation and the time of dry sieving for completed deaggreegation. The corn cobs was more effective than the fuel oil on the parameters that have been measured. The results of this study indicated that rates 2 and 4 kg-1 of corn cobs result in highly non erodible sanddunes evc under 12.5 m. sec-1 wind velocity . However the fuel oil did not show the same effect . The maximum effect of high rate of fuel oil was nearly equal that of lower rate of corn cobs application. The application of corn cobs in high rate with incubation can change completely the soilstructure through the aggregate of the sand dunes fine particles which become completely nonerosine for wind erosion. Hence the materials can be used to aggregate and stabilize of the sand dunes and make it non erodible and combact desentification.

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Article
PRODUCTIVITY AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF MAIZE UNDERSURFACE AND SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION
انتاجية محصول الذرة الصفراء وكفاءة استخدام المياه تحت انظمة الري بالتنقيط السطحي وتحت السطحي بمستويات ري مختلفة*

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Abstract

An experiment was conducted using surface and sub surface drip irrigation to study the water use efficiency and root distribution and productivity of maize . The experiment was carried out in fall season of 2004 at Al-Raad Research Station (Abu-Ghraib) . The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized block design with three replicates. Treatments included control in which the crop planted with furrow irrigation method with water requirement of 700 mm plus 15% for eaching requirement . Surface drip irrigation (DI) and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) were used with three levels of water requirements, 80% , 60% and 40% of the water control treatments . The seeds of Zea mays L. was planted on July with density population of 53333 plant.h-1 and harvested in November . Average grain yield , root distribution in the different depths of soil, salt distribution pattern and water use efficiency was measured and calculated . The results of the experiment showed significant difference in grain yield among the treatments . It was 9.397 t/ha for the treatment SDI0.8 , , 8.009 t/ha for the control, and 1.826 t/ha for the SDI0.4 treatment . The results showed that more than 90% of the root system grown in soil volume of 30 cm horizontal and 40 cm in deep with drip irrigation . Weight of day roots were varied from 27.2 to 55.2 gm according to treatments. Highest water use efficiency for the treatment DI 0.4 was 2.237 kg.m-3 and with DI 0.6 1.807 kg.m-3 . The treatments were from higher to lower water use efficiency were as follows :SDI0.6 > SDI0.8 > control > SDI0.4The results of this experiment showed that sub drip and drip irrigation system could be used to reduce water losses. The drip and sub drip can leach the salts out of the root zone when only 60% of the water requirement used. High water use efficiency can be reached when maize watered with only 60% of the 700 mm of the water consumptive used that recommended in Iraq.

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Article
REPLACEMENT LOCAL PLANT PROTEIN CONCENTRATE FOR IMPORTED ANIMAL AND PLANT PkOTEIN CONCENTRATES ON PERFORMANCE OF ISA-BROWN LAYER HENS
استخدام مركز البروتين النباتي المحلي محل مركزي البروتين النباتي والحيواني المستوردين في الصفات الإنتاجية لدجاج بيض الماندةايسابراون

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Abstract

This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of partial and complete replacement of imported animal and plant protein concentrates by locally produced plant protein concentrate on the performance traits of ISA-Brown layer hens. Ninety layer hens (age 24 w.) were randomly distributed on six treatments of 3 replicates each ( 6 hens/replicate). The treatments included : 1st control Tc1= 100% imported plant protein conc. 2nd control Tc2= 100% imported animal protein conc., T3 = 50% imported plant protein conc. + 50% imported animal protein conc.,T4= 50% imported plant protein conc. + 50% local plant protein conc. ,T5 = 50% imported animal protein conc. + 50% local plant protein conc. and T6= 100% local plant protein conc. Results indicated that no significant difference in live body weight between the different treatments were found during the different egg production periods. Weight gains were differed significantly (p<0.05) among egg production periods. Significant differences in egg production % among treatments were found in which T4 followed by Tc2 showed the highest H.D.% among the treatments . Egg production period (32-36 w.) showed the highest H.D.% among eggs periods. Significant increases were found in egg weight and egg mass of T3 , T4 , T5 and T6 as compared with Tc1 and Tc2 during egg production periods. There were significant differences in feed consumption among treatments during egg production periods.There were significant differences in feed conversion ratio (g.feed/egg) noticed among treatments. T3 gave the best feed efficiency during the whole production period. Egg production period( 28-32w.) showed the best feed efficiency (118.1 g.feed/egg) among egg production periods. No significant differences among the treatments and the production periods in egg shell thickness and Haugh Unit were found . However , asignificant difference in egg shell thickness among egg production periods was found. The first 4- weeks of egg production (24-28 w.) showed significant high yolk index value as compared with other production periods. Results of this experiment refer to the possibility of partial substitution (at a level of 50%) of the imported plant and animal protein concentrates by the locally produced plant protein concentrate in layer diets

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Article
USING OF MICROBIAL TREATMENT TO IMPROVE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF GROUND AND CHOPPED BARLEY STRAW
استخدام المعاملة الميكروبية فى تحسين القيمة ألغذائية لتبن الشعير المقطع والمجروش

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Abstract

This work was conducted to study the effect of microbial treatment (MT) using fungi Plearotus ostreatus on the chemical composition in vitro Dry Matter Digestibility (DMD) and Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD) for barley straw grounded or chopped using four levels of moisture (0 , 20 , 40 and 60% ). And four incubation periods ( 0 , 2 , 4 and 6 weeks ) at four degrees of temperatures ( 0 , 20 , 30 and 40 0c ) .MT of ground and chopped barley straw using P.ostreatus reduced (P<0.01) the amount of NDF , ADF , hemcellulose , lignin and phenolic compound concentration as compared with untreated . However , MT increased (P<0.01) dry and organic matter contents , cellulose and in vitro dry and organic matter digestibility’s , activity of laccase enzyme and number of anaerobic bacteria as compared with untreated .Physical shape of barley straw ( chopped or grounded ) had no effect on microbial treatment.However ,the results indicated highly significant interaction ( P< 0.01) for moisture % and degrees of temperatures and incubation periods for chopped and ground barley straw on microbial treatment

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Article
THE EFFECTS OF UTILIZATION OF DRY LICORICE ON MILK PRODUCTION AND COMPOSITION OF LACTATING HOLSTEIN- FRIESIAN COWS.
تأثير استخدام مخلفات عرق السوس الجافة في العليقة في انتاج وتركيب الحليب في ابقار الهولشتاين - فريزيان

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Abstract

Six Holstein- Friesian lactating cows were used in an experiment to study the effects of three different levels of licorice pulp in the ration in the yield and composition of milk. Using 3x3 Latin square design the cows were divided into three groups of two each cows. On the basis of nutritive requirements the three different croups or cows were fed three different concentrates containing 0%, 15% and 20% licorice pulp respectively, while alfalfa hay was offered ad - libitun to all cows during the whole experimental 12 week period samples of milk and feeds were taken daily and blood samples at the end of each of three experimental stages and saved for chemical analysis. The results showed that addition of licorice pulp in the ration decreased milk production, but the differences among the three rations were not statistically significant. The milk yield was 19.49, 17.97 and 16.49 Kg /day for the rations containing 0%, 15% and 20% licorice pulp respectively. There were no significant differences among milk components due to licorice pulp in the ration. The milk content of fat was 2.23 ,2.45 and 2.55% and content of protein 3.57 ,3.77 and4.10% and content of lactose 4.40, 4.25 and4.08% for the ration 0%, 15% and 20% licorice pulp respectively. The blood sample analysis showed increment of blood components studied in cows blood due to licorice level in the ration. The mean blood glucose was 56.3, 62.8 and 65.0mg/100ml, blood hemoglobin 10.0, 10.9 and 11.0 mg/ml and the packed cell volume 23.7, 25.3 and 26. 1% for the rations 0%, 15% and 20% respectively. There were significant differences (P<0. 05) in blood glucose and packed cell volume between ration 0%, and 20% licorice pulp.

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Article
IMPROVEMENT OF SAFFLOWER BY SELECTION
تحسين العصفر بالانتخاب

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Abstract

Four cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) (Almais, Kino-76, S-400 and Aceteira) were planted on 13/11/2002 on the farm of Field Crop Sci. Dept. / College of Agric. Selection was conducted on plants of Almais cultivar only because of drought. The objective of this experiment was to select spineless high yield lines and depending on several traits selection; plant height, height of first branch, no. of primary and secondary branches, seed per head, seed plant, weight of 100 seed, higher yield and maturity .We got 24 lines of Almais cultivar. Statistical test showed wide variances and coefficient of variation among selected lines and between these lines and Almais cultivar. This shows the possibility to select many promising lines .Results of statistical analyze showed superiority of some lines in their yields as compared with Almais cv. The late maturity line with red flowers gave higher yield (7 t/ha) while Almais gave 2.6 t/ha. The increase in yield was about 16.5% for spineless line (12) of orange flowers, to 171% for late maturing line red flower (19) which gave higher plant yield (133 g). resulted from increased no. of seeds/plant (3543 seed), compared with Almais cv., which gave 49, seed with an increase of (154%). Whereas the lines 10 and 22 were superior in 100 seed weight (4.14 g) and (4.27 g), respectively, with increase of 18%, 22% compared with Almais cv. (3.5 g). The higher seed per head was 80 compared to 51 seed for Almais, which gave 29 seeds. Number of heads 123 and 124 of lines 14 and 21, were superior to Almais (48), with increases of 156% and 159%, respectively. These lines were superior in secondary branches (124) and (139), with increases on Almais by 141% and 169%, respectively. These two lines were very low in position of branches (zero and 21cm).

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Article
RESPONSE OF SAFFLOWER TO PLANTING S METHOD AND DEPTH AND SOIL TYPE
استجابة العصفر لطريقة وعمق الزراعة ونوع التربة

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Seeds of saffiower (Carthamus tinctorius Icv. Almais) were planted on The field of Crop Sci. of exp. on 13/11/2002. This was to compare two methods of planting, furrow and rows (25x75 cm) to determine the best method to plant saffiower in Iraq. Root depth, plant hight, height of first branch, no. of heads / plant, no. empty heads / plant, weight of 100 seeds, no. of seeds per plant and yield of plant, were estimated and analyzed by t-test. Also seeds of Almais cv. were planted into two kinds of soil: field and loam soil, with five depths of planting. The objective was to determine the best depth and soil to cultivate saffiower. Pots were used for planting which carried out on 3/1/2004. A split plot design with three replications was used. Field and loam soils were assigned in the main plots, while planting depths (3, 6, 9,12, and 15 cm) in the subplots. Data were analyzed and compared statistically. Speed, ratio, and capacity of emergence were estimated. Roots and shoot length, their dry weight, total dry weight of plant and leaves no. were measured. Data indicated that furrow method was superior in root depth (23% ), decreased first branch (48% ), increase no. of heads / plant by 73% , and gave 1038 seeds more than row method. No. of seeds were increased by 77% . Therefore, the yield of furrow was increased by 78% than rows. Data showed in second exp. The superiorly of loam soil which first leaf emerged at seven days, increased root weight( 75g ), snoot dry weight ( 0.14g ), no. of leaves ( 9.7 leaves X and plant dry weight ( 22g ), a compared with 11.6 days, 0.39 g, 0.13 g, 8 leaves, and 16.5 g, for field soil respectively. Planting at 3 cm deep gave more emergence speed (36% ) seeds, increased shoot length (10 cm), and total dry weight (25 g). Planting of 6 cm deep increased length and dry weight of roots only. Thus, loam soil, and planting in furrows at 3 cm deep were best for planting saffiower.

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Article
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE BIOLOGICALINSECTICIDE AGREEN AND SOME INSECTICIDES AND GROWTH INHIBTORS AGAINT EARIAS INSULANA BOISD (NOCTUIDE:LEPIDOPTERA) IN COTTON FIELD
كفاءة المبيد الإحيائي Agreen وبعض منظمات النمو والمبيدات الحشرية في دودة جوز القطن الشوكية

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Laboratory and field experiment were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the biological insecticide Agreen and some growth inhibitors on the spiny boll worm Earias insulana Boisd..Results of laboratory indicated no egg hatch for newly laid egg treated with growth inhibitors. However, percentage of egg hatch was significantly reduced for four days old eggs, treated with growth regulators. As, for Agreen, percentage of egg hatch were 73.25% and 92.4% for one day and four days old eggs, respectively. Results have also indicated that all insecticides were significantly effective against third instar larvae. The growth inhibitors, Runner, was the best being percent of killing reached 100% after five days of treatment. Similar results were also obtained with the biological insecticide Agreen. Continuous effect of the insecticides was observed on subsequent stages originated from treated instars. These includes, increased larval and pupal duration, reduced pupal weight and delayed adult's emergence. Adults moths fed on sugar solution (10%) mixed with different concentrations of Agreen and growth regulators, showed reduced longevity, fecundity and egg hatchability.Field studies conducted in 2002 growing season have also indicated that the growth inhibitor Nomolt was superior for controlling the pest with percent of killing reached 84.6% However, during the 2003 growing season the growth inhibitor Runner was the most effective insecticide. The percents of effectiveness for Runner and Agreen were 80.3% and 64.4% respectively The neonecotinoid insecticides Acetamprid, imidacloprid and thiamethaxam did not show any observed influence against the pest during this season. Better cotton yield parameters were recorded for the growth inhibitors. The highest yield was obtained with Runner and Match treatments. Therefore the growth inhibitors and the biological insecticide Agreen can be incorporated as an essential elements in control in iraq.

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Article
THE BIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF SPINY BOLL WORM ON THREE NATURAL DIETS
الأداء الحياتي لدودة جوز القطن الشوكية على ثلاث أوساط غذائية طبيعية

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Laboratory studies were initiated to investigate the influence of three natural diets on some biological aspects of Earias insulana Boisd. The experiments included determination of survival rate and duration and weight for larvae and pupae reared on each diet. Adults longevity and females fecundity were also calculated. Results showed that the high percentage of surviving larvae was 76 % when fed on fresh cotton bolls, while it was 48 % and 36 % when fed on okra fruits and cotton seeds diet. Pupal development was affected by the kind of diet. Results also indicated that female longevity and oviposition were increased for individuals originated from larvae fed on cotton bolls. Females originated from larvae fed on cotton bolls lived 45.2 days compared to 25.6 and 37.6 for individuals originated from larvae reared on germinated seeds and okra fruits .Average number of egg laid was 136 egg/ female, while females originated from larvae fed on cotton seeds and okra fruits diets laid an average number of 83 and 50 egg/ female respectively. Results of this study will add more information about the essential and behavioral requirements of biological performance of the spiny bollworm and its integrated management program.

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Article
EFFECT OF HAMMER SPEED AND GRAIN GENUS ON HAMMER MILL PERFORMANCE.
تأثير سرع المطارق وجنس الحبوب في أداء المجرشة المطرقية

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An experiment was conducted to know the effects of hammer speeds ; 75.1, 73.5, 71.8 m/s when grinding three types of grains ; wheat, barley and maize by useing 9 mm screen. A factorial experiment with C R D of three replications was used . Samples of 100 g were taken to sieving for obtain geometric mean particle diameter and geometric standard deviation and specific surface area of ground grain. Specific energy and specific capacity of hammer mill were also estimated. Increasing hammer speed from 71.8 to 75.1 ms increased specific energy from 3.96 to 4.326 kW.hMg .It also increased geometric standard deviation from 2.42 to 2.55 and increased specific surface area from 15.35 to 19.83 m²kg , but speed decreased specific capacity from 253to 232 kgkw.h and geometric mean particle diameter from 976 to 757 micron. Wheat and maize were superior to barley by increasing specific capacity from 243 to 242 to 230 kgkw.h , respectively. Wheat was superior to barley by increasing specific surface area from 19.65 to 17.44 m²kg . However wheat gave higher geometric standard deviation which was 2.58, barley gave higher geometric mean particle diameter ( 1019 micron ) and higher specific energy ( 4.35 kW.hMg ).Barley at low speed( 71.8 ms ) gave higher geometric mean particle diameter ( 1289 micron ) and maize and wheat gave at higher speed ( 75.1 ms) lower geometric mean particle diameter ( 682 and 687 micron , respectively) .Maize at higher speed ( 75.1 ms) gave lower geometric standard deviation ( 2.51 ).Wheat at higher speed 75.1 ms gave higher specific surface area( 21.94 m²kg ). We have concluded from these results that barley consumes higher specific energy and lower specifc capacity and higher diameter of of the particuls . this was attributed to the nature of barley that contains higher rate of fiber . Increasing hammer speed will decrease geometric mean particle diameter and specifc capacity. We recommend using the speed 71.8 ms when coarse ground needed, The engineere of the mill should measure energy and geometric mean diameter to know energy consumption and partical size suitable to the purpose of ground needed.

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Article
THE EFFECT OF ELECTRIC SHOCK ON VEGETATIVE AND FLORAL GROWTH CHARACTERS OF Ranunculus asiaticus
‏تأثير الصعق الكهربائي في صفات النمو الخضري والزهري Ranudculus aSIaticus

Authors: S.N Jasim ‏صدى نصيف جاسم
Pages: 110-117
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Abstract

This experiment was undertaken in the lathhouse of the Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture –University of Baghdad in fall of 2006 to investigate the effect of electric shock AC (5,10 Ampere) and two timings (3 and 6 minutes) on vegetative and flowering growth characters of Ranunculus plants. A special electric apparatus was prepared for the purpose. The tuber roots of Ranunculus were treated as mentioned above after soaking for 3 hour in a 1% NaCl solution. Then transplanted in the soil after soaking in a fresh water for same period (3h).A randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. The tuber roots treated with( 5Amperex6min) significantly increased plant height ,leaf area ,tuber root number(3.28tuber root/ plant) as compared with control(3). The same treatment for 3 and 6 min ,increased shoot number/ plant, number of flowers (6.84) and (5.6) flowers/ plant as compared to control(3.75 flowers/ plant), thickness of flower stalk 1.32cm and 0.89cm as compared with control(0.75cm) respectively. While treatment of ( 5A x 3min) gave higher dry weight for vegetative growth. The treatments ( 10A x 6min)and ( 10A x3min) gave higher chlorophyll content in leaves(355.9mg/m2), whereas the treatment (10Ax3min) gave highest total weight of tuber roots(8.11g)as compared to control(3.38g) .It was concluded from these results that using electric shock for a few minutes had significant effect on several vegetative and floral traits of Ranunculus plants . We recommend the use of treating Ranunculus plants after emergence with electric shock to improve and increase most vegetative and floral characters.

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