Table of content

Journal of the Faculty of Medicine

مجلة كلية الطب

ISSN: 00419419
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Journal of the Faculty of Medicine – University of Baghdad

A peer- reviewed journal published Quarterly by the college of medicine –Baghdad University

ISSN: 0041-9419

E-ISSN 2410-8057

The Journal interested in publication of clinical and basic medical research.


The first issue of this Journal was published under the name of (Journal of the Royal Iraqi Medical College) in April /1936, approved by the council of the College as a general journal dealing with the news of the college and few scientific articles to encourage the teaching staff for research publication. The journal was published randomly and ceased during World War II due to financial difficulties.
In 1946 Prof. Dr. Hashim Al Witri, the college dean, assigned republication of the journal and urged the teaching staff to participate and publish their research in the journal. Despite his effort the journal remained irregular in publication. In 1959 Prof. Dr. Faisal Al-Sabih became the Editor in Chief of the journal when he returned from the United Kingdom and appointed on the teaching staff, restructured the journal and changed its name to (The Journal of the Faculty of Medicine) and used new scientific system for publication of articles.
The first issue of the new series started in June 1959. The journal continued to be published on a regular basis since then without interruption in (four issues during the year). The journal became registered the international number (ISSN) in 2000 and entered in many important international indexes.
After 2003 the journal continued despite the difficulties involved in every aspect of the country and by the beginning of 2004 the journal progressed through a series of changes to reach a level that can be recognized internationally.
After 2010 the journal became published electronically of the same edited issues.
Recently the journal became recognized by the (Index Copernicus) and publicised internationaly.

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Contact info

e-mail:iqjmc@comed.uobaghdad.edu.iq
mobile:+96407709826825

Table of content: 2006 volume:48 issue:4

Article
mechanical small bowel obstruction

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Abstract

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Article
Battle casualties during Iraqi Iranian war 1980-1988

Authors: Tharwat I. Sulaiman
Pages: 341-347
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Abstract

Background- Every war in the world has its characteristics and the Iraqi Iranian war 1980-1988 has been neglected for along time due to political factors . this study tried to illustrate some of the features of casualties during this war .
Methods – review of records of all veterans evacuated to an advanced dressing station (ADS) serving a corps sector over one year starting from the 1st of Jan. 1982 to the 31st of Dec. 1982.
Results – the total number of casualties reached this station was 3020 veterans . Mortality rate before reaching to the station was about 20%. The majority of veterans (70%) were evacuated to the next station and most of them (90%) were injured during combat. Severe injuries constituted only 11% of casualties evacuated while the majority of those evacuated were those with intermediate and simple injuries . the most common causative agent was shrapnel in 80% and extremities were the most common injured parts of the body (62%) and abdominal injuries were the least common(3.3%).
Conclusion – in spite of all the differences as compared to other war experiences , the mortality, causative factors, severity and site of injuries were comparative to other wars since Vietnam war till the last war in Iraq 2003 with limited differences.

Keywords

war --- casualties --- triage --- evacuation --- Iraq --- Iran


Article
Posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP).A new approach for treating anorectal malformations.

Authors: Kutiaba yahya --- Nawfal.S.Dawood
Pages: 348-352
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Abstract

Background:-Anorectal malformation is a congenital anomaly of different varieties and its correction needs good experience , knowledge about this varieties and specific surgical tools, otherwise the child may lose his the only chance to live normally without disastrous complication like incontinence.
Objective:-assessment of the advantage of this procedure in management of anorectal malformations and the percentage for anal continence.
Patients and methods:-. This study was carried out in the child's central teaching hospital in Baghdad total number (70) cases were included in the study, 37 males and 33 females: aged 7 days to 6 years. They attended the hospital between October 1998-october 2004.
• Male defect included:¬
1) Low type ....5 cases No colostomy needed.
2) Intermediate type.... 23 cases. needed colostomy
3) High type.... 9 cases needed colostomy.
• Female defects:¬
1) Imperforate anus with vestibular fistula---31 cases.
2) Imperforate anus without fistula 2 cases.
Results:¬ From the study we gain the following results:- all the male patients with low and intermediate types 28 cases (40%) show 100% continence. All female patients with imperforated anus with vestibular fistula and without fistula 33 cases (47%) show 100% continence. The combination of male and female patients show 61 patients of 70 show 100%continence in a percentage of 87%. The nine cases (12.85%) with recto bladder neck fistula show poor continence due to their bad sacral contour associated with the poor development of pelvic muscles sphincter. This result was revealed from follow-up together with the presence of external sphincter muscle contraction which occurs during digital PR examination or by the use of surgical dilators.
Conclusion:¬ From the study we found that this procedure gives high percentage of continence and should be used instead of other procedures.


Article
Adrenal Disorders, Surgical Approaches andPostoperative complications

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Backgraound: Adrenal disorders in surgical practice are presented either as hyperfunctional disorders or non functional disorders (incidentalomas). Functionally, medullary tumors (pheochromocytoma) result in excess secretion of catecholamines(l), on the other hand, functioning adrenocortical tumors could secrete excess of cortisol (Cushing syndrome), aldosterone (Conn's syndrome) or sex hormones (virilizing syndromes). (2
The aim of our study is to identify and to show our experience in the surgical approach and postoperative complications of adrenal disorders.
Patients & methods: This is a prospective study of 20 cases diagnosed as having adrenal disorders, admitted and evaluated in Baghdad Teaching Hospital-Medical City from January 2002 to December 2004. The data collected including age, gender, types of clinical adrenal disorders, surgical approaches and postoperative complications.
Result: Surgical excision was performed in 19 cases, eleven through anterior transabdominal approach (11/20, 55%), and eight through thoracoabdominal approach (8/20, 40%). A better outcome was recorded in the thoracoabdominal approach. The most common encountered surgical morbidity was hypertension (3/19, 15.8%) and hypocalcemia (3/19, 15.8%).
Conclusion: Thoracoabdominal approach has better outcome especially in excising right adrenal tumor but transabdominal approach is preferable in excising a bilateral adrenal gland.


Article
The Use Of Adjuvant Therapies For Tonsillectomy

Authors: Hussein M. Hassan
Pages: 357-362
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Background: The aim was to ascertain the current practice of adjuvant therapy for tonsillectomy and to determine whether it is evidence based.
Methods: A questionnaire answers were obtained from sixty otolaryngologists in Baghdad.
Results: There was no any enthusiasm for routine intra-operative local anaesthesia.
Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) is prescribed by nearly all surgeons for postoperative analgesia, and the current literature supports its efficacy and safety.
Further, some practitioners combine paracetamol with NSAIDs, and/or Tramadol-Opioids. Evidence to support the additional use of these agents is, however non existent or limited.
For the use of antibiotics, we found some of the otolaryngologists do use a course of few days of pre-operative antibiotics and almost all of them do give postoperative antibiotics for seven-ten days.
Some aspects of tonsillectomy care are uniform and evidence based. Others are heterogenous and suffer from lack of adequate data in the literature.


Article
Low Birth Weight in Baghdad, Iraq

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Background: Many reports demonstrated an increase in low birth weight in the past three decades. This work was carried out to study the prevalence of low birth weight and its determinants among neonates delivered in Baghdad, Iraq.
Materials: A total of 400 singleton newborns delivered at two hospitals in Baghdad city during 15th June to 15th Nov. 2003 were included in the study.
Results: Half of the neonates were born with low birth weight. Out of the low birth weight neonates, there were 83% preterm neonates. Prevalence of low birth weight neonates was significantly associated with maternal age, age at marriage, parity, and anaemia.
Conclusion: This study indicates that the most appropriate approach for prevention low birth weight and prematurity in newborns is through improvement of nutritional status and health services.


Article
Source of Information in Regard of Starting Breast_Feedingin Baghdad

Authors: Dawood M. AL-thamery --- Sinan Makki*
Pages: 366-369
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Abstract

This study. was done on three hundred mothers who has a child less than 5 year old in AL-Nahryn University Teaching Hospital for the period of three months 1-1-2001 to 31-3-2001.
The study showed that 48% were Breast-feeding, 11% Bottle¬feeding, & 41% Mixed breast and bottle-feeding. The family plays a major role (97.2%) in deciding the type of feeding and the doctor role was only 2% in that regard and 21.2% in advice for artificial feeding.
The study also showed that there is a decline in breast feeding among -the three generations studied 100%, 96.4%, 48%; which represent around 52% o decline in breast feeding.

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Article
Thromboembolic events in ß-Thalassemiamajor patients

Authors: Sawsan S. Abbas
Pages: 370-373
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Abstract

Background:Seventy eight patients with beta - thalassemia major were Collected randomly from the thalassemia center in Ibn-Al-Baldy Hospital (all of them were transfusion dependent), together with fifty six age and sex matched healthy children were collected as a control.
Aim of the study: To determine the incidence of thromboembolism among them and to evaluate the precipitating factors.
Patients and Methods: History was taken and physical examination was done . EDTA Anticoagulated blood samples were taken prior to the next transfusion , platelet parameters were estimated for both groups using the MS – 9 coulter counter .
Results: Thromboembolic events was detected in five patients (6.41%).The main site was the central nervous system in 4 of them ( 5.2%) followed by the lung ,1 case ( 1.2%). Associated predisposing factors were found in 3 of them (60%).The patients had a statistically significant higher platelet counts, platelet crit, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width than the control group. The splenectomized had higher platelet counts ,platelet crit than the non splenectomized with nearly equal mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width , a results that is in favour of thrombosis.
Conclusions:This results suggest that beta- thalassemia patients had a hypercoagulable state which makes them susceptible to thrombosis and pulmonary embolism even in the young age group and even before splenectomy is performed.


Article
Clinical Features Of Iraqi Patients WithTetralogy Of Fallot

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Background: Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common cyanotic congenital heart disease which represents about 8-10% of all congenital heart diseases. It is characterized by four morphological features, large malalignment ventricular septal defect, Pulmonary stenosis, Overriding of aorta, and Right ventricular hypertrophy. The infant with TOF does well for the first few months of life with minimal or no cyanosis. The cyanosis begins to increase with secondary slow increase in polycythemia as well. Hypercyanotic spells are the most common complicating features of TOF
Patients and methods: This is a retrospective study of 200 patients with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) referred to Ibn Al-Bitar Center for Cardiac surgery from April 1993 to May 1999. The diagnosis was established by echocardiography, catheterization and angiographic study. For each patient, clinical history, physical examination, O2 saturation and hematocrit level had been reviewed.
Results: The patients' ages ranged from 11 months to 37 years. The weight of 42 patients (22%) and the height of 38 patients (20.5%) were below 3rd centile. There were 60 patients (30%) were polycythemic (hematocrit above 65%). Only 7 patients (14%) had low cyanosis (pink TOF) and one third of the patients had history of hypercyanotic spells. The CNS complications were the most common complications.
Conclusions: The study revealed that most of our patients had been delayed in their presentation for proper medical and surgical management. The study showed that most of TOF patients had normal growth pattern and the most important factor affecting the growth was the level of oxygen desaturation and we found high incidence of both infective endocarditis and CNS complications.

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Article
The use of oral thiazoldinediones in correction of hormonalabnormalities among unmarried women with resistant PCO .

Authors: Waffaa N Saieed --- Inas Taha --- Wisam Akram
Pages: 378-382
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Background; Polycystic disease of the• ovary is complex of symptoms with virious clinical, hormonal and biochemical abnormalities.
Setting; AL-Elwyia Maternity Teaching Hospital
Aim; to test the ability of pioglitazone in correcting biochemical and hormonal changes among unmarried women with PCO.
Design; Prospective
Methods: 23 women with PCO in whom previous treatment with metformin has failed were recruited to participate in the study. All the women were single with chronic unovulation and menstrual abnormalities and hirsutism. They were put on pioglitazone 30 mg daily for 6 months. FSH, LH, LH/ FSH, fasting insulin level, free testosterone, estradiol, and serum sex binding globulin as well as mid luteal progesterone were assessed prior to treatment and six months later. Results; there was significant reduction in the mean serum fasting insulin level [53.08+12.75 vs. 22.43+4.29: P< 0.001]. In addition there was significant reduction in the mean serum free testosterone, LH and LH/ FSH ratio [3.21+0.36 vs. 1.68+0.43: P<0.001], [15.19+4.43 vs. 10.72+3.08: P<0.001], [2.41+0.23 vs. 1.71+0.12: P<0.001] respectively. In addition mean serum progesterone at mid luteal phase increased significantly [2.44+1.11 vs. 18.61+2.28: P<0.001]. No woman during the treatment course has shown any sign of liver impairment or toxicity.
Conclusion; Pioglitazone is an insulin sensitizing drug which may be useful among women with PCO in whom previous treatment with metformin has failed. Yet, caution should be practiced in prescribing the drug until further studies confirm its safety and efficacy.


Article
An evaluation of methods of inducing sputumproduction in patient with suspected lung cancer

Authors: Maha Shakir Hassan
Pages: 383-386
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Background : the major focus of respiratory cytology is the diagnosis of lung cancer , carcinoma of the lung is now reported to be the most commonly diagnosed non- Cutaneous malignancy in the world. Iraq has faced the increase in incidence of this lethal type of cancer. Sputum cytology is a convenient method of screening and diagnosing primary epithelial tumor of the lung which is of many types include fresh smear ,Sacccomanno smear, and mailing container method.
Methods : Sputum cytological study was done on 50 patients suspected to have pulmonary carcinoma prepared by fresh smear method ,Saccomanno method ,and mailing container method.One, two,or three samples taken from each patient.Slides were prepared and stained by H and E stain and examined thoroughly .The accuracy specificity, and sensitivity was found for each method for comparison.
Result and Conclusion : A careful and sometimes frequent sputum samples is very essential in the diagnosis of lung cancer .Preservation and fixation methods are found to facilitate more accurate diagnosis especially in areas far from hospital.


Article
Salivary magnesium during pregnancy and laborand its relation to gingivitis

Authors: Wesal A. Al-Obaidi
Pages: 387-390
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Background: Changes in the level of salivary magnesium could be of great clinical interest not only because of its relation with oral health but also with the physiological alteration occurring during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pregnancy on the salivary magnesium level and their relations to gingivitis. Materials and methods: Salivary samples were taken from 24 pregnant women, 17 non pregnant and 14 lactating women. Flow rate was calculated. The supernatant salivary samples were assayed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Gingival Index was applied for the assessment of gingival inflammation.
Results: Salivary magnesium concentration was significantly the lowest mean value during pregnancy, with decrease in concentration in the third trimester followed by a marked increase after labor reaching the normal level. Pregnant women had a significantly highest Gingival Index mean than other control groups. Very weak correlations were found between flow rate and (pregnancy and salivary magnesium). A positive correlation was recorded between gingivitis and pregnancy and a negative correlation between gingivitis and salivary magnesium. However, statistically all correlations were not significant.
Conclusion: The salivary magnesium is influenced by female sex hormone during pregnancy. Analysis of saliva may be applicable as an investigation means of the physiological alterations that occur during and after pregnancy.


Article
Bacteriology of the Core of Adenoids inA group of Iraqi Patients Undergoing Adenoidectomy.

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Background: Upper air way obstruction secondary to chronically inflamed adenoid and / or tonsil is a common problem, in the presence of recurrent infection; tonsillectomy and or adenoidectomy are the most common surgery applied among pediatric population.
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the type of bacteria encountered with- in the core of the adenoid tissue at time of operation.
Subject and Methods: During a period from Feb.2005 to May 2005, twenty two adenoid samples were removed by surgery ,and cross sectioned and sent for culture and sensitivity, at the department of ENT in Al-jerahat hospital for surgical specialties , most of the patients were under 10 year’s old.
Results: This study showed that the bacteria isolated from the core of adenoid tissue were mostly part of bacterial flora of the upper respiratory tract, only 7 patients showed a growth of pathogenic bacteria; to which special sensitivity tests were performed to detect antibiotic sensitivity.
Conclusion: The bacteria of the core of the adenoid were mostly composed of normal flora, and few of them were pathogenic and resistant to most ordinary antibiotics


Article
Seropidemiology Of Human Hydatidosis InKirkuk And Tikrit/ Iraq

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Background: Hydatid disease is a serious infection of man caused by larval stage (hydatid) of the small dog tapeworm. Serological tests are important in the diagnosis of hydatid disease.
Objectives: The study was carried out to detect the rate of seropositivity of hydatid cysts in Kirkuk and Tikrit cities.
Materials and Methods: The retrospective hospital based and seroepidemiological studies were carried out in Kirkuk and Tikrit cities, during the period from beginning of January 2000 until the end of October 2003. The hospital based study included 125-hydatid cyst operations in hospitals of Kirkuk (82) and Tikrit (43). The serological tests used for detection of hydatid cysts antibody were latex agglutination test (LA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The seroepidemiological study included 288 individuals from different groups of populations: veterinarians (42), animal breeders (36), butchers (78), housewives (45), children (30) and other occupations (57).
Results: The rate of hydatid cysts operation in males (41.6%) was lower than females (58.4%). The highest rate of operation was at the age group between 21-30 years old (26.4%) and the lowest was among 51-60 years (12.8%). The highest rate of operation was sited in liver 91 (72.8%) followed by lung 19 (15.2%) and other sites 15 (12%).
The rate of seropositivity among different groups of occupation by using ELISA and LA tests were as follows: veterinarians (78.5% & 57.14%), animal breeders (58.3% & 22.22%), butchers (57.6% & 43.58%), housewives (60.0% & 48.8%), children (60.0% & 33.33%) and other occupations (38.6% & 21.05%) respectively. The rate of seropositivity in females was higher than males in both tests. In ELISA the rate in females and males was 74.1% and 51.20%, while in LA test the rate in females and males was 49.38% and 33.8 % respectively.
The distribution of seropositivity varied in different age groups. The highest rate was among the age group 31-40 years in both ELISA (74.07%) and LA (55.5%) tests.
Conclusions: The prevalence of hydatid disease in man was high in Kirkuk and Tikrit cities. The highest rate of seropositivity was among veterinarians followed by house wives, children and animal breeders. The ELISA test was more sensitive than LA for detection of seropositive cases of hydatid disease.


Article
Spontaneous Abortion and Failure of HumanCytotrophoblasts to adopt a vascular adhesion phenotype

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Background: Differentiating cytotrophoblasts transform their adhesion receptor phonotype so as to resemble the endothelial cells they replace a process that is required for normal placentation, and any defect in this adhesion phenotype switch might lead to pregnancy failure.
Patients and Methods: Curate samples of the materno-fetal interface were taken from 20 women with spontaneous first trimester abortion and 6 control women undergone elective termination of pregnancy in the first trimester. Immunohistochemistry analysis of paraffin embedded sections of these curate samples was performed using monoclonal antibodies for cytokeratin, PECAM-1 and VCAM-1.
Results: Cytokeratin showed positive immunostaing of the cytotrophoblasts lining the blood vessels, and PECAM-1 was positive in the cytotrophoblasts in only two cases who had elective termination of their pregnancy, while VCAM-1 immunostaining of the
cytotrophoblasts was positive in three cases that had elective termination of pregnancy and only two cases that had spontaneous abortion.
Conclusion: Defective expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules in human cytotrophoblasts might predispose to abnormal placentation, pregnancy failure and subsequent abortion


Article
CMV infection among HIV / AIDS patients in Iraq

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Background: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of CMV infection among HIV / AIDS patients in relation to disease progression, and to study the mortality during the period of the study.
Patients and Methods: The study included 155 HIV/AIDS patients (148 HIV- infected and seven AIDS patients) and 122 apparently "healthy" controls. CMV (IgG and 1gM) antibodies were determined by ELISA. The patients were followed up for a period of nine months, and retested frequently for development of active CMV infection.
Results: The prevalence of CMV (IgG) antibodies in the HIV/AIDS patients was 100%. A significant higher prevalence of CMV (IgM) among AIDS patients (42.9°/6) than among HIV infected patients (0.0%) and "healthy" controls (0.8%). No deaths were reported among asymptomatic HIV infected patients while the mortality among AIDS patients was (42.9%). Only one patient (7.7%) out of 13 asymptomatic HIV infected developed active CMV infection 10 years later by testing for CMV (IgM) in 1991 and 2001.
Conclusion: Demonstration of active CMV is of prognostic value in detection of development of AIDS and survival of patients.

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Article
DNA content of Spermatozoa with respect to Seminal Sperm Concentration using a Microchemical Spectrophotometric Method

Authors: Faraid A. AL- chalabi --- Munaf S. Daoud*
Pages: 410-412
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Background: To determine the DNA content in subfertile patients and to correlate it
with seminal sperm concentration.
Design: Prospective observational study.
Setting: College of Medicine, Dept. of Physiological chemistry and Institute for
embryo Research and infertility treatment-University of Baghdad.The study was conducted through years 2004-2005.
Methods: A random sample of 61 subfertile male patients undergoing semen evaluation and aged from 20-45 years were studied. Semen samples were assessed for seminal sperm concentration microscopically and were classified into 3 different groups according to count (million/ml).Then sperm D N A content (µg/ml) was estimated using a microchemical spectrophotometric method.
Results: The three groups were statistically of significant difference( P <0.01 ).The D N A concentration per spermatozoan in Gr.III ( 1 20 million/ml) was higher than the other two groups It was also noticed that there was a statistically significant (P< 0.05 ) correlation in Gr.III b etween D N A content and sperm concentration . No significant (P >0.05 )correlation was observed in the other two groups (Gr. I & Gr. II ).
Conclusion: Significant positive correlation was obtained between sperm concentration and DNA content. in the oligozoospermic subfertile patient , but no significant correlation was found in the normozoopermic patients . D N A content per spermatozoan from oligozoospermic patients was higher than that in normozoospermic patients.


Article
Fine needle aspiration cytology of breast lesions:Diagnostic values

Authors: Nada S. Al-Rubai'ee
Pages: 413-415
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Back ground:Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is indicated in the exploration of superficial and deep masses. The accuracy of this procedure differs in various studies, and according to the organ explored. Palpable mammary masses of concern to the patient or clinician should be aspirated, regardless of imaging findings.
Objective: The present study aimed at evaluation of cytological results of FNA of different palpable
breast lesions, using histopathological diagnosis as the gold standard for final diagnosis.
Patients & Methods: This prospective study includes 289 females with palpable breast lesions. FNA aspiration was conducted in a private out patient clinic during the period of 1994-2004. The cytological results of aspirated masses are compared with the histopathological result of biopsies or surgical specimens. Estimation and evaluation of the validity parameters of cytology and histopathology were performed.
Results: Out of seventy one (71)cases of malignant neoplasms diagnosed in histopathological; sixty three (63) showed malignant cellular aspirates, four (4) showed atypical cellular changes and four (4) were negative for significant cellular findings on FNA. On the other hand out of (217) benign lesions diagnosed by histopathology; 15 showed atypical epithelial changes on cytological aspirates while the rest showed benign cellular aspirates. Twenty (20) cases out of the whole sample showed epithelial cellular atypia on FNA; four of them proved to be malignant, one case revelead atypical epithelial hyperplasia or epithelioisis, and the other 15 proved to be benign lesions by histopathology. The validity parameters of FNA were as follows; sensitivity= 88.7%, specificity= 100%, False negative results= 11.3% and accuracy= 96.1%.
Conclusion: F. N. A. is a quick, inexpensive, relatively painless safe procedure from which results can be obtained in a short time with the other supportive investigations. Adequacy determination must be based not only on the cytological findings but also on their correlation with the clinical, mamrnographic, and ultrasonic findings to avoid false negative results. Atypical epithelial changes on cytological smears indicate the need for immediate excional biopsy.

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Article
Cytological and Immunocytochemical Study of BronchialWash in Bronchogenic Carcinoma

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Background: - Carcinoma of the lung has became the most common type of cancer since 1985 & the most common cause of cancer death in both males & females.
Aim of study: - To assess the diagnostic accuracy of bronchial wash cytology & application of immunocytochemical methods, using two tumor markers (low molecular weight cytokeratin & epithelial membrane antigen) for more accurate & precise diagnosis of lung tumors.
Patients, materials and methods: - Fifty fifes suspected lung cancer cases according to their clinico¬radiological examinations were included in this study.
Bronchial wash cytology was performed for all the 55 patients. Smears were stained by conventional cytological stain in addition to immunocytochemial staining using low molecular weight cytokeratin & epithelial membrane antigen. The final results of bronchial wash were compared to histopathological results & final clinical diagnosis as.
Results: - Cytological smears of bronchial wash revealed the presence of malignant cells in 33 cases (60%).
The sensitivity of bronchial wash cytology was 82.5%; the specificity was 100.0%, with overall accuracy of 87.3%.
Using cytokeratin staining, 26 cases (47%) were positive for malignant cells, & 29 were negative. The sensitivity, specificity & overall accuracy were 65%, 100%, & 74.5% respectively.
With EMA staining, 19 cases (27%) were positive for malignant cells & 36 were negative. The sensitivity, specificity & overall accuracy were 47.5%, 100%, & 61.8% respectively.
Combined use of CK & EMA raised the sensitivity to 72.5%, specificity of 100% & overall accuracy of 80%. Combined use of monoclonal antibodies & conventional cytology raised the sensitivity to 95%, specificity 100%, with overall accuracy of 96.3%.
Conclusions: - Using more than one monoclonal antibody, or using combined conventional cytology & immunocytochemistry increase the sensitivity for detection of malignant cells in bronchial wash smears.

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Article
The Role Of Tumor Markers In The Diagnosis And Follow UpIn Patients With Pancreatic Cancer

Authors: Ansam Aladdin Al-Bayatti
Pages: 421-424
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Background: To shade a light on certain tumor markers and their sensitivity and specificity in determination of pancreatic cancer.
Patients & Methods :- A total of 35 patients with pancreatic cancer were studied between June 2003 and April 2004 in Specialized Surgical - Baghdad Teaching Hospital . These patients were compared with other 25 non malignant G.I diseases patients as well as 35 healthy controls . The serum was estimated for CAI 9-9 , and CEA by ELFA (Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay) method and CPR by ELISA method.
Results :- Five patients with pancreatic cancer were excluded from this study because they were beyond surgery.The results show that there is significant differences between serum level of CAI 9-9 in pancreatic cancer patients as compared with the non malignant G.I disease patients group and control (P< 0.05). While for the determination of CEA there is also significant difference between the pancreatic patients group as compared with the non malignant G.I patients group and control group (P< 0.05). As for the result of CRP there is also significant difference between the pancreatic patients group and the non malignant G.I patients group and control group (P< 0.05) .
Conclusion :- Significant differences were found in the result of the tumor markers CA 19-9 , CEA , and CRP studied in patients with pancreatic cancer as compared with the other non malignant G.I patients and controls . The sensitivity for using all the mentioned parameters was 90% were as the specificity was 75%

Keywords

Pancreatic tumors --- CA 19-9 --- CEA --- CRP


Article
Possible Role for Interleukin-5 in Asthma

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Background: Asthma is an allergic disease characterized by airway obstruction as a result of cellular accumulation due to the liberation of certain mediators. Among those mediators are the cytokines such as IL-5.
Patients & Methods: Interleukin-5 concentration has been estimated in 94 sera samples of Asthmatic patients in comparison with 41 non-asthmatic bronchitis as patient controls in addition to 30 apparent healthy control group using ELISA method.
Results & Conclusions: There is highly significant elevation of IL-5 in the asthmatic cases in comparison with healthy controls (P< 0.001). We conclude that this cytokine may play the major role in asthmatic attack & it may be a good marker for the disease.

Keywords

Asthma --- IL-5 --- bronchitis --- Eosinophilia --- IgE


Article
Interleukin-6 Level in serm of Iraqi Patients on MaintenanceHemodialysis Therapy

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Back ground : Chronic renal failure (CRF) is characterized by progressive destruction of renal mass with irreversible sclerosis and loss of nephrons over a period of at least months to many years which is treated either by dialysis which includes hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) or renal transplantation.
Objective : To document the elevation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in Iraqi HD patients, and to what degree that elevation influences secretion of C-reactive protein (CRP), in addition to its association with other acute phase proteins and kidney function tests .
Method : A total of 75 individuals were included in the present study, 50 individuals were treated with HD compared to 25 healthy volunteers.
Result : The level of serum IL-6 showed a significant increase in HD patients , and this elevation lead to a high increase in the secretion of CRP as well as the differences in levels of other serum acute phase proteins; ferritin revealed an increase in its level , while alb shows a decrease in its level . Kidney function tests were detected in sera of all the studied groups, which showed an increase in urea and Cr with a decrease in CrCI in patients group.


Article
Beta-Carotene, Glycemic Control And DyslipidemiaIn Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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Background : Diabetes mellitus is a stressful condition in which the increased production of free radicals impairs the generation of naturally occurring antioxidants like vitamins and carotenoids .
Aim :The present study deals with the changes in serum ß-carotene in type 2 diabetes mellitus, as modulated by glycemic control and oxidative stress .
Subjects & methods : Multiple biochemical parameters were obtained from plasma of 57 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ( 25 males and 32 females ) , on oral hypoglycemic with a disease duration of 1- 15 years and 37 healthy normal subject s of matching age and sex to serve as controls .
The biochemical parameters measured in the present study included the glycated Hb (HbA1c ), serum lipids ( total cholesterol TC, triglycerides TG , high and low density lipoprotein cholesterols , HDL-C & LDL-C ) , lipid peroxides and serum ß-carotene.
results revealed a marked reduction of ß- carotene in the diabetics in a pattern proportional to that of the glycemic control ,dyslipidemia and oxidative stress .
Possible causes , mechanisms and suggestions underlining these changes are discussed.


Article
Rheumatiod Factor isotype in RheumatiodArthritis patients .

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Background: Rheumatiod factor in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) could be of IgM, IgG, or IgG isotypes.
Aim: To study the occurance of each or all these isotypes in RA patients .
Methods: Enzyme linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA) & Latex agglutination test were used to asses RF in 74 patients with RA.
Results: Using ELISA, 58 (78.4%) patients had positive RF (IgM 48.6%, IgG in 47.3% & IgA in 54.1% ), while only 43 (58.1) patients were positive by AG .
Conclusion All RF isotypes should be assessed in patients with RA

Keywords

RA --- RF --- IgG --- IgM --- IgA --- ELISA --- AG.


Article
The effect of Fenugreek oil (Iraqi fenugreek seeds' extract) on Adultuncoupled rats and mice ovaries Histological and hormonal assay.

Authors: Israa M. AL- chalabii
Pages: 454-460
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Abstract

Background: Fenugreek herb is one of the most abundant plants in our country. The dried ripe seeds of this plant are the effective medicinal part the plant.
Aim of the work: The aim of this study is to determine the pharmacological effect of a new chemical substance that has been extracted from crude fenugreek seeds which has a hormonal like action and to assess the safety of this experimental material in order to recommend it in future as a stimulator for ovulation or a contraceptive pill.
Materials and Methods: Sixty uncoupled female rats and mice were enrolled in this study, categorized into groups as mentioned in the text. Prolactin, estradiol and progesterone serum levels where measured for all groups. Histological and statistical analytical methods were applied to identify the increase in the folliculogenis process within the ovaries of the studied animals.
Results: There was an increase in folliculogenesis process in all experimental groups studied when compared to the control (group II, then group III respectively in ascending way). These findings were confirmed histologically as shown in the figures presented in the text showing the mean number of various ovarian components of experimental groups69.2±8.2 in groupli and 103.9 ±14.7 counted as the mean values these componentsand compared to the mean values of the control group which is equal to35.2 t 10.3. Hormonal assay levels, showed increase in the serum levels of hormones studied (prolactin, estradiol & progesterone) in all the experimental groups with percentage in elevation of prolactin in groups II and III were
(57% and 44.3% respectively). While the percentage of elevation of estradiol in groups II and III were (76% and 65% respectively). And the percentage of elevation in progesterone hormone in groups II and III were (78% and 73% respectively). The significancy of this elevation was more significant in groups IIR and IIM than. As shown in Figures (12, 13, & 14).
Conclusion: It has been concluded that fenugreek oil has a significant effect on folliculogenesis process within the ovary and it increases sex hormones level in the blood due to its wide biochemical effective components.
Key words: Fenugreek herb(Trigonella-foenum graecum). Fenugreek oil Rats(Rattus norvegicus). Mice. Ovaries. Folliculogenesis. Crude Fenugreek seeds. a contraceptive pill. Hormonal Assay. mini VIDAS technique. electrone microtome. light microscope. Histological morphometry. H & E stain (Haematoxylin&Eosin stain). Statistical analysis. Photography. Prostaglandins. tocopherol (vitamin E). haematoxylin and eosin stain.

Keywords


Article
Association between Helicobacter pylori infection& atrophic gastritis

Authors: Hayfaa S. AL-Hadithi *
Pages: 461-462
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Abstract

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is associated with gastritis and may induce atrophic gastritis have specific circulating immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies.
Aim of the study: To confirm the correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric atrophy.
Patient and Method: A study was conducted in the period between December 2005 and March 2006 on 25 patients with atrophic gastritis attending Gastroenterology and Hepatology Teaching Hospital in Baghdad, and 25 healthy volunteers who agreed to donate blood. Sera were tested for H. pylori IgG Ab by ELISA test.
Results and Conclusions: detection of H. pylori IgG Ab were applied to each individual, showed that (92 %) of patients with atrophic gastritis had positive H. pylori IgG Ab were as only 4 (16 %) of normal healthy individuals had positive H. pylori IgG Ab.

Table of content: volume:48 issue:4