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Engineering and Technology Journal

مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا

ISSN: 16816900 24120758
Publisher: University of Technology
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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The Journal aims to disseminate knowledge in the fields of Engineering, Technology and Sciences .All the researches will submit to the scientific evaluation procedures of publishing and documentation. The journal under takes only the publishing of the new researches that had not been published previously on other journals or debated in conferences.

The Instructions of Submitting The Research to Scientific Evaluation:
a- The research should be Submitted in 4 copies in Arabic or English Languages, auther's name should be eliminated from 2 copies only. The abstract should be typed on the front page not exceeding (150 words) in both Arabic and English on size (A4) sheet. Pages should be numbered and not more than (15) page.
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Engineering and Technology Journal
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ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
Scientific Refereed Journal Issued by University of Technology, IRAQ
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جمهورية العراق –بغداد
الجامعة التكنولوجية- مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا- ص.ب. 35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq
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http://uotechnology.edu.iq/tec_magaz/EN/index.htm
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Republic of Iraq, Baghdad
University of Technology, Engineering & Technology Journal.
P.O.Box.35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq

Email: uot_magaz@yahoo.com
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Table of content: 2008 volume:26 issue:2

Article
دراسة عملية النترده لعينات مطلية بالكروم بطريقة الترسيب

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Abstract

In this paper nitriding is performed on (Nitralloy135) alloyed steel which is coated with chromium before heat treatment. Tests and inspections were preformed like coated layer depth and hardness .The result show that nitriding layer depth increases with nitriding time. Max. Layer depth is (0.45) mm with nitriding time (90) min. , when chromium is added to the alloy the nitriding depth layer increased with time decrease, and also in micro structure test shows fine and uniform structure and stable steel phases. As for mechanical properties hardness was (1000HV) at (550°C), Also other mechanical properties (Tensile Stress, Yield Point, Elongation) as shown in properties table ,So we have a hard tough sample with good properties as the objective of this paper.

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Article
Influence of Locally Produced Waterproofing Admixture (Sternson 300) on Concrete Absorption and Strength
تأثير المضاف المنتج محلياً (Sternson 300) المانع لنفاذ الماء على امتصاص الخرسانة ومقاومها

Authors: رائد إبراهيم خليل
Pages: 49-61
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Abstract

In this work, the influence of waterproofing admixture of stearate type on the water reduction of concrete mix (1:2:4) for a given workability, (50+5)mm slump was investigated. Results indicated that this admixture has a little influence on the water reduction of concrete. Therefore this admixture cannot be considered as a water reducer since it does not conform with the requirements of type (A) admixture in accordance with (ASTM-C494-98 Type A)[1]. The same influence on the compressive strength of concrete (fcu) at various ages (7,28,60 and 90) days was studied. Results showed that the use of this admixture at recommended dose specified by the manufacturer has no significant effect on the compressive strength of concrete. On the other hand, overdoses of this admixture lead to a considerable reduction in the compressive strength. The efficiency of this admixture at different doses in reducing the total water absorption of concrete and the absorption of water by the capillary action was also examined. Results revealed that this admixture is not effective in reducing the water absorption with all doses used in this work and at different ages compared with reference mix without admixture.

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Article
A Study on Wear and Erosion-Corrosion Resistance of Two Typs of Cast Irons.

Authors: Sami.A.Ajeel --- Safaa Mohammed Hasoni
Pages: 111-123
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Abstract

The wear and erosion-corrosion resistance of gray and ductile cast irons were studied for their important in most applications. The wear tests were carried out using a pin-on-disc machine by applying different loads (10,20 and 30 N). The wear rate was measured using weighting loss method. Erosion-corrosion rate measurements for both types of cast iron in (0.01%,0.58% and3.5%) NaCl solutions using a rotating disc of 450 rpm indicate that erosion-corrosion resistance of ductile iron is better than that of gray cast iron. Microstructure observations after erosion-corrosion indicate that it plays a role in erosion-corrosion ; the predominant ductile matrix on the microstructure of ductile iron is at lower erosion-corrosion rate than that of gray cast iron . Localized attack usually has bright surfaces free from corrosion product. Pits are often observed on the line flow direction on these materials. These pits have a characteristic horse shoes shape for both types of cast irons. Optical microscope examination for the specimens indicates the presence of white and dark areas which refer to graphitization and pitting corrosion respectively. The wear rate is influenced by the form of phases therefore the flake graphite form in gray acts more like a lubricant film between two contact surfaces than spheriodal graphite. Brinell hardness measurements for both materials show that gray iron has higher hardness than ductile iron so that wear tests at different loads (10, 20 and 30 N) for both materials indicate that gray iron has high wear resistance than ductile iron and the wear rate increases sharply after (20N) for ductile iron. These results are related to high hardness and graphite phase form on the microstructure of gray iron.

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Article
Vanadium Oxide Recovery from Spent Catalysts by ChemicaL Leaching

Authors: Falak.O.Abas
Pages: 124-138
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Abstract

The Vanadium content of the catalyst can be reclaimed for further use. The aim of present work is to recover Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) from spent catalyst which previously used by a local detergent factory using chemical treatment. This type of treatment consist of chemical solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH 10–50 %) which is reacted with Vanadium in the spent catalyst to get sodium vanadiate at temperature(80 ± 5Cº) for (2-10) hrs to get pure Vanadium pentoxide . Different extractive conditions were carried out for the same manufacturing system above as chemical alkali solution of NaOH with in the range (10-50 wt.%) ,time of chemical treatment with in the range (2-8 hrs) ,and mixing velocity for reaction solution with in the range (75-200 cycle/min) ,then a prepared products will be optimized by the use of adsorption technique of vanadium on the surface of active carbon particles (2 mm mesh size) ,where 45 gm of active carbon were applied on packing column of 3 cm diameter and 300 cm long , then graph this results in order to optimize the extractive condition above and the optimization results are: Pure vanadium pentoxide (85%,3.60 gm ) from spent catalysts result at optimum conditions of 20 wt.% of NaOH alkali solution ,8 hrs time of mixing reactants ,and 95 cycle/min mixing velocity (medium velocity to give homogeneity of reaction) .

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Article
The Influence Of Bonding Mode and Wire Setting On The Stresses Of Metal Matrix Composite Reinforced with Continuous wire

Authors: Basim. Mohammed Fadhel
Pages: 139-145
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Abstract

This paper deals with the influence of bonding mode and the setting of the reinforcement between matrix and reinforcement for metal matrix composite on the induced stresse and also on the value of the reinforcing A charpy specimen with notch was used as a specimen test for comparison . Analytical model was built via ANSYS 8.1 software with a nonlinear solution based on the elastic –plastic behavior for both phases (matrix and reinforcement).Five miscellaneous cases for bonding mode and the setting of the reinforcement (wire with 1 mm diameter) were used .The results exhibit the eloquent perfect bonding on the value of reinforcing and also the setting (semi-circle) of the reinforcement in the matrix which gave the best reinforcing.تناول هذا البحث دراسة تاثيري اسلوب الالتصاق ووضعية مادة التقوية بين المادة الاساس ومادة التقوية لمادة متراكبةعلى الاجهادات المتولدة وكذلك مقدارالتقوية داخل المادة المتراكبة تم اعتماد عينة جاربي القياسية ذات الحز المتطور ANSYS لاختبار الصدمة كعينة اختبار.تم بناء لهذا الغرض الانموذج التحليلي باستخدام برنامج 8.1 وباسلوب الحل الغير خطي مع اعتماد سلوك المادة المرن اللدن لكلا الطورين ( مادة التقوية والمادة الاساس).تم استخدام خمس حالات متنوعة لاسلوب الالتصاق ووضعية مادة التقوية (سلك نحيف بقطر 1ملم)وقد اظهرت النتائج التاثير البالغ لاسلوب اللصق المثالي على مقدار التقوية كذلك وضعية الدائرة الناقصة لمادة التقوية (السلك) داخل المادة الاساس حيث اعطت افضل تقوية.


Article
Effect of Coarse Aggregate Characteristics on Drying Shrinkage of Concrete

Authors: Tareq Salih Al-Attar
Pages: 146-153
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Abstract

Concrete is a composite material, consisting, mainly, of three phases: coarse aggregate, cement mortar, and the interface zone between them. The characteristics of the interface zone largely govern the bond between cement paste or mortar and aggregate. The restraining effect of aggregate to drying shrinkage strain depends much on the bond between aggregate and cement paste. In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the effect of coarse aggregate characteristics, that affect bond strength, such as; type, shape, surface texture, and moisture content, on drying shrinkage. Four types of coarse aggregate were used. Three of them were normal-weight, while the fourth was a light-weight one. Each type of coarse aggregate was used in two moisture conditions, dry and saturated. The testing program extended to 150-days age and comprised; length change, modulus of elasticity, compressive and splitting tensile strength of concrete. It is concluded that using saturated coarse aggregate always yields higher shrinkage strain than dry aggregate. The percentage increase seems to be affected by the aggregate water absorption. At early ages, After 28 days, there is large differences in relative shrinkage for different mixes. Later than 28 days, the variation in ratios settled to approximately fixed valuesالخرسانة مادة مركبة ومكونة بشكل رئيسي من ثلاثة أطوار: الركام الخشن ومونة الاسمنت ومنطقة السطوح البينية. ان خواص منطقة السطوح البينية تتحكم بشكل كبير في قوى الارتباط بين عجينة الاسمنت (أو المونة) وبين الركام. كما أن الدور المقيد الذي يقوم به الركام تجاه انفعالات انكماش الجفاف للخرسانة يعتمد كثيرأً على قوى الارتباط التي تتطور في منطقة السطوح البينية. في هذا البحث تم التحري عن تأثير خواص الركام الخشن (مثل:النوع والشكل ونسجة السطح ومحتوى الرطوبة)على معدل ومقدار الانكماش للخرسانة عند الجفاف. تم اختيار هذه الخواص لما لها من علاقة قوية بقوى الارتباط بين العجينة والركام. تضمن البحث دراسة تاثير ثلاثة انواع من الركام الطبيعي الوزن ونوعاً رابعاً كان خفيف الوزن. الفحوصات التي اجريت على الخرسانة كانت: التغير الطولي، معامل المرونة، مقاومة الانضغاط ومقاومة الشد بالانشطار وامتد البرنامج العملي الى عمر ١٥٠ يوم. الخلطات الخرسانية المنتجة بالركام المشبع أظهرت دائماً انكماشاً اكبر من خلطات الركام الجاف وهذه الزيادة في الانكماش ارتبطت بقابلية الركام لامتصاص الماء. وعند اعتبار الانكماش النسبي للخلطات تبين أنه في الاعمار المبكرة يتغاير هذا الانكماش كثيراً في حين يستقر عند نسب ثابتة في الاعمار المتأخرة.


Article
Ductile and Gray Cast Irons Deterioration with Time in Various NaCl Salt Concentrations

Authors: Sami A. Ajeel --- Safaa Mohommed Hasoni
Pages: 154-168
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Abstract

Gray cast iron is used in wide engineering applications especially pipes and these pipes are exposed to failure in most cases so that ductile cast iron is used instead of it later. This project deals with the study of microstructure characteristics and chemical analysis for both materials in order to use them in the analysis of the microstructure after the corrosion tests involving immersion, polarization in different sodium chloride concentrations (0.01%, 0.58% and 3.5% NaCl). Immersion results indicate that the corrosion resistance of both types of cast irons is excellent and ductile iron is better than gray cast iron and the reduction in corrosion rates for both materials is related to barrier layer deposited on the surface which is more uniform on ductile iron surface. The electrochemical tests involve measurement of corrosion potential in open circuit using the same solutions for both materials and potentiostatic test is used to measure cathodic and anodic polarization in the above solutions. The test started from cathodic region to the anodic region with sweep rate of 10 m V/min to obtain the general behavior and measure the polarization parameters for both materials. The measured corrosion potentials of the open circuit in all solutions are more noble values for gray iron than that for ductile iron. Corrosion potentials on polarization measurements point out to the same indication but the ability to start and form barrier layer in ductile is better than in gray iron. Microstructure observations after the electrochemical tests indicate the presence of uniform layer on ductile surface and graphitization process is obtained on gray iron.رض

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Article
Stress Evaluation of Low Pressure Steam Turbine Rotor bBlade and Design of Reduced Stress Blade

Authors: Arkan K. Husain Al-Taie
Pages: 169-179
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Abstract

The low pressure steam turbine blade rows have a history of stress failure . They suffer from tensile and bending stresses partly due to the centrifugal force as a result of high rotational speeds and partly due to high pressure, temperature and speed steam loading. The centrifugal force is one of the problems that face the designers of turbine blades especially the long ones. The designer always aims at reducing these stresses. One way to do so is by the reduction of blade mass. That is to make the blade of variable cross section stead in of straight. This paper presents the method of reducing cross section. Analysis of such blade is also done as applied to the (P 23- 14A) steam blade.

Keywords

Steam Turbines --- Design --- Stress


Article
Automated Electronic Circuit Design for Low Pass Filter Based on Genetic Algorithm
نمذجة التصميم الالكتروني لمرشحات الترددات الواطئة باستخدام الخوارزميات الجينية

Authors: Hanan. A. R. Akkar --- Mohammed. K. Abrahem
Pages: 180-188
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Abstract

In this paper a proposed method to design electronic circuits by using software approach based on genetic algorithms is presented. The method is implemented to design low pass filter with a minimal knowledge about the design (the response of the filter and cutoff frequency). Butterworth filter type is chosen because of its smooth response. This method provides impressive results and the circuits obtained provide higher efficiency than the circuits which might be designed by the expert engineer. This method allows the topology, the component values, and the number of the component of the circuit to be evolved by using genetic algorithms (GAs) without human interference. Therefore, the proposed method can be expandied to be used with any analog (passive or active) circuit by making a few changes in the program steps (i.e. by changing the fitness function and improving the simulation of the circuits). MATLAB (Ver. 7) language is used in programming the genetic algorithm. The circuits created by genetic algorithms are built using EWB program to make sure that the obtained results are true and accurate.

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Article
Numerical Simulation of Solidification Around Staggered Tube Arrangement With Convection – Dominated

Authors: Waheed S . Mohammed --- Zainab H. Hassan
Pages: 189-201
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This work describes and analyses thermal storage system as a phase change problem which involves a fluid flowing inside cooled tubes in a staggered arrangement installed in a rectangular duct surrounded by a phase - change material (water). The temperature of the fluid inside the tubes is below the freezing temperature of the PCM which causes ice formation around each tubes. The problem is modeled as, two- dimensional, time dependent and convection–dominated phenomena .A finite volume numerical approach is developed and used to simulate the physical details of the problem .This approach is based on the enthalpy method which is traditionally used to track the motion of the liquid – solid front and obtain the temperature and velocity profiles in the liquid –phase. The study gives an instruction on the presentation of ice – on – coil storage tank. Results of solidification experiments are used to assess and evaluate the performance.هذا العمل يصف التحليل الحراري لنظام الخزن الحراري بأنه مسالة تغير في الطور والذي يتم من خلال مرور المائع داخل أنابيب مبردة ومرتبة بترتيب متخالف داخل خزان مستطيل وتحيط بتلك الأنابيب المادة التي يتغير طورها (الماء). درجة حرارة المائع داخل الأنابيب تكون أقل من درجة حرارة الإنجماد لمادة متغيرة الطور والذي بدوره يسبب تك  ون الثلج حول الأنابيب. تم نمذجة المسألة بأنها ثنائية البعد، غير مستقرة، وبوجود ظاهرة انتقال الحرارة بالحمل. تم تطوير طريقة عددية (الحجوم المحددة) واستخدامها لحل المسألة وهذه الطريقة تستند على طريقة الإنثالبي والتي تستخدم لتعقب حركة المقدمة الأمامية للصلب- والسائل والحصول على أشكال وقيم درجات الحرارة والسرع في طور السائل. هذه الدراسة تعطي إرشادات عن عرض خزان حفظ الطاقة، نوع الثلج على الملف. تم استخدام نتائج عملية لعملية الإنجماد لتقييم ومقارنة أداء النموذج الرياضي للدراسة الحالية.


Article
Modelling The Behaviour Of Sand Under Strain-Controlled Loading BY The Finite Element Method

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Strain-controlled tests are conventional in soil mechanics laboratories. It is intended in this paper to simulate both triaxial and simple shear tests theoretically by using the finite element method. The solution of the nonlinear equations is obtained by several iterations. The Newton-Raphson with tangent stiffness method in which the stiffness matrices are tangents is adopted. The model used in this paper is the ALTERNAT model which forms the major component of a double hardening model for the mechanical behaviour of sand under alternating loading. The finite element method is used in simulating the behaviour of round uniform quartz sand under monotonic drained loading with constant mean stress and cyclic constant volume loading (undrained). The monotonic test was conducted with constant mean stress, where the specimen was compressed in one direction and extended in other directions while the mean stress (the average of the principal stresses) is kept constant and equal to 137 kPa. It is noticed that the peak stress is occurring at very small strain (0.122). The stress-strain behaviour may be attributed to the particle roundness and grain size uniformity. In the cyclic tests, the specimen is sheared by cycling the shear strain while the volume was kept constant. By doing this, an undrained strain-controlled cyclic test similar to that typically done in many laboratories is numerically simulated. It was found that the mean stress during shearing is higher than the initial consolidation pressure. This implies that only negative pore pressures occur in the first two cycles. A careful study shows that there exists an effective stress ratio line or zero-dilatancy line in both compression and extension regions, beyond which the specimen dilates.تعتبر فحوص الانفعال المسيطر عليه شائعة في مختبرات ميكانيك التربة. يهدف هذا البحث إلى تمثيل كل من فحص الانضغاط ثلاثي المحاور و فحص القص البسيط نظريا بطريقة العناصر المحددة. يتم حل المعادلات اللاخطية بعدة محاولات حيث تعتمد طريقة مصفوفة الصلادة المماسة ALTERNAT أو مصفوفة نيوتن-رافسون. إن النموذج المستعمل في هذا البحث هو لنموذج الذي يشكل المركبة الرئيسية لانموذج ثنائي التصلب يستعمل لتمثيل السلوك الميكانيكي للرمل تحت تأثير أحمال متغيرة. أستعملت طريقة العناصر المحددة في تمثيل سلوك رمل مستدير الحبيبات منتظم من الكوارتز معرض إلى حمل مبزول أحادي تحت تأثير معدل إجهاد ثابت و حمل دوري غير مبزول تحت تأثير حجم ثابت. أجري الفحص الأحادي بتثبيت معدل الإجهاد حيث يتم ضغط النموذج من اتجاه معين و استطالته من الاتجاهين الآخرين بينما يبقى معدل الإجهادات الرئيسية ثابتا و مساويا إلى ١٣٧ كيلوباسكال. و قد لوحظ أن إجهاد القمة يحدث عند انفعال صغير جدا ( ٠,١٢٢ )، و يمكن أن تعزى علاقة الإجهاد- الانفعال هذه إلى استدارة الحبيبات و انتظام أحجامها. أما في الفحوص الدورية فيتم قص النموذج بتكرار انفعال القص مع إبقاء الحجم ثابتا. و بهذه العملية يتم تمثيل فحص دوري غير مبزول فيه الانفعال مسيطر عليه بحالة مماثلة لما يحدث في المختبر. و قد وجد أن معدل الإجهاد خلال القص يكون أعلى من ضغط الانضمام الأولي، و هذا يعني أنه يحدث ضغط ماء سالب في الدورتين الأوليتين. و عند ملاحظة النتائج بدقة يتبين وجود خط يمثل في كل من (Zero Dilatancy Line) نسبة إجهاد مؤثر أو ما يسمى بخط التمدد الصفري منطقتي الضغط و الشد، و يبدأ النموذج بالتمدد خارج هذين الخطين.


Article
Content-Based Authentication Using Digital Speech Data

Authors: Hana'a M. Salman
Pages: 228-239
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Abstract

A watermarking technique for speech content and speaker authentication scheme, which is based on using abstracts of speech features relevant to semantic meaning and combined with an ID for the speaker is proposed in this paper. The ID which, represents the watermark for the speaker, is embedded using spread spectrum technique. While the extracted abstracts of speech features are used to represents the watermark for the speech, is embedded in the original speech file using secret key. The abstracts speech feature is implemented using B-spline curve interpolation. The paper provides a background knowledge for the concept of speaker watermarking and content-fragile watermarking based on digital speech data. Then, the suggested feature based authentication scheme is develop and the results from the evaluation are presented. It shows that the suggested scheme is successful for combining speech and speaker watermark authentication.في هذا البحث تم اقتراح مخطط لتقنية العلامة المائية لمحتوى الكلام وتخويل المستخدم، والذي مبني على استخدام ملخصات عن مبرزات خصائص الكلام ذات العلاقة بالمعنى مع معرف المستخدم. إن معرف المستخدم يمثل العلامة المائية بالنسبة إلى المستخدم، والتي تغمر بواسطة استخدام تقنية الانتشار الطيفي، بينما ملخصات عن مبرزات خصائص الكلام ذات العلاقة بالمعنى تعتبر العلامة المائية بالنسبة إلى الكلام، والتي تغمر بصورة مباشرة في ملف الكلام بواسطة مفتاح سري.تم استخدام تقنية توليد المنحنيات الأساسية لتوليد مل قاعدة معرفة لمفهوم العلامة المائية للمستخدم والعلامة خصات عن مبرزات خصائص الكلام. البحث يوفر المائية ذات المحتوى الرقيق المبني على أساس الكلام. تم بناء مخطط التخويل باستخدام المبرزات المقترح ومن ثم تمت عملية تقيم للنتائج وتثبيتها. أن النتائج تشير إلى فعالية المخطط المقترح لدمج تخويل العلامة المائية لكلا من الكلام مع المستخدم.


Article
Optimization of Production of Food Grade Gelatin from Bovine Hide Wastes

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Abstract

The optimum conditions for the production of food grade gelatin from the tannery bovine hide wastes are established. The process involves cutting the hide wastes into small pieces (1-2 cm2), and washing them with water to remove the dirt. The washed pieces are placed in the liming tank containing 10% of lime in water with stirring for five weeks. After washing with water to remove the lime, the collagen is neutralized to pH 7 with hydrochloric acid. The extraction is carried out in four stages using hot water. The gelatin extracts are filtered, subjected to deionization and concentrated with vacuum evaporator up to 20-35 wt%. The gelatin is then dried by two types of dryers (tray dryer and spray dryer). Box-Wilson method is adopted to obtain a relationship between the three variables (temperature, time and pH) and gelatin yield in the first stage of extraction and two variables (temperature and time) and the gelatin yield in the other third stages of extraction process. The experimental data were fitted to second order polynomial models for all stages. The most favorable operating conditions for the extraction of gelatin are: - The First Stage: Temperature = 64 oC , Time = 5 hr , pH = 7 The Second Stage: Temperature = 74 oC , Time = 3.72 hr , pH = 7 The third Stage: Temperature = 84 oC , Time = 3.69 hr , pH = 7 The fourth Stage: Temperature = 98 oC , Time = 3.83 hr , pH = 7 The overall yield of gelatin is 55%, under the previous condition. The quality of gelatin was checked against food grade specification at the Nutrition Research Institute of the Ministry of Health. The results are acceptable within the boundaries of the desired properties.يتناول البحث تحديد الظروف المثلى لإنتاج الجيلاتين بمواصفات غذائية من مخلفات جلود الأبقار التي تعتبر ٢ ) سم ٢، ثم غسلت - من النواتج العرضية للمدابغ. تمت عملية الإنتاج بتقطيع مخلفات الجلود بين ( ١ .(% مخلفات القطع الجلدية بالماء ونقلت الى حوض المعالجة بمحلول النورة في الماء بتركيز ( ١٠ استمرت لمدة خمسة أسابيع مع التحريك المستمر. غسلت بعدها القطع بالماء لإزالة ما تبقى من النورة وتمت تعديل الدالة الحامضية الى حدود ٧ باستخدام حامض الهيدروكلوريك. أجريت أربع مراحل استخلاص عند الظروف المثلى لاستخلاص الجيلاتين من الكولاجين. رشح محلول الجيلاتين الناتج و أزيلت منه الأيونات ٣٥ %وزنا باستخدام مبخر يعمل بالضغط المتخلخل. جفف المحلول باستخدام – ومن ثم ركز لما بين ٢٠ نوعين من اجهزة التجفيف، هما المجفف ذو الأطباق والمجفف المرذاذي الدوار. لإيجاد علاقات رياضية تربط المتغيرات الثلاثة (درجة الحرارة و ( Box-Wilson ) استخدمت طريقة الزمن والدالة الحامضية) مع إنتاجية الجيلاتين في المرحلة الأولى من عملية الاستخلاص، وبين المتغيرين (درجة الحرارة والزمن) مع إنتاجية الجيلاتين في المراحل الثلاثة الأخرى من هذه العملية. تمت مطابقة النتائج العملية التي أمكن الحصول عليها بهذه الطريقة مع معادلات رياضية من الدرجة الثانية ولجميع المراحل. قمنا بدراسة ظروف التشغيل لمراحل الاستخلاص الأربعة بالتفصيل وذلك عن طريق أيجاد معادلة رياضية لكل مرحلة. وجد أن افضل ظروف تشغيلية للاستخلاص كما يأتي: المرحلة الاولى: درجة الحرارة = ٦٣,٤٨ ٥ م ، الزمن = ٥،٠٠ ساعة ، الدالة الحامضية = ٧،٠٢ المرحلة الثانية: درجة الحرارة = ٧٤،١١ ٥ م ، الزمن = ٣،٧٢ ساعة ، الدالة الحامضية = ٧،٠٢ المرحلة الثالثة: درجة الحرارة = ٨٣،٨٦ ٥ م ، الزمن = ٣،٦٩ ساعة ، الدالة الحامضية = ٧،٠٢ المرحلة الرابعة: درجة الحرارة = ٩٨،١٤ ٥ م ، الزمن = ٣،٨٣ ساعة ، الدالة الحامضية = ٧،٠٢ بلغت إنتاجية الجيلاتين ( ٥٥ %) في الظروف التشغيلية المذكورة أعلاه.

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Article
Mechanical Properties of Composite Material Using Natural Rubber with Epoxy Resin

Authors: Hani Aziz Ameen
Pages: 254-264
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Abstract

In this paper the mechanical properties of three types of composite materials using natural rubber vulcanized, unvulcanized and reinforced rubber have been investigated . The composite material using natural rubber and epoxy resin is manufactured by three methods, first method is mixing the natural rubber with epoxy resin by special mixer without any additional materials, the second method is to make a layer of rubber then coating it with a layer of epoxy resin and bonding using the rolling process. The third one is use in the natural rubber as a matrix material and using additional materials like carbon black in specific ratio and mix with them the epoxy resin in five ratios ( 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%) . The first and second methods failed because composite material produced was inhomogeneous while the third method succeeded and the composite material was homogenous. Compression and hardness tests have been done on the resulting composite material of the third method and from the result it is found that the composite material has good properties and these properties improved by increasing the ratio of epoxy resin to the natural rubber. Then the mechanical properties of three types of composite material using natural rubber vulcanized, unvulcanized and reinforced rubber have been investigated . Each type was coated with six percentages of epoxy resin (0% , 20% , 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100 %) . The values of Young’s modulus, yield stress, tensile strength and yield strain which were calculated for each case and for all percentages of epoxy resin. It is concluded that the properties of the new composite material using natural rubber is muchbetter than the properties of the pure natural rubber and the increasing in the percentage of epoxy resin in vulcanized rubber leads to a decrease in Young’s modulus and increasing percentage of epoxy resin in unvulcanized rubber and reinforced rubber leads to an increase in Young modulusفي هذا البحث تم دراسة الخواص الميكانيكية للمادة المركبة الناتجة من اضافة راتينج الايبوكسي الى عجنة المطاط الطبيعي في ثلاث حالات حيث تم تصنيع المادة المركبة باستعمال المطاط الطبيعي ومادة الايبوكسي وتم صنع العينات بثلاث طرق . الطريقة الاولى كانت بخاط المطاط مع الايبوكسي بدون اي اضافات باستعمال خلاطة خاصة . والطريقة الثانية كانت بجعل المطاط على شكل طبقات مغطاة بالايبوكسي ومن ثم اجريت عليها عملية الدرفلة . الطريقة الثالثة هي باستعمال المطاط الطبيعي كمادة اساس ثم استعمال مواد اضافية كالكاربون وغيرها من المواد . ( % ٨٠ % و ١٠٠ ، %٦٠ ، %٤٠ ، % وبنسب معينة واضافة الايبوكسي بخمس نسب ( ٢٠ الطريقة الاولى والثانية فشلت لان المادة الناتجة كانت غير متجانسة ، بينما المادة المستحصلة في الطريقة الثالثة كانت متجانسة ومتماسكة . وقد تم اجراء اختبار الضغط والصلادة على نماذج من المادة المركبة المستحصلة بالطريقة الثالثة وقد وجد انها ذات خواص جيدة وان خواصها تتحسن بزيادة نسبة الايبوكسي الى مادة المطاط . وكذلك دراسة الخواص الميكانيكية اذ تم تحضير المادة المركبة من اضافة راتينج الايبوكسي الى عجنة المطاط الطبيعي في ثلاث حالات . الحالة الاولى اضافة الايبوكسي الى عجنة المطاط الطبيعي الغير المفلكنة اي غير ، %٦٠ ، % ٤٠ ، % معرضة لظروف الفلكنة من ضغط ودرجة حرارة وبكل النسب ( ٢٠ ٨٠ % و ١٠٠ % ) بالاضافة الى الحالة القياسية ، والحالة الثانية عرضت الى ظروف فلكنة قياسية وبكل النسب المبينة بالاضافة الى الحالة القياسية . اما الحالة الثالثة فقد كانت بتقوية العينات وتسليحها بخيوط من الكتان الخاصة بالمواد المطاطية وبكل النسب ايضا . حيث تم دراسة الخواص الميكانيكية ومدى تأثرها باضافة راتينج الايبوكسي اليها ودراسة قيم معامل المرونة واجهاد الخضوع وانفعال الخضوع. تم تحليل النتائج التجريبية التي حصل عليها من التجارب المختبرية لغرض الوصول الى اختيار افضل للنتائج وقد لوحظ بان معامل المرونة يقل في الحالتين الاولى والثانية ويزداد في الحالة الثالثة بزيادة نسب الايبوكسي.


Article
Indirect Field Orientation Control of Induction Machine with Detuning Effect

Authors: Rami A. Mahir --- Ziad M. Ahmed --- Amjad J. H
Pages: 265-277
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Abstract

Field orientation control (FOC) methods of an induction machine achieve decoupled torque and flux dynamics leading to independent control of torque and flux as for separately excited DC motor, but they are sensitive to motor parameter variations. The has present work selects the indirect field orientation control (IFOC) as an effective method for eliminating the coupling effect. The results show how well the drive performance has been improved by this control strategy. However, to which extent the control strategy can perform the decoupling relies on the accuracy of the slip frequency calculation. Unfortunately, the slip frequency depends on the rotor time constant that varies continuously according to the operational conditions and, then, the coupling effect may again arise. This paper investigates the improvement in the performance of the induction machine dynamics as the IFOC technique is utilized, also, it investigatesthe degradation in dynamic performance when the rotor resistance is deviated from its nominal value.تحقق طرق سيطرة توجيه المجال للمحرك الدايناميكية للفيض المغناطيسي والعزم ،والذي يؤدي بدوره الى سيطرة منفصلةللعزم والفيض كما هو الحال في محرك التيار المستمر ذو التغذية المنفصلة .ولكن تلك المحركات ،ذات السيطرة بتوجيه المجال،حساسة لتغير معلمات ا لمحرك.في هذا البحث تم اختيار طريقة للسيطرة على متجه المجال الغير المباشر لغرض فصل متجه العزم عن متجه المجال .حيث اظهرت النتائج على حصول تحسن في اداء مسوق القدرة باستخدام هذه الطريقة .مع ذلك،فان الحد الذي يستطيع هذه التقنية ان تبقى على متجه العزم والفيض متع امدان يعتمد على الثابت الزمني للجزء الدوار ،الذي يتغير باستمرار مع ظروف الاشتغال ،والذي يؤدي بالتالي الى ظهور التاثير المتبادل (فقدان التعامد ). يتحرى هذا البحث عن نقاط التحسن في اداء الحركة الدايناميكية للمحرك الحثي باستخدام تقنية السيطرة على توجيه المجال الغيرمباشر وكذلك عن اسباب التدهور الحاصل في اداء المحرك عندما تحيد قيمة مقاومة ملفات الجزء الدوار عن القيمة القياسية .

Table of content: volume:26 issue:2