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Engineering and Technology Journal

مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا

ISSN: 16816900 24120758
Publisher: University of Technology
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal aims to disseminate knowledge in the fields of Engineering, Technology and Sciences .All the researches will submit to the scientific evaluation procedures of publishing and documentation. The journal under takes only the publishing of the new researches that had not been published previously on other journals or debated in conferences.

The Instructions of Submitting The Research to Scientific Evaluation:
a- The research should be Submitted in 4 copies in Arabic or English Languages, auther's name should be eliminated from 2 copies only. The abstract should be typed on the front page not exceeding (150 words) in both Arabic and English on size (A4) sheet. Pages should be numbered and not more than (15) page.
b- The researcher should fill a declaration form which states that he doesn't publish the research during the evaluation period. He must give his full address phone number and e-mail.

Firstly- The author should pay a fee of (ID55000) when he submits the research and a fee of (ID55000) when the research is accepted .These fees are obligatory for all. The sum cannot be reimbursed in any case.
Secondly- The annual subscription in the journal inside Iraq is ID250000) Iraqi dinar, and outside Iraq is (us $250) abroad.
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Engineering and Technology Journal
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The responsibilities of the Engineering & Technology Journal can be defined as:
• Engineering & Technology Journal is committed to working with journal editors, defining clearly their relevant roles, in order to ensure appropriate decisions regarding publication procedures and maintaining the transparency of editorial decisions.
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o publication and research funding
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o confidentiality
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o timely release of content.
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ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
Scientific Refereed Journal Issued by University of Technology, IRAQ
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جمهورية العراق –بغداد
الجامعة التكنولوجية- مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا- ص.ب. 35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq
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Journal website:
http://uotechnology.edu.iq/tec_magaz/EN/index.htm
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Republic of Iraq, Baghdad
University of Technology, Engineering & Technology Journal.
P.O.Box.35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq

Email: uot_magaz@yahoo.com
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Table of content: 2011 volume:29 issue:1

Article
Effect of Steel Fiber on The Behavior of Deep Beams With and Without Web Opening

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Abstract

This study investigates experimentally the strengthening of reinforced concrete deep beams using steel fibers. The experimental work could be divided in two parts, the first part consists of casting and testing six deep beams without web opening and the second part consists of casting and testing six deep beams with web openings to show the effect of volume of steel fibers on the behavior of the deep beams with and without web opening on ultimate load, deflection, with various shear span to depth (a/d) ratios [variable of clear shear span].On the other hand, the effects of these parameters on the behavior and capability of deep beams with constant steel fiber – volume fraction are obtained by using three groups of beams having steel fiber– volume fractions of 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and studying the effect of the presence of steel fibers in deep beams with web openings. The results obtained from the experimental work [solid deep beams and deep beams with web openings], demonstrate that when the steel fiber volume- fraction is increased, the ultimate loads are also increased. The effect of steel fibers increases as the (a/d) ratio is decreased. In addition, the experimental work on deep beams without web opening showed that when the steel fiber volume-fraction is kept constant, the ultimate loads are increased as the (a/d) ratio is decreased. On the other hand, the percentages of increase in ultimate loads become higher as the steel fiber volumefraction is increased from 0.0% to 0.5% and 1.0%. However, the effect of decreasing the (a/d) ratio on the ultimate and cracking loads of the deep beams with web openings was not significant.

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Article
The Cytogenetic Effects of Crude Ethanol Extracts of Petroselium Crspum Leaves on Bone Marrow In Mice (Mus Musculus)
التاثير الوراثي الخلوي للمستخلص الكحولي الاثيلي لأوراق المعدنوس Petroselium crispum في خلايا نقي العظم للفئران المختبرية Mus musculus

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Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the cytogenetic effects of ethanol extract of Petroselium crispum leaves on somatic cells of albino mice Mus musculus.Four doses (250,500,1000,2000)mgkg were used.Three tests,mitotic index,micronucleus formation and chromosomal aberration. Results indicated that the extracts have significant effects p<0.05 were used. which inhibit somatic division in 250 and 500mgkg doses after 21 and 28 days (P<0.05) of treatment by comparison with the control. Ethanolic leaves extract showed little effect on micronucleus formation and chromosomal aberration. It can be concluded that the crude extract of leaves for the above plant can be used in cancer treatment of cancer since it has the ability in inhibition of somatic division which has.


Article
Operation of Hindiya Barrage Irrigation Using Expert System
تشغيل مشروع ري سدة الهندية بأستخدام النظام الخبير

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Abstract

This search includes developing an expert system to operating Hindiya Barrage Irrigation Project, which is consider one of the important projects built on Euphrates river. It consists of main seven structures and other co-operative structures, five of which is reconstructed in 1989.These structures are Hindiya Barrage, Hilla canal regulator, Kifil Canal Regulator & Mussayb regulator, located in the left bank of Hindiya Barrage & the other Old Hussainiya Regulator, new Hussainiya Regulator and Beni Hassan Regulator located in the right bank of Hindiya Barrage. The style and mechanism for operating Hindiya Barrage Irrigation Project have been developed using latest scientific techniques (Artificial Intelligence ) represented by Expert System which depends on dialog scheme with an operator, the performed expert system was programmed using up-to-date programming languages (VISUAL BASIC) within Windows environment. The expert system has developed on to analyze of real working data from 1989 to 2009. The results of expert system have been compared with the results of operating Hydraulic Model, and it is gave a good agreement, which means that the expert system building is correct because it depends on gate opening calculation method as it is to the most accurate and efficient method.

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Article
Study of Degradation Effect on Physical Properties of Methyl Orange Doped PMMA

Authors: Mohamad S --- Nahida J.Hameed Al-Mashhadan
Pages: 20-32
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Abstract

The samples were cast as thin film from homopolymer (PMMA) before and after doping with methyl orange at different concentration. The samples were exposed to UV-radiation for exposure time within (10-50hr) range. These polymer systems were evaluated spectrophotometrically for using the UV-detector. The absorption spectra of UV-irradiated samples showed radiation induced absorption changes in the wavelength range, which depends on the polymer type and polymer composites. The increment depends dopant concentration, especially in ultra violet region in exposed PMMA doped with methyl orange at 6.7×10-2wt/wt concentration. Decreasing in absorption was found for the cases in which, photo degradation caused surface damage, i.e. crazes or cracks formation, especially at ultraviolet region. Calibration curves were drawn at peaks, selected wavelength in the absorption spectra. The linear regions from the calibration curves were selected, and dosimeter range was determined from the UV-irradiation sample response. It was found that PMMA doped with methyl orange at 6.7×10 -2wt/wt concentration can be use the UV-detector within range (10-40hr) at the wavelength of (300nm) for its linear response at this range of irradiation. Morphological investigations for the surface damages caused by thermal and photo degradation are detected by optical microscope. It is found that the photo degradation could easily lead to some mechanical surface degradation i. e (crazes and cracks) formation.


Article
Improving erosion corrosion resistance of medium carbon steel using electro less nickel plating
تحسين مقاومة التأكل بالتعرية لفولاذ متوسط الكاربون بطريقة الطلاء اللاكهربائي بالنيكل

Authors: سندس محمد نوري
Pages: 31-44
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Abstract

This research devoted to studying improvement resistance for the medium carbon steel to erosion corrosion by coated with electro less nickel plating and used in this coated acid bath (Hydrogen number Ph = 4.5) at deferent temperature (70,75,80,85,90°C) to obtained deferent deposition rate of coating. The experimental work test were done using special device which was designed and manufactured according to [ASTM (G73)] with certain modifications. Tests were made on corrosion (3.5wt ℅) sodium chloride Nacl solution as sea water purged with CO2 gas as the corrosive media and 1wt ℅ silica sand was added as slurry to that media. After traditional weight losses technique was achieved, it was found that corrosion rate decrease with increase value of hardness which increase at increase temperature of coating solution. This indicate improvement corrosion resistance of metal. Heat treatment were done to coated specimens at deferent temperature (300,400,500,700,800°C). It was found that corrosion rate decrease at increase heat treatment temperature. This indicate improvement corrosion resistance but at higher ratio to that before made heat treatment. Smallest corrosion rate was obtained at temperature 800C°.


Article
Watermarking for Relational Database by using Threshold Generator

Authors: Bashar Saadoon Mahdi --- Yossra H. Ali
Pages: 33-43
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Abstract

Providing ownership on relational database is a crucial issue in today internet-based application environments and in many content distribution applications.This paper provides the effective watermarking technique to protect valuable numeric relational data from illegal duplications and redistributions as well as to claim ownership,the robustness of proposed system depending on using new hybrid techniques ,first technique MAC(Message Authentication Code) that used one way hash function SHA1 ,second technique is threshold generator base on simple combination of odd number of register and by using secret key in proposed system. Detecting the watermark neither requires access to neither the original data nor the watermark. The watermark can be detected even in a small subset of a watermarked relation as long as the sample contains some of the marks. The finally stage is the analysis of technique that used, our extensive analysis shows that the proposed technique is robust against various forms of malicious attacks and updates to the data


Article
The Effect of Using Glass Powder Filler on Hot Asphalt Concrete Mixtures Properties
تأثير استخدام مسحوق الزجاج كمادة مالئة على خواص الخلطات الاسفلتية الساخنة

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Abstract

The early use of asphalt for road and street construction began in the late 1800s, and grew rapidly with the emerging automobile industry. Since that time, asphalt technology has made strides such that today the equipment, techniques and materials used to build asphalt pavement structures are highly sophisticated. Waste glass has been used in highway construction as an aggregate substitute in hot mix asphalt paving. Many countries have recently incorporated glass into their roadway specifications, which had encouraged greater use of the material. While the use of waste glass as filler in hot mix asphalt is still not widely experimented. In this research glass powder is proposed as an alternative to traditional lime stone powder (Gubraa) and ordinary Portland cement fillers in hot asphalt mixtures. Where, the effect of using waste glass powder as mineral filler on Marshall Properties of hot asphalt concrete mixtures is investigated. Nine mixtures with three types of fillers (lime stone powder, ordinary Portland cement and glass powder) and three filler contents (4%, 7% and 10% by weight of total aggregate) are investigated. The main outcome of this research is the possibility of using glass powder as filler in hot asphalt concrete mixtures. The optimum glass powder content is 7%. Where it is found that using of glass powder as filler with such replacement leading to produce asphalt mixture with higher stability (% of increase up to 13%), lower flow (% of decrease up to 39%) and lower density (% of decrease up to 10%) comparing to corresponding ordinary Portland cement or lime stone powder mixtures.

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Article
Study the Effect of Spheroidizing Annealing on Mechanical Properties of Medium Carbon Steel
دراسة تأثير التلدين بالتكوير على الخواص الميكانيكية للفولاذ المتوسط الكاربون

Authors: فراس فرحان سيد
Pages: 45-54
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Abstract

The aim of present research is to study the effect of spheroidizing annealing for steel that contains (0.51% Ċ) on the hardness, wear rate, ultimate tensile strength, and ductility. The effect of heat treatment that prier the spheroidizing annealing treatment is studied as well , that the specimens firstly is heated to the temperature equal to ( 860 Ċ) , then cooled in furnace and in air ,and then carried out spheroidizing annealing treatment at the temperature equal to ( 860 Ċ ) for ( 6 h ) , it is show that the process of spheroidizing annealing decrease hardness, wear strength , and ultimate tensile strength , and increase ductility that improve of machining properties of steel .

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Article
Influence of the Polymer Styrene Butadiene Rubber on Some of Clay Brick Properties
تأثير البوليمر (Styrene Butadiene Rubber) على بعض خواص الطابوق

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Abstract

This research studied the improvement of clay brick durability by using two methods of treatment, the first one by coating with Styrene Butadiene Rubber (Polymer) solution and the other by submerging bricks in polymer solution for various periods. The results showed that using coating method causes a slight increase in the compressive strength with a maximum percentage of 3.8% for both yellow and green brick in comparison with untreated bricks, while the compressive strength for the two types of the brick reduced when they treated using submerging method, the percentage of reduction increases by about 26% and 7% for yellow and green brick respectively at submerged period of 24 hours. The results also indicated that no efflorescence appears for all treated bricks (treated by coating and submerging methods for all periods) and a decrease in absorption with maximum percentages of 26.8% and 14.5% for yellow and green bricks respectively when the specimens submerged in polymer solution for 24 hours. All the results were compared with tested samples untreated with polymer solution.


Article
Effect of Substrate Temperature on the Structural and Morphological Properties of Nano-structure ZnO films by Pulsed Laser Deposition

Authors: Adawiya J. Haider --- Afnan k. yousif
Pages: 58-64
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In this work, ZnO thin films were grown on sapphire (0001) substrate by Pulsed Laser Deposition using SHG with Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser operation at 532nm in O2 gas ambient 5×10-2 mbar at different substrate temperatures varying from room temperature to 500°C. The influence of the substrate temperature on the structural and morphological properties of the films were investigated using XRD and SEM. As result, at substrate 400°C, a good quality and crystalline films were deposited that exhibits an average grain size (XRD) of 22.42nm with an average grain size (SEM) of 21.31nm.


Article
Speed Control of Wind Turbine by Using PID Controller

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In this paper, the output frequency of a self excited induction generator (SEIG) driven by wind turbine and supplies static load are controlled. The principle connections of wind energy conversion are presented. The dynamic modeling of the wind turbine and its linearization are derived. The PID controller which employed for turbine rotor speed control and hence the frequency regulation is proposed. The block diagram of the proposed speed control system which consists of speed controller, actuator model and the turbine linearized model is simulated by Matlab-Simulink software package


Article
Increased Porosity and Their Effect on The Density and Hardness Value of (Ni—Cu) Alloy
تأثير نسبة المسامية على قيم الكثافة والصلادة لسبيكة ( نيكل - نحاس) والمنتجة بطريقة ميتالورجيا المساحيق

Authors: ندى طاهر سلطان
Pages: 66-74
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This research is aimed to produce Ni-Cu alloys by powder metallurgy method because its commercial and technological importance. Nickel and Copper powders were tacked then their powders mixed and blended together and classified to four parts, Sodium Chloride powder added (as a space holder) to three parts and the last remain as it is then these powders mixed and then compacted in hydrostatic pressure at 7ton, then this compact samples were sintered in furnace under argon gas at 950°C for one hour, latest these samples are grinded and polished to examine the microstructure, density, porosity, microhardness, X-ray diffraction and corrosion resistance.


Article
Calculations of Long Pulsed Lasers for Lithotripsy

Authors: Murooj N. Mohammad Ali
Pages: 72-81
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Abstract

Urinary stone fragmentation with long pulsed Ho:YAG laser (wave length equal 2.1 μm) and Er:YAG laser (wave length equal 2.94 μm) investigated in this paper. Fragmentation efficiency of these two lasers is measured by using various energy settings. Laser induced crater depth and ablation volume for both lasers were examined and compared using mathematical model. Theoretical results were compared with experimental results obtained by Hyun Wook Kang. The study shows that the theoretical results and experimental results are comparable, and the crater depth when using Er:YAG laser was more than that on Ho:YAG laser.


Article
Materials Selection in Conceptual Design using Weighting Property Method

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The needs to combine selection of materials (SM) processes during the early stages of design have previously been realized. In this work, an attempt is made to ensure that there is no gap between function oriented design and the material. A methodology is being developed, for a concurrent qualitative selection of materials method (CQSM) that takes into consideration the importance of materials properties in the early design stages. The method is modified from quantitative method called weighting property method used for selecting materials in the detailed design stage. The method was modified to qualitative method; it means that the input data for materials property of the design must be qualitative data which consisting of groups or sub-groups of materials, range value properties and approximate values. By giving weight to the degree of importance of the properties, a developed database is search for the best group that can satisfy the CQSM. In the present investigation, a new numerical method has been build by using visual basic developed select materials for mechanical design in conceptual stage. This method, which is based on weighting property method (WPM) uses a new digital logic (DL) comparison with the traditional (DL) makes the result more accurate because it does not elimination problem of the least important criterion.


Article
Theoretical Investigation of Pneumatic Soil Vapor Extraction

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Pneumatic Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE) is a new remediation technique targeting to improve removal of Volatile Organic Compounds from low permeable areas in heterogeneous soil settings in unsaturated zone. In contrast to traditional SVE, in which soil vapor is extracted continuously by a vacuum pump, pneumatic SVE is based on enforcing a sequence of large pressure drops on the system to enhance the recovery from the low-permeable areas to enhance removal from areas subject to diffusion limitation. This technique has been shown to be promising at laboratory scale. A one-dimensional mathematical model was used to study governing factors and to clarify and quantify the mechanisms responsible for enhanced contaminant removal during this process. From analytical solution it is clear that the gas phase inside low permeable area moves with sinusoidal velocity whose amplitude decreases with depth. Two zones can be distinguished. First in which the gas phase can reach the high permeability area and continuously mixed with clean air, the enhanced removal mechanism is advection. The depth of this zone may range from .05m to .6m. Second is in which there is no net contaminant advection, the enhanced removal mechanism is hydrodynamic dispersion. The hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient may reach a value range from 7 to 700 times the effective molecular diffusion coefficient. In the absence of non-aqueous phase liquid in the first zone, it can be considered a clean conductive zone and impose no transport resistance on the second zone (i.e. mathematically, the upper boundary can be lowered just below the first zone). The model was tested by comparing its results with experimental results published by a previous study. Overall, comparisons appear to be reasonably good. Investigation shows that pneumatic SVE is promising at field setting. In order for this technique has significant removal enhancement the gas phase permeability in the low permeability region should be at least on order of 1*10-12 m2 (1 darcy).


Article
Use of Bernstein Polynomial in Numerical Solution of Nonlinear Fred Holm Integral Equation

Authors: Khawla A .AL-Zubaidy --- Muna M. Mustafa
Pages: 110-115
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In this paper, Bernstein polynomials with different degree has been used to approximate the solution of nonlinear Fredholm integral equations. A comparison between the different degree of Bernstein polynomials has been made depending on absolute error and least squares errors. keywords: Nonlinear Fredholm Integral equation, Bernstein polynomial

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Article
Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Tool Inclination Angle in Turning Operation

Authors: Ali Abbar Khleif --- Farhad Mohammad Kushnaw
Pages: 116-128
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This paper introduces a mathematical model to calculate the amount of tool inclination angle in turning operation depending on controlling the chip flow along the cutting edge, and to simplify the setting of this angle and the direct relation with nose setting distance, a model is achieved to calculate the setting nose distance instead of changing the inclination angle. Results conducted on a series of experiments by changing tool nose setting distance where most of the cutting conditions kept constant, except tool nose setting below and above the workpiece centre, and its effect of obtained surface roughness was measured at each step. Theoretical results for finishing turning operation, for depth of cut less than 1 mm, show that setting tool nose below the workpiece centre will be similar to that of setting positive angle of inclination. The main function of the derived model of the inclination angle is to make equal chip flow along the cutting edge and the chip will be cured far enough from the machined surface and therefore eliminate the chip and hence improve the workpiece surface roughness. The proposed theoretical model proved that in external turning with finishing operation the suggested inclination angle (λ) must have positive values, and the setting distance has a negative value. While in the experimental work, the workpiece surface finish has been improved when setting distance has negative value below the workpiece centre.


Article
Tensile and Buckling Analysis of the Polymer Composite Beam Reinforced by Natural Jute Fiber

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This research focuses on the preparation of polymer matrix composite material by (hand lay – UP) method, where the material was prepared from unsaturated polyester resin (up) as a matrix reinforced by natural jute fiber with different volume fractions (3%, 4%, 5%, 6%).The experimental work and finite element techniques were used to analysis the tensile and the buckling analysis of the composite beam reinforced by natural jute fiber at different volume fraction. The results of experimental work of the modulus of elasticity were in the range of the theoretical results. The critical load increased with increase the fiber volume fraction that ( cr P =610N) at ( f V = 3%) and ( cr P =830N) at ( f V =6 %) for the experimental results.While ( cr P =619N) at ( f V = 3%) and ( cr P =877N) at ( f V =6 %) for the finite element results.

Keywords

jute fiber --- tensile --- buckling --- composite --- beam


Article
Modeling, Analysis and Speed Control Design Methods of a DC Motor

Authors: Jamal A. Mohammed
Pages: 141-155
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Modern manufacturing systems are automated machines that perform the required tasks. The electric motors are perhaps the most widely used energy converters in the modern machine-tools and robots. These motors require automatic control of their main parameters (position, speed, acceleration, currents). With the help of an example, a DC motor system, the use of MATLAB/Simulink for comprehensive study of modeling, analysis and speed control design methods has been demonstrated.

Table of content: volume:29 issue:1