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Engineering and Technology Journal

مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا

ISSN: 16816900 24120758
Publisher: University of Technology
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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The Journal aims to disseminate knowledge in the fields of Engineering, Technology and Sciences .All the researches will submit to the scientific evaluation procedures of publishing and documentation. The journal under takes only the publishing of the new researches that had not been published previously on other journals or debated in conferences.

The Instructions of Submitting The Research to Scientific Evaluation:
a- The research should be Submitted in 4 copies in Arabic or English Languages, auther's name should be eliminated from 2 copies only. The abstract should be typed on the front page not exceeding (150 words) in both Arabic and English on size (A4) sheet. Pages should be numbered and not more than (15) page.
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Secondly- The annual subscription in the journal inside Iraq is ID250000) Iraqi dinar, and outside Iraq is (us $250) abroad.
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Engineering and Technology Journal
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The responsibilities of the Engineering & Technology Journal can be defined as:
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ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
Scientific Refereed Journal Issued by University of Technology, IRAQ
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جمهورية العراق –بغداد
الجامعة التكنولوجية- مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا- ص.ب. 35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq
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Journal website:
http://uotechnology.edu.iq/tec_magaz/EN/index.htm
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Republic of Iraq, Baghdad
University of Technology, Engineering & Technology Journal.
P.O.Box.35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq

Email: uot_magaz@yahoo.com
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Table of content: 2011 volume:29 issue:2

Article
Study of The Mechanical Properties For Particulate Polymer Blend Composite
دراسة الخصائص الميكانيكية لمادة متراكبة دقائقية مبنية على أساس ( خليط بوليمري)

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Abstract

This research involves using epoxy resin and (Nitride Butadiene Rubber NBR) to form a blend with different resin ratios (90 – 10)%, (80 – 20)%, (70 – 30)%, and (60 – 40)% to achieve better ratio for impact strength as a function of better toughness; then reinforced with SiO2 and Al2O3 powders with (20%) volume fraction. Mechanical properties were studied including impact strength, wear resistance, and hardness before and after immersion in water and HCl (0.5N). Results showed that the composite (epoxy+NBR+SiO2) had better properties compared with blend and Al2O3 composite. Also the acid solution had affected then properties more than water. All impact and wear and hardness decreased after immersing in solution.

Keywords

NBR --- polymer blend --- wear --- impact


Article
Improvement The Durability of Concretefloors (A Lkalis Actions ) By Using Carbon Fibers Mortars
استخدام مونة السمنت المعززة بألياف الكاربون لمعالجة الأرضيات الخرسانية المعرضة للقلويات

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Abstract

The main purpose of this research is to repair the concrete floors in contact with alkalis action especially sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) in the floors of factories of Vegetable Oils by using cement and sand mortars incorporated with carbon fiber chips in proportions (0.5 – 1)% by volume was used ,superplasticizer with a dosage of (2 -2.6) L/100 kg cement was added, thickness of cement and sand mortars depend on damage concrete . Mechanical tests such as compressive strength test and physical tests such as ultrasonic pulse velocity , bulk density , apparent porosity and water absorption tests were done to samples after curing in normal water for ( 7 , 28 , 60 , 90 , 180 ) days and then they were exposed to caustic soda solution (37% concentration) up to six months. Test results showed a noticeable improvement in durability of suggested mortar mixes against such type of aggressive alkalis solutions.


Article
Induced Buoyancy In Inclined Solar Chimney For Natural Ventilation

Authors: Zinah Jaber Khalaf --- Jalal M. Jalil
Pages: 183-194
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Abstract

A 2-D plane, steady, incompressible, turbulent flow field developed by natural convection inside inclined solar chimney at different inclination angles ranging from (30o to 90o), heat fluxes from (100 W/m² to 500 W/m²) and chimney thickness(0.1, 0.2 m) chimney is investigated numerically. It is found that maximum air temperature and maximum volume flow rate was 101.7oC, 306.3 m³/h respectively at heat flux,500 W/m2; inclination angle; 90o and chimney thickness; 0.2m. Maximum outlet air velocity was 0.488 m/s at chimney thickness; 0.1m, heat flux; 500 W/m2; and inclination angle; 90o. Increase in heat flux, inclination angle and chimney thickness leads to increasing of volume flow rate. Increase in chimney cross-sectional area leads to decrease in air velocity and increase in volume flow rate


Article
Different Software Components Integration using C# and Matlab Platforms

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Abstract

The distributed computations can produce significant performance gains, yet the time and expertise needed for the low-level details of distribution is often prohibitive. Additionally, many applications rely heavily on domain-specific libraries, while it is not practicable to write an optimizing compiler each time a domain-specific library is developed. The purpose of this paper is to solve this problem by proposing a distribution system which distributes job execution over several computers using a distribution Matlab compiler, called the Matlab grid compiler.The implementation concentrates on connecting several computers known as clients to a main computer known as the administrator. A software application is built using Microsoft visual studio, then executed on a server-client network, and the results showed that integrating the components of C# and Matlab gives a valuable worth performance for the distributed computation techniques.


Article
The Estimation of Random Response of a Coupled Cylindrical-Conical Shell System Using Statistical Energy Analysis

Authors: Adnan Dawood Mohammed
Pages: 212-225
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Abstract

A composite, coupled, thin cylindrical-conical shell system made of polyester resin reinforced by uniformly distributed, chopped, E-glass is analyzed using Statistical Energy Analysis. Response displacement estimate of the two subsystems are obtained due the excitation of the cylinder by a broadband white noise of constant spectral density function. The paper is an attempt to study the validity of the SEA hypothesis as applied to coupled built-up structures. This is carried out by the comparison of response estimates of the coupled system in different 1/3rd octave frequency bands with those obtained from Finite Element method. The outcome of this work shows that SEA is a powerful tool for the vibration analysis of coupled systems at high frequencies when the number of interacting coupled resonant modes is high. Percentage error obtained from the comparison of results drops sharply as one goes further in frequency. This paper recommends that the user of SEA must always be aware of the uncertainty of the results obtained. The uncertainty may arise from the improper selection of subsystems, coupling loss factors, and the number of interacting resonant modes of the coupled system.


Article
Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Characteristics of Turbulent Flow In a Tube Fitted With Conical Ring and Twisted Tape Inserts

Authors: Akeel Abdullah Mohammed
Pages: 226-239
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Abstract

The present work shows the results obtained from experimental investigations of the augmentation of turbulent flow heat transfer in a horizontal tube fitted with combined conical-ring turbulators and a twisted-tape swirl generator. The air is the working fluid for Reynolds number range of 5000-23000 under constant wall heat flux thermal boundary condition. In this study, two enhancement heat transfer devices are used. One is the conical-ring used as a turbulator and placed in the tested tube with constant diameter ratio (d/D=0.538) and the other is the twistedtape swirl generator placed at the core of the conical-rings. Three twisted-tapes of different twist ratios, Y=2, 3, and 6, are introduced in each run. The experimental data obtained are compared with those obtained from the plain tube and from the literature to ensure the validation of experimental results. Correlations for Nusselt number, friction factor, and enhancement efficiency are developed. It is observed that the heat transfer process enhances by using combined conical-ring and twisted-tape inserts or each one alone when compared to plain tube at the same mass flow rate, and this enhancement increases as twist ratio decreases for the case of combined insertion.


Article
Synthesis of Carbon Nanomaterials in Deionized Water with and without Catalyst Using Arc Discharge Technique

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Abstract

Simple and economical technique was used for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials without using vacuum equipment. The used technique implied an arc discharge between two pure graphite rods with different diameters submerged in deionized water at room temperature. These were also investigated with a new type of metal catalyst process for the first time. Plasma arc discharge was produced using D.C power supply with current (30-90 amp.) and voltage (30- 50volt). The nanomaterials were produced in the form of nanoparticles (floated), nanotubes and nanofibers (sank), and carbon nanocolloidal (dispersed) through the water. The results of these experiments were examined by high resolution optical microscope, scanning electron microscope SEM and transmission electron microscope TEM. The results revealed different types of carbon nanomaterials.


Article
Preparation, Characterization and Structural Studies of Some Phenyl Isothiocynate Metal Complexes

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Abstract

Phenyl isothiocynate complexes of Cu (I), Cu(II), Mn(II), Fe(II), Fe (III), Cr(III) and Ce(III) have been prepared and analyzed spectroscopicaly by Elemental analyses and atomic absorption technique; the magnetic susceptibility and the conductivity have also been measured and molar ratio of Ligand: Matale with mole ratio method and Job Method. From these measurement it is concluded that Cu(I), Fe(III) and Mn(II) form tetrahedral complexes, while Cu (II) Forms square planner complexes, and Cr (III) and Ce(III) forms octahedral complexes.


Article
The Phase Transition of the 2D-Ising Model By Using Monte Carlo Method

Authors: Sa`ad. N. Abood --- Dhia'a Khalid Kudeer
Pages: 261-277
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Abstract

In this project, the location of the phase transition in the two dimensional Ising model will be determined using Monte Carlo simulation with importance sampling. the magnetization per site [m ], energy per site [J ], magnetic susceptibility, specific heat of a Ferromagnetic materials are Calculated as a function of temperature T for 10´10, 20´ 20, 40´ 40 , 50´50 spin lattice interaction by using Monte Carlo Simulation of the 2D Ising Model for some experimental values of ferromagnetic materials such as Gadolinium Chloride ( ) 3 GdCl at Curie temperature c T B = 2.2 J k , and ferromagnetic thin film from Nickel ( ) i N growth on cooper (Cu)at Curie temperature c B T = 2.772 J k , in zero and nonzero magnetic field. It was noticed that above a certain temperature ( ) c T the material will be in a paramagnetic state, this will lead to that the average magnetization will be decrease and the average energy increase, while below that temperature ,it will be in a ferromagnetic state, and the average magnetization will increase and the average energy decrease. Moreover, above a certain temperature spontaneous magnetization will be zero


Article
Mechanical Properties Comparison of Four Models, Failure Theories Study and Estimation of Thermal Expansion Coefficients for Artificial E-glass Polyester Composite

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Abstract

In this paper, the mechanical properties of artificial E-glass reinforced polyester composite were evaluated; the elastic properties and the strength of the composite were measured experimentally by tensile tests and then compared with the predicted values by theoretical four micromechanical constitutive models. The strength of the composite lamina and laminates were also determined experimentally and compared with five widely used theoretical failure theories. The lamination theory was also used to determine the strength of laminates by applying Hill- Tsai failure criterion. The theoretical models showed that the composite stiffness increases with increasing the fibre volume fraction and the volume fraction which gave the best fit to the experimental results of elastic modulus (E1) corresponds to volume fraction (Vf) equal 0.37. The stiffness of a unidirectional lamina depends on the fiber orientation relative to the off-axis load direction, and it drops sharply as the fiber alignment angle increases. In addition, the prediction of thermal expansion coefficients of composite is carried out in the present analysis, whereas the values of the coefficient that estimated to be based on the mechanical properties of the certain composite theoretically and experimentally.


Article
Information Hiding Based on Discrete Time Wavelet Transform and Huffman Coding

Authors: Ammar Abdul-Amer Rashed
Pages: 295-304
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Abstract

The approach of This paper presentation a companied technique for hiding secret messages (text) based on wavelet transform applying in cover image (a gray level image 8bit) then Huffman encoding is also executed on the secret messages,to increase the robustness of hiding system by inserting the embedded secret messages in the low frequency components of the cover image after applying wavelet transform followed by a sorting process and the coefficients of secret messages after applying Huffman encoding and using binary to multilevel to reading the string of message reducing by multiplying in attenuation factor before adding them with those of the cover image. The experimental results show that the algorithm has a high capacity and a good invisibility, Moreover PSNR of stego image shows the better results the PSNR above 40 dB, the proposal system was activated according to attacker noise is addition and JPEG compression application are used with out detection the secret message.


Article
Strength Prediction of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete

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Abstract

The main purpose of this investigation is to study the effects of polypropylene fiber on the compressive and flexural strength of normal weight concrete. Four mixes used polypropylene fiber weight with 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5% of cement content. To provide a basis for comparison, reference specimens were cast without polypropylene fiber. The test results showed that the increase of mechanical properties (compressive and flexural strength) resulting from added of polypropylene fiber was relatively high. The increase was about 64 percent for compressive strength, while, in flexural strength was about 55.5 percent.


Article
Shirkat Town Monitoring Using Digital Elevation Model

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Abstract

In this search, a colored image of French satellite SPOT, of Shirkat country in Salahadeen was used with resolution about (5m) for an area with dimensions (4km×8km), and a digital elevation model (DEM) with grids (20m×20m) and levels reach to (1m) resolution from the same satellite for the same country, with an image taken from the IKONOS satellite with (1m) resolution, in addition to master plan and administrative map for the same area. The IKONOS satellite image processed digitally, and intersected with the DEM, to create a three dimensional model for the area under study, with resolution about (1mm), by the use of AutoCAD and GIS programs, and making a comparison between the field survey and the images information, resulting extensive information about the levels in shirkat country streets and the surrounding buildings, and an attributive results about the agricultural or desert spaces around the country.

Keywords

Dem --- Spot --- Ikonos


Article
Thermal Radiation Detector (TRD) Modeling

Authors: Mehdi Munshid Shellal
Pages: 322-335
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Abstract

This paper describes the theoretical principles of TRD operation based on thermal absorption of incident power of radiation. In the modelling procedures, the main parameters influencing on the detector features have been introduced. So the this model allow us to predict the behaviour of different types of thermal detectors. It is found that the temperature response of the detector against the frequency of incident radiation in logarithmic scale describes the TRD as a typical low pass filter characteristics. The cut off corner frequency is found to be at 1 Hz under which the temperature change attains a saturation value. In the sense that the thermal detector will detect all the incoming radiations of higher frequency.


Article
Role of Omeprazole as An Antifungal Agent

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Abstract

The antifungal activity of various concentrations of omeprazole (0.1mg/ml, 0.25mg/ml, 0.5mg/ml, 1mg/ml, 2.5mg/ml, 5mg/ml, 10mg/ml, and 20mg/ml) were studied in different pH media (5 and 7) against Aspergillus niger, and Trichophyton urbrum.The laboratory results showed the inhibitory effect of omeprazole against Aspergillus niger at pH 7 and starting from concentration 10mg/ml, and against Trichophyton urbrum starting from 1mg/ml. While its antifungal activity in a medium with pH 5 was extended to reach the lower concentrations 0.25mg/ml against selected fungi. Accordingly, omeprazole is pH dependent.It seems that omeprazole changed cell membrane potential of selected fungal species which led to depolarization of cell membrane as a result of inhibition of the proton pump mechanism. This made the fungal cell not willing to uptake chemicals needed for living.Keywords: omeprazole, proton pump inhibitor, antifungal agent, Aspergillus niger, and Trichophyton urbrum.

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Article
A Manual Kinetic Study for Pyrolysis of Scrap Tires by Use of TG Technique

Authors: Mohammed A.Abass
Pages: 341-358
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Abstract

The kinetic study of pyrolysis involved the use of a homemade thermogravimertic analysis (TG) system and showed that the reaction is first order at high temperature range (390- 450) ºc. The reaction rate constant has been increased with temperature (0.15903- 0.9183) min-1 at the same range of temperature above according to Arrhenius model equation modeled Bovier and Gelus, which can be used to estimate the kinetic parameters .the activation energy of reaction is found to be 1.33 kcal/mol. , whereas the frequency factor is equal to 1x 10-8 l/mol. sec. From comparison between theoretical and experimental conversion due to the same model above it could be seen that there is a good agreement between theoretical and experimental results and higher temperatures (390-450) ºc but become worse of low temperatures (200-350) ºc.


Article
Developed Method of Information Hiding in Video AVI File Based on Hybrid Encryption and Steganography

Authors: Susan S. Ghazoul --- Yossra H. Ali --- Ashawq T. Hashim
Pages: 359-373
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Abstract

This paper produces a development of an AVI Hiding Information System (HIS) based on steganography techniques to prevent intruders to obtain the transmitted information. This work is based on a combination of steganography and cryptography techniques to increase the level of security and to make the system more complex to be defeated by attackers. In this work AVI file is separated into two parts, video and audio. The video is a stream of frames; each frame is stored as a bmp file image and a number of frames required or needed to be used as a cover are chosen. The algorithm that is used for encryption is the Type-3 Feistel Network of The 128-bits block size improved Blowfish encryption it is a symmetric uses a variable-length up to 129 bytes, making it useful for both domestic and exportable use and a variable-length key would make cryptoanalysis more difficult for potential attackers. Two methods of hiding are used in this work, the first method is the Least Significant Bit (LSB) and the second is the Haar Wavelet Transform (HWT). The proposed HIS system was tested using standard subjective measures such as Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). All of the measures obtained as the test results indicate good results for PSNR (above 50db) and they increase when the number of frames used as a cover increases.

Keywords


Article
Detection of Hidden Object In Speech Based on Fast Fourier Transform Algorithm

Authors: Mahmud k. Kadum
Pages: 374-385
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Abstract

In this paper steganalysis technique is proposed on the basis of spectral domain analysis using Discrete Fourier Transform, Fast Fourier Transform Algorithm (DFT_FFTA). The aim from using this algorithm is to provide robust evidence for presence of hidden object in speech segment. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is used to decompose the speech segment, 20 seconds in length. The speech is decomposed to the third level. An image of 512x512 pixels embedded in the third level of the speech coefficients. Reverse Discrete Wavelet Transform (RDWT) is applied to get a speech with hidden object (image) called stego-speech. DFT_FFTA is used to analyze the stego-speech to discover an evidence of hidden object in the stegospeech .Experimental results shows that the proposed algorithm is comparable to previously existing techniques and give very clear and strong indication for the existence of stego-object


Article
Intrusion Detection and Attack Classifier Based on Three Techniques: A Comparative Study

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Abstract

Different soft-computing based methods have been proposed in recent years for the development of intrusion detection systems. The purpose of this work is to development, implement and evaluate an anomaly off-line based intrusion detection system using three techniques; data mining association rules, decision trees, and artificial neural network, then comparing among them to decide which technique is better in its performance for intrusion detection system. Several methods have been proposed to modify these techniques to improve the classification process. For association rules, the majority vote classifier was modified to build a new classifier that can recognize anomalies. With decision trees, ID3 algorithm was modified to deal not only with discreet values, but also to deal with numerical values. For neural networks, a back-propagation algorithm has been used as the learning algorithm with different number of input patterns (118, 51, and 41) to introduce the important knowledge about the intruder to the neural networks. Different types of normalization methods were applied on the input patterns to speed up the learning process. The full 10% KDD Cup 99 train dataset and the full correct test dataset are used in this work. The results of the proposed techniques show that there is an improvement in the performance comparing to the standard techniques, furthermore the Percentage of Successful Prediction (PSP) and Cost Per Test (CPT) of neural networks and decision trees are better than association rules. On the other hand, the training time for neural network takes longer time than the decision trees.


Article
Anti-Hepatotoxic Effect of the Methanolic Anstatica Hierochuntica Extract In Ccl 4- Treated Rats

Authors: Hasan F.Al-Azzawie
Pages: 413-423
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Abstract

The study was investigated the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Anastatica hierochuntica using carbon tetra chloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The levels of liver enzymes glutamate oxaloacetate transminase , glutamate pyruvate transminase ,alkaline phosphatase ,total Protein, total and direct bilirubin, in addition to Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase activities ,glutathione malondialdehyde and total antioxidant status levels were evaluated in experimental rats (with or without CCl4- inducedhepatotoxicity)following intake of 100 mg/kg p.o alcoholic Anastatica hierochuntica extract by using standard procedures compared with standard silymarin at a dose of 100 mg/kg p.o. Results showed that methanolic extract at a dose level of 100 mg/kg had a significant decrease(p<0.05) in activities of serum liver enzymes, glutamate oxaloacetate transminase , glutamate pyruvate transminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and protein were significantly decreased in rats treated with CCl4 after 4 weeks compared to that of silymarin group in addition to the methanolic extract had antioxidant activity through decreasing activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase to levels in control rats group. Histopathology of a liver tissue of the animals treated with the extract was also studied to monitor the liver status. The liver biopsy of all experimental rat groups treated with the methanolic Anastatica hierochuntica extract showed significant restoration of the normal histomorphologic pattern of liver cells. From the above results, it is concluded for the first time that methanolic Anastatica hierochuntica extract offers protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental rats.

Keywords

Table of content: volume:29 issue:2