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Engineering and Technology Journal

مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا

ISSN: 16816900 24120758
Publisher: University of Technology
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal aims to disseminate knowledge in the fields of Engineering, Technology and Sciences .All the researches will submit to the scientific evaluation procedures of publishing and documentation. The journal under takes only the publishing of the new researches that had not been published previously on other journals or debated in conferences.

The Instructions of Submitting The Research to Scientific Evaluation:
a- The research should be Submitted in 4 copies in Arabic or English Languages, auther's name should be eliminated from 2 copies only. The abstract should be typed on the front page not exceeding (150 words) in both Arabic and English on size (A4) sheet. Pages should be numbered and not more than (15) page.
b- The researcher should fill a declaration form which states that he doesn't publish the research during the evaluation period. He must give his full address phone number and e-mail.

Firstly- The author should pay a fee of (ID55000) when he submits the research and a fee of (ID55000) when the research is accepted .These fees are obligatory for all. The sum cannot be reimbursed in any case.
Secondly- The annual subscription in the journal inside Iraq is ID250000) Iraqi dinar, and outside Iraq is (us $250) abroad.
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Engineering and Technology Journal
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The responsibilities of the Engineering & Technology Journal can be defined as:
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ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
Scientific Refereed Journal Issued by University of Technology, IRAQ
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جمهورية العراق –بغداد
الجامعة التكنولوجية- مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا- ص.ب. 35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq
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Journal website:
http://uotechnology.edu.iq/tec_magaz/EN/index.htm
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Republic of Iraq, Baghdad
University of Technology, Engineering & Technology Journal.
P.O.Box.35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq

Email: uot_magaz@yahoo.com
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Google Scholar Citations:
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Table of content: 2011 volume:29 issue:3

Article
Some Factors Effecting on the Dielectric Strength for (PVC- Kaolin) Composites
تأثير بعض العوامل في متانة العزل الكهربائي لمتراكبات (PVC- كاولين )

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Abstract

This research includes the effect of kaolin additions to the polymer matrix (PVC) and study some factors affecting to dielectric strength. The kaolin powder was added as percentage by weight (1,2,3 and 4%) to PVC, and the specimens formed by hot pressing method, with different thickness (0.8-2 mm). Some of the results was showed decrease in the electrical strength with kaolin additives, especially for large thickness due to presence of lattice water, which has high dielectric constant but in the same time has high dielectric loss factor, where the electrical strength decrease when dielectric loss factor increases. Thus the influence of leakage currents is evident in the large thickness as a result of the electro-thermal effects. Electrical strength was decreased when the time rate of raising voltage increases. The effect of the cycles number of breakdown for composite specimens was studded. Also the dielectric strength decreased with temperature increases. Optical microscopy images for breakdown region was shown the carbonization in the breakdown points as a result of crashing polymers chains. Also, micro cracks occurring for specimens that has large amount of kaolin and this cracks extend directly from the breakdown region.


Article
Study of Spectroscopy and Thermodynamic Properties for Germanium Tetrafluoride GeF4 Molecular and Study of Potential Energy Curve for Bond (Ge-F)
دراسة الخواص الطيفية والحرارية لجزيئة رابع فلوريد الجرمانيوم GeF4 ودراسة منحني الجهد للأصرة Ge-F

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Abstract

In This research Complete study Spectroscopic and Thermodynamic properties for molecule GeF4 . This included calculation of potential energy curve . from this curve total energy of molecule at equilibrium distance calculated , for bond (Ge - F) the degenerated of (Ge -F ) bond was (2.99 ev) instate of that the vibration modes of GeF4 and frequency in IR spectra region because variable of dipole moment for molecule. Also we calculated Thermodynamic properties for GeF4 such as Heat of formation , Enthalpy , Heat of Capacity and Entropy Were (-290.231 kcal/mol , 4198.48kcal/mol , 19.61 kcal /k/mol , 82.25 kcal /k /mol,) respectively all at room temperature and one atmosphere ( 298 k , 1 atm.) , and we calculated this properties at various temperature from ( 100 – 3000 ) K . The calculated results are in a good agreement with experimental results


Article
Thinking Skills in Architectural Work A Study of Thinking Skill Levels at Student of Architecture
المهارة الفكرية في العمل المعماري ( دراسة عن مستويات التفكير عند الطالب المعماري)

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Abstract

A skill is the learned capacity to carry out pre-determined results often with the minimum outlay of time, energy, or both . Skills can often be divided into domain - general and domain - specific skills . An architect should ideally be a person possessing large variety of skills and capabilities like : good communication, shows strong drawing able to solve problem, capable in abstract thinking and seeing the wider context of things and believes in collaboration. In practice, architects usually are good at technologies, project work, but in the previous studies they seem a lacking of framework knowledge about thinking skills and their levels in architectural education , and that what the research problem concentrates on .To achieve this it is necessary to : formulate conceptual framework about thinking skills which consists of three layers : first, the nature of thinking (kind and its direction), second productive thinking strategies , and third the necessary skills to fulfill the design process which consists of eight skills , and the application focuses on four ; focusing skills, organizing skills, analyzing skills and generating skills which applied on texts written by the students themselves . This paper shows that the significant skill was focusing skills, where the students attending to selected piece of information and ignoring others by well defining problem .


Article
Transient Thermal Stress Prediction Due To Flow of Coolant Through Hot Pipe

Authors: Anes F. Saad --- Jalal M. Jalil
Pages: 423-433
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Abstract

Transient thermal stresses in pipe wall due to coolant turbulent flow through pipe are investigated in this study with transient isothermal hot boundary in the external pipe radius. Three Different values of Reynolds are tested (3000, 5000 and 8000). Finite volume method was used to calculate the velocities and temperatures fields in the working fluid (air). Thermal resistance method was used to calculate the transient temperature distribution in the pipe wall and then the transient thermal stresses were calculated. Minimum thermal stress was located nearly in the mid plane of the pipe.

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Article
Three-Dimensional Flow Model for The Downstream of Kuffa Barrage

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Abstract

The three-dimensional numerical computational fluid dynamics “CFD” computer program "SSIIM" was used to predict the flow field downstream the Kuffa Barrage. It solved the Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes equations in three dimensions to compute the water flow and used the finite-volume method as the discretization scheme. The model was based on a three dimensional, nonorthogonal, structured grid with a non-staggered variable placement. The comparison between filed measurements and numerical results were considered to make the correct decision in this model. The results showed that the maximum velocities were inclined from the river center. The determination coefficients for distribution of velocities ranged from 0.94 to 0.96.


Article
Applicable Studies of the Slow Electrons Motion in Air with Application in the Ionosphere

Authors: S. S. Dawood --- F. G. Hamudy --- M. I. Ismaeel --- I. G. Faiadh
Pages: 442-461
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Abstract

In this study, the motions of slow electrons in air and nitrogen with it's mixtures are studies by details. We solved numerically Boltzmann transport equation to calculate the parameters E, Vd and D/m have been possible to deduce expression empirical formula from which may be derived the drift velocity, collisional frequencies, electronic temperature and mean energy loss per collision. These results applied to the ionosphere allow electronic collisional frequencies to be ready found in the ionosphere below 94 km, from the pressure of the air. The collision cross-sections of the molecules of air and nitrogen when the electronics temperature is less than about 2600°K. The addition results are presented for electrons drifting through air in a steady state of motion under the action of the electric field, such as, KT, U, Q, Q0, ω, ω/P,h, hKT , and W/D for both Maxwell and Druyvesteyn distribution laws. This parameters are graphically as a functions for their variables. The results appeared excellent agreements with the experiments and theoretical data.


Article
Edge Detection Based on Standard Deviation Value and Back Propagation Algorithm of Artificial Neural Network

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Abstract

This paper presents a proposed neural network based edge detection algorithm. we have used artificial neural network system to decide about whether each pixel is edge or not. First standard deviation values are computed for mask (3*3), Then after training a neural network system to recognize structural patterns (these pattern represents edges), it decides on each pixel if its edge or not. Finally we have test the proposed method on different images. Experimental results show the ability and high performance of proposed algorithm.


Article
A Study Of Some Hydrological Aspects For Spillway Design of A Small Dam In The North of Iraq

Authors: Sahar A. Mohammad
Pages: 470-476
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Abstract

This research is to evaluation and analyzing the main aspects of spillway design for Chaq-Chaq dam in north of Iraq in Suleimaniya governorate, with help of the hydraulic, hydrologic and climate data collecting. Four different distribution models are used in order to conduct the analysis required to find the different return periods of flood, based on the expected daily rainfall depth, also the result was compared with the study of Sogreah consulting company .Analysis of data shows that the length of the spillway of Chaq-Chaq dam should be increased by about 206% to accommodate the maximum flood discharge according to Extreme Value type I distribution with return period of 1000 year.


Article
Experimental Investigations Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Characteristics of Flow Through Circular Tube Fitted With Drilled Cut-Conical Rings

Authors: Ameer A. Jadoaa
Pages: 477-487
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Abstract

The heat transfer rate and pressure drop characteristics of turbulent flow of air through uniformly heated circular tube fitted with drilled cut conical rings with three space ratios (X=5.4, 6.4, and 8.4) have been studied experimentally. The flow characteristics are governed by space ratio (the ratio of the distance between drilled conical ring and the inner diameter of tube), Reynolds number, and drilled conical ring diameter to inner diameter of tube. The goal of the present work is to investigate the effect of drilling of the cut conical ring turbulators (with constant ring to tube diameter ratio) and space ratio on heat transfer, friction factor, and enhancement efficiency under ranging of Reynolds number from 5000 to 23500.In addition, correlation for Nusselt number, friction factor and performance evaluation criteria to assess the real benefits in using the drilled-conical ring turbulator of the enhanced tube are determined. The results show that the process of drilling of the conical ring inside tube gives high rates of heat transfer more than that in the conical ring without drilling.

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Article
Poisson's Ratio as a Function of Time in Composite Material of Viscoelastic Behavior by Depending on Creep Test

Authors: Azhar Sabah Ameed
Pages: 488-498
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Abstract

In viscoelastic behavior of composite material, such as those made of thermo-set polyester and one layer random fiber glass, the Poisson’s ratio is described in new function of time and stress. The relaxation stress is obtained experimentally to describe the non-linear viscoelastic behavior in composite material. The results show that, Poisson’s ratio increases with an approximate rate of 16% as a result of the increasing stress from 6.877 MPa to 8.239 MPa and decreases with increasing the time at constant temperature 30 Co. The investigation demonstrated that such time dependence is not a necessary consequence of the theory of viscoelasticity to describe viscoelasticity behavior.


Article
Design and Implementation Web Site for UOT Using Mobile Devices

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Abstract

A mobile phone allows its user to make and receive telephone calls to and from the public telephone network which includes other mobiles and fixed-line phones across the world. In addition to being a telephone modern mobile phones also support many additional services, and accessories. such as SMS (or text) messages, e-mail, Web access, gaming, Bluetooth and infrared short range wireless communication, camera. The Mobile Web refers to the use of Internet-connected applications, or browser-based access to the Internet from a mobile device - such as a Smartphone or tablet PC - connected to a wireless network. In this paper, we design and build an web application on the mobile devices and access to the web services to display the university of technology website.

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Mobile device --- UOT --- SQL --- database --- sdf


Article
Effective Web Page Crawler

Authors: Isra’a Tahseen Ali --- Hilal Hadi Saleh
Pages: 513-530
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Abstract

The World Wide Web (WWW) has grown from a few thousand pages in 1993 to more than eight billion pages at present. Due to this explosion in size, web search engines are becoming increasingly important as the primary means of locating relevant information. This research aims to build a crawler that crawls the most important web pages, a crawling system has been built which consists of three main techniques. The first is Best-First Technique which is used to select the most important page. The second is Distributed Crawling Technique which based on UbiCrawler. It is used to distribute the URLs of the selected web pages to several machines. And the third is Duplicated Pages Detecting Technique by using a proposed document fingerprint algorithm.


Article
Structural and Optical Properties of Lead Iodide Thin Films Prepared By Vacuum Evaporation Method

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Abstract

Structural and optical properties were studied as a function of films thickness for thermally evaporation PbI2 films. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that PbI2 films are polycrystalline having hexagonal structure. The optical absorption data indicate an allowed direct transmission with optical energy gap varies continuously from ( 2.15eV to 2.33eV) . The energy gap shows thickness dependence, which can be explained qualitatively by a thickness dependence of grain size through the decrease of the grain boundary barrier height with grain size. The low fluctuation in energy gap indicates that the grain size is quite small, which is finding in agreement with AFM results.


Article
On Left s -Centralizers Of Jordan Ideals And Generalized Jordan Left (s ,t ) -Derivations Of Prime Rings

Authors: Abdulrahman H. Majeed --- Anwar Khaleel Faraj
Pages: 544-553
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Abstract

In this paper we generalize the result of S. Ali and C. Heatinger on left s - centralizer of semiprime ring to Jordan ideal, we proved that if R is a 2-torsion free prime ring, U is a Jordan ideal of R and G is an additive mapping from R into itself satisfying the conditionG(ur + ru) = G(u)s (r) + G(r)s (u) , for all uÎU, r ÎR . Then G(ur) = G(u)s (r) , for all uÎU, r ÎR . Also, we extend the result of S. M. A. Zaidi, M. Ashraf and S. Ali on left (s ,s )-derivation of prime ring to Jordan ideal by introducing the concept of generalized Jordan left (s ,t )- derivation.


Article
Detection of Water-Table by Using Ground Penetration Radar (GPR)

Authors: Ahmed Fouad Nashait --- Mundher Ali Seger
Pages: 554-566
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Abstract

Ground penetrating radar, GPR, is a high resolution geophysical method, which is based on the propagation of high frequency electromagnetic waves. The GPR method images structures in the ground that are related to changes in dielectric properties. In sediments, water content primarily causes the changes in dielectric properties. Therefore GPR can be used to estimate underground watertable. In this study a GPR system has been used successfully to produce a continuous profile of the water table on the (Said Abdullah bin Al-Hassan Shrine) as a study area, which is located in Al-Yousifyah region to the south of Baghdad. Geotechnical field test to underground water determination by the drilling method commonly used to comparing the results between geotechnical field test and GPR test. Thus, GPR has proven to be an effective detection method for underground water level, and can serve as reference for future applications.


Article
Residual Stress effect on Fatigue Behavior of 2024- Aluminum alloy

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In the present work the effect of residual stress on the fatigue behavior of 2024 Aluminum alloy was studied experimentally and numerically using finite element method with aid of ANSYS-11 software. All the test specimens treated by annealing before any process to remove the internal stresses due to cold work. Residual stresses were imparted to the fatigue tests specimens by heat treatment, pre-strain and welding. X-Ray diffraction was used to measure the residual stress. The heat treatment; done on the test specimens with different temperature of (420, 450, 480, and 510) oC. After heat treatment; alloy mechanical properties were improved. For the heat treated specimens as the temperature increased the compressive residual stress increased to (27.06, 41.43, 72.8 and 85.6) MPa. That leads to increase the endurance fatigue limit by (32.93%, 40.48%, 50.68% and 61.03%) respectively than other alloy as received. While in pre strain groups; the test specimens loaded to (265, 290, 315 and 340) MPa by a tension test machine. As the applied load series were increased the compressive residual stress increased to (16.51, 25.62, 51.54 and 62.44) MPa which improve the endurance fatigue limit by (7.68%, 16.19%, 24.98%, and 46.45%), respectively. An electrical arc and metal inert gas were used in welding series to weld the test specimens, that present a tensile residual stress of (76.93 and 72.66) MPa, which reduces the endurance fatigue limit by (23.45% and 16.08%), respectively. The numerical results present fatigue behavior, deflection and stress at any load, and show a reasonable agreement results with an experimental one.


Article
Smith Predictor with Simple Control Scheme for Higher Order Systems

Authors: Qussay S.Tawfeeq --- Nasir.A.Al-awad --- Ekhlas H. Karam
Pages: 579-594
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Abstract

A simple control scheme with smith predictor connection is proposed in this paper for time delay higher order systems. The control scheme is simply integral (I) controller with Proportional Derivative(PD)-Sliding mode controller(SMC). The initial values for the P,I, and D parameters are taken from the reduced model of the higher order system. Additional feedback sliding mode control (FSMC) is also used to reduce the effect of uncertainty in the prediction time delay values. A number of examples are tested and compared with other control methods like robust PID controller with smith predictor and Direct synthesis method with smith predictor to illustrate the efficient performance for the proposed control scheme.


Article
Removal of Heavy Metals Using Chemicals Precipitation

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The single component and multi-component hydroxide precipitation and adsorption were studied for different heavy metals namely Iron (III), Chromium (III), Copper (II), Lead (II), Nickel (II), and Cadmium (II) from aqueous solutions. By using the jar tester Magnesia (MgO) was used as a precipitator at different doses and compared with other chemicals like lime (CaO) and caustic soda (NaOH). The treatment involves the addition of either magnesia or lime-water suspensions (combined with cationic polyelectrolyte, CPE) in various doses, 1.0 – 5.0 g/l for the metal samples to study the effect of varying doses on the treatment efficiency. The results show that the percent removal of metal ions increases to about 99 % with increasing the MgO dose to some limits. The optimum values of MgO doses were found to be 1.5-3.0 g/l. The pH value ranges are 9.5 to 10 with MgO precipitant and pH of 11.5 to 12 with CaO precipitant. In the jar experiment the rotation speed, N, 180-200 rpm, (G of 460-480 s-1) of mixing for two minutes was the most favorable speed of rapid mixing and the slow mixing speed of 15-30 rpm, G of (14-35 s-1), for twenty minutes gave the best results.At the best operating conditions of the pilot plant, the removal efficiency of metal ions was more than 97% at doses of MgO (1.0-4.0 g/l).


Article
Solutions of Dynamic Fractional Order Differential Algebraic Equations System

Authors: Alauldin Noori Ahmed
Pages: 613-624
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In this paper, we are presented the existence and uniqueness theorem, and two proposed methods, based on the theory of Gunwald-Letnikov fractional order derivative. In the first method, the variational approach is implemented, while in the second method, the fractional difference approach is implemented. Dynamic test example is presented to each proposed method, to demonstrate their computational algorithm.


Article
Improving a Model for Speed / Density Relationship on Arterial Roads in Baghdad City

Authors: Abeer Khudher Jameel
Pages: 625-638
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This paper was undertaken to investigate the relationships between speed and density on urban arterial roads of Baghdad City. This research work was based on the traffic survey data (PC volume and average speed) collected in Palestine Street in 3 sections at two directions through 12 hours within 3 weekdays. The density is computed using fundamental formula of traffic flow. Eight theoretical Speed-Density models (5 are single Regime Models and 3 are Multi-Regime models) are validated by the field data by two statistical test methods (CHISQ test and Paired T-test). The results show that no one of the theoretical models is good in fit with the real data. Then a Multi-Regime Model is improved under two ranges of density (<70 and >70) at south approach and (<60 and >60) at north appraoch . This model is tested using regression analysis, CHISQ test, and Paired T-test. This analysis shows that the model has good fit with the field data.

Table of content: volume:29 issue:3