جدول المحتويات

مجلة زراعة الرافدين العراقية

ISSN: 1815316X
الجامعة: جامعة الموصل
الكلية: الزراعة والغابات
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين لأول مرة عام 1966 واستمرت لغاية عام 1982، وتوقفت بعد ذلك لمدة ثلاث سنوات بسبب القرار الوزاري بتوزيع المجلات العلمية على الجامعات العراقية وحسب الاختصاصات حيث كانت حصة العلوم الزراعية لجامعة صلاح الدين التي أصدرت المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية (زانكو)، وكانت المجلة الوحيدة في العلوم الزراعية في وزارة التعليم العالي والبحث العلمي ، ثم صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين مرة أخرى وذلك في عام 1986 واستمرت إلى عام 2000 إذ تم اعتماد مجلة زراعة الرافدين مجلة قطرية وبهذا تم تغير اسمها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية . وحصلت على الرقم الدولي ISSN 1609-4077 واستمرت بالصدور إلى المجلة إلى عام 2004 إذ تم إعادة اسم المجلة إلى مجلة زراعة الرافدين واعتبرت مجلة قطرية – دورية-علمية – محكمة وحصلت على الرقم الدولي الجديد ISSN 1815-316X وصدر المجلد 33 العدد 1 وهو تسلسل مجلة زراعة الرافدين إذ أن المجلة أصدرت 32 مجلد قبل تحويلها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية. واستمرت المجلة في الصدور إلى الوقت الحاضر 2012 المجلد (40) .

كانت المجلة عند صدورها عام 1966 بعدد واحد سنوياً، وحالياً تصدر بأربعة أعداد دورية لكل سنة. ولابد من الإشارة إلى أن المجلة في بداية إصدارها عام 1966 كان يضم العدد خمسة بحوث باللغة الانكليزية، وتزايدت في الوقت الحاضر لتضم 30 بحثاً باللغتين العربية والانكليزية .

حصلت المجلة خلال مدة عملها على تقييمات وزارية عالية فقد حصلت هيئة التحرير في عام 1996 على كتاب شكر وتقدير من السيد الوزير لتميز المجلة ، كما اعتبرت المجلة متميزة في عام 2009 أيضا إذ حصلت على درع الوزارة وشهادة تقديرية .وقد حصلت المجلة في سنة 2012 على الاعتمادية الدولية وبالتالي اصبحت في متناول جميع دول العالم .

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معلومات الاتصال

E-mail:agrimeso@yahoo.com

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2008 المجلد: 36 العدد: 1

Article
MEASURING QUANTITATIVE FOR THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL LOANS IN THE GROWTH OF AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT FOR SELECTED ARAB COUNTRIES BY USING THE METHOD OF TWO STAGE LEAST SQUARE METHOD
القياس الكمي لأثر القروض الزراعية في نمو الناتج الزراعي لدول عربية مختارة باستخدام طريقة

المؤلفون: Hanaa’ S. Daowd هناء سلطان داؤد
الصفحات: 4-13
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الخلاصة

This research aims studying the affecting of agricultural loans in the growth of agricultural output for the selected Arab countries: Jordan, Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Morocco. For the purpose of measuring this impact, in order to prove the hypothesis of the research that included distinctness agricultural loans in the growth rates of agricultural output in the selected sample of Arab States has been using method two-stage least squares that required, the use of time-series data for agricultural loans during the period 1980-2003 as dependent variable and interest rate on the total agricultural loans and capital accumulation s independent variable in the first phase and the second phase included the annual growth rate of agricultural output for the same period as dependent variable that estimated total agricultural loans in the first phase. One of the most important conclusions, it was found that the increase in aggregate impact on agricultural loans to increase the annual growth rate of agricultural output in the Arab countries selected but this increase varied between these countries.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
INHIBITORY EFFECT OF TANNIC ACID EXTRACTED FROM GRAPE SEEDS AND POMEGRANATE PEELS ON SOME MICROORGANISMS
التاثير المثبط لحامض التانيك المستخلص من بذور العنب وقشور الرمان في بعض الاحياء المجهرية

المؤلفون: Hamed S.Mohammed حامد صالح محمود
الصفحات: 12-18
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الخلاصة

The study included extraction of tannic acid from grape seeds and pomegranate peels , their content of tannic acid were 4.1 and 27.6 g/100g ( dry weight), respectively .The quality tests which done on extracted tannic acid from both sources showed positive results, where the increasing tannic acid concentration leads to increase killing effect on studied microorganisms especially at highest concentration (2%) .These results showed that extracted tannic acid from both sources can be used as preservation material in food processing and component of cosmetic materials and pharmacological drugs.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT SUPPORT POLICIS ON ALL FROM THE PRODUCTING AND CONSUMPTION CROP WHEAT IRAQ FOR TH PERIOD
اثر سياسات الدعم في الانتاج والاستهلاك لمحصول القمح في العراق للمدة (1985-2005)

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الخلاصة

The price proving issues considers one of the most issues that is most of the world countries suffering from it because of the direct connected with the people life and with their lived levels this is from one side, and national economics systematizing (supply and demand) from another side. As we know, The wheat crop is an importance food strategy crop that is we must interest in it with specifically for food secure requirements and inquest the self-security that is all needed concerning with studies the supporting policies and affected it on producing and consumption in the wheat crop. In this research we shall focus on wheat price support by considering an important food commodities for the Iraqi people, therefore the state aimed from the support policies for this crop specifically to stability prices it in the market and saving it for the people that their having limited income and it saving the motive for the producer to continued the producing and development the producing. It is show that trend timer general chronological taken ascend facing to all of the producing and consumption with increasing rate assumed (-2.70) and 0.65 on the successively through mentioned period. confirm the analysis found the policies that Iraq country to follow it trend wheat crop have positive effect on the producer welfare (his income and his profit level) since the study time.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF HIGH LEVELS OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPOURS FERTILIZER, PINCHING, AND SEED RATE ON GROWTH AND YIELD COMPONENTES OF Nigella sativa L.
تأثير المستويات العالية من السماد النتروجيني والفوسفاتي، القرط، ونسبة البذور المزروعة في النمو الخضري ومكونات البذور لنبات حبة البركة (Nigella sativa L )

المؤلفون: Yousif H. Hammo يوسف حسين حمو
الصفحات: 19-29
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الخلاصة

Field experiment was conducted during the season 2005-2006 in Singar - Mosul city to investigate the effects of high level (280 N, 260 P2O5) kg ha-1 and very high level (320 N, 300 P2O5) kg ha-1 fertilizer, pinch and without pinch, and plant seed rate sowing (0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2) g/10m2 cultivated within 3, 4, 5, 6 rows respectively in (10) m2 plot area on growth and yield of Nigella sativa L. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results indicated that. Very high level of nitrogen and phosphorus caused a significant increase in plant length, stem diameter, fresh weight, plant seed yield and total seeds yield kg/ha, were as branches number, and fruits number cannot be effected significantly by previous factor. Pinching causes a significantly increased in branches number, fruits number, while plant high decreased significantly. Increased seed rate sowing from 0.6 to 1.2 g/10m2 caused a significant increasing in branches number, fresh weight, and plant seeds yield, while stem diameter, and fruits number didn’t effected significantly by this factor except total seeds yield kg/ha which increased significantly when seed rate sowing are increased to 1.2g/10m2 and they reach 651.85, 843.56, 1076.51, 1232.67 kg/ha for the four seed rate consecutively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
VARIATION IN DISTRIBUTING AGRICULTURAL INCOME (A STUDY IN RURAL POVERTY) “DEVELOPING STATES FOR THE YEAR 2003” AS AN EXAMPLE
التفاوت في توزيع الدخل الزراعي (دراسة في الفقر الريفي) "دول نامية لعام 2003 أنموذجا"

المؤلفون: Alaa M. Abdullah آلاء محمد عبد الله
الصفحات: 24-32
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الخلاصة

The importance of the research comes to show the effect of variation in income distribution upon the rates of agricultural product in selective developing countries for the years 2003 by applying a hypothesis which says that poverty may lead to more income variation and more rural poverty in developing countries .The research aims at studying this relationship and to have an answer for the following question :Can an agricultural growth be achieved with the existence of large variation in income distribution ?The statistical results by using the simple square method f two stages 2SLS appeared the positive and significant relationship for the variance of agricultural work to the total work X2 and inflation rate X4 in affecting Gini Coefficient .The increase in value X2 & X4 by 20.6 and 0.41 units respectively and this will produce effects with the same direction in increasing the variance level for distributing in come .The variance of agricultural work ratio to the number of population X3 has confirmed that it has negative and significant effect in Gini Coefficient throughout its index by 46.1 units .As for the increases taken place in Gini Coefficient it has produced small increases in the rate of annual agricultural product to the total domestic product .The value of index in Gini is estimated 0.10 units and shows that the growth of income distribution which represents Gini Coefficient participates actively in affecting rtes of agricultural product for a sample of studied countries .This will lead to an increase of rural poverty in a short term .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ROLE OF SUPPLEMENTAL IRRIGATION AND FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON YIELD COMPONENT OF WHEAT (Triticum durum L.)
دور الري التكميلي ومعاملات التسميد في مكونات حاصل الحنطة (Triticum durum L. )

المؤلفون: D. A. Darwesh دلشاد عزيز درويش
الصفحات: 30-45
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الخلاصة

Field experiment was conducted in Girdarasha fields, College of Agriculture .Salahaddin University during the growing season 2006 to study the effect of different levels of nitrogen (0,92,184 Kg N.ha-1) , phosphorus (0,92,184Kg P2O5.ha1) ,potassium (0,120Kg K2O.ha1) , magnesium (0,40 Kg MgO.ha-1) and their combinations on yield component of wheat under rainfed and supplemental irrigation by using factorial Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Nitrogen application had a significant effect at (p≥0.05) on weight of total dry matter, grain and straw under rainfed and supplemental irrigation. Highest values (5.09,2.20,2.89) and (8.89 ,4.28,4.61) Mg.ha-1 were recorded from (N1and N2) treatments under rainfed and supplemental irrigation respectively, application of P1 gave highest weight of total dry matter, grain and straw(4.76,2.07,2.69 and 9.37,4.25,5.12) Mg.ha-1 under rainfed and supplemental irrigation. Application of potassium fertilizer caused an increase in weight of total dry matter,grain and straw. .In general combination between fertilizers affected significantly (P≥0.05)on weight of total dry matter, grain and straw under both rainfed and supplemental irrigation. Highest values( 5.79 , 2.86, 3.40) and (10.8, 4.88, 5.97) Mg.ha-1 were recorded from combination treatments (N2P1K0Mg0 ,N2P1K1Mg0, N1P0K1Mg1) and (N1P1K0Mg0, N1P2K1Mg0, N1P1K0Mg0) under rainfed and supplemental irrigation respectively, while lowest values (2.20 ,0.60 ,1.48) and (4.13 ,1.53 ,2.33) were recorded in (N0P0K0Mg0 ,N0P0K0Mg0, N0P0K0Mg1) and (N0P0K0Mg1 ,N0P0K0Mg1, N2P0K0Mg0) under rainfed and supplemental irrigation respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
AN ECONOMICAL STUDY OF LENTIL CROP PRODUCTION IN NINEVA PROVINNCE FOR AGRICULTURAL SEASON 2005
دراسة اقتصادية قياسية لإنتاج محصول الحمص في محافظة نينوى للموسم الزراعي /2005

المؤلفون: S. M. Aluzbaky سالم محمد صالح اليوزبكي
الصفحات: 33-35
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الخلاصة

This study include the limiting of production volume of crop for the farmers of shekan area in Nineveh his volume was (160) kg/donum as the result show the optimum volume (140) kg/donum and the volume of gains maximizing was (245)kg/donum ,the farmers get only usual gains but they not reach to production level which maximizing their gains the average of income (160000) dinar per donum, where the costs was (63920) dinars/donum there for the gains average(96080) dinar/donum.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF GIBBERELLIC ACID AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON GROWTH OF DWARF ARALIA Schefflera arboricola
تأثير الرش بحامض الجبرليك والتسميد النتروجيني في تنمية نباتات الارالياSchefflera arboricola

المؤلفون: A.A. Aم-Mukhtar عبلة احمد خطاب
الصفحات: 36-44
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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted with aim to improve the growth of Dwarf Aralias Schefflera arboricola plants, taken from vegetative propagation by apical stem cuttings. The plants sprayed twice with three concentrations of gibberellic acid 0, 100 and 200 mg/L. and fertilized with 0, 150 and 300 mg N/L. by adding 100 ml/15cm standard plastic pot/week. The results showed: The significant largest values of plant height 25.75 cm, internodes length 1.01 cm, total chlorophyll 15.05 mg/g fresh weight and phosphor percentage 0.282%, obtained when plants sprayed with 100 mg/Land fertilized with 300 mg N/l. While spraying plant with 100 and 200 mg/l GA3 only gave significantly largest values of leaves number/plant. On the other hand, significantly higher values of fresh and dry weight of vegetative growth, longest root length, fresh and dry weight of roots obtained when plants fertilized with 300 mg N/l. In general, plants sprayed with 100 mg/L. GA3 and fertilized with 300 mg N/L gave best plants.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECTS OF BENZYLADENINE, CYCOCEL AND SOME PRESERVATIVE SOLUTIONS ON VASELIFE INFLORESCENCES OF Gerbera jamesonii
تأثير البنزايل أدنين والسايكوسيل وبعض المحاليل الحافظة في العمر التنسيقي لنورات نبات الجربيرا Gerbera jamesonii

المؤلفون: H. S. S. Al – Qarakolly هالة شاكر ستار
الصفحات: 45-55
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الخلاصة

The experiment was carried out on Gerbera jamesonii cv. Estafette (red inflorescence) and Essandre (yellow inflorescence), to investigated the effect of different concentrations of plant growth regulators include: Benzyl adenine (BA), Cycocel (CCC) in combination with four preservatives solutions which include: distilled water, 10% sucrose, 400 mg.l-1 8-hydroxy quinolinsulphate (8-HQS) and solution contain 10% sucrose+400 mg.l-1 8-HQS. The factorial experiment was conducted by using complete randomized design. Each treatment was replicated three times with four inflorescences for treatment. The results showed: that there were significant differences between cultivars in vaselife, Estafette inflorescences stay 9.57 days compared with 8.68 days for cv. Essandre inflorescences. On other hand, spraying the plants with 250 mg.l-1 increased vaselife to 9.84 days. In general, the inflorescences taken from plants sprayed with BA at 250 and 500 mg.l-1 for Estafette cultivar and 250 mg.l-1 for Essandre, then holding in solution contain 10% sucrose and 400 mg.l-1 8-HQS gave best results 12.50, 10.50 and 10.0 days vase life, respectively, lowest decrease in fresh weight percent and bent neck.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF SOME AGRICULTURAL TREATMENTS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF LETTUCE Lactuca sativa L.
تأثير بعض المعاملات الزراعية في نمو وحاصل الخس Lactuca sativa L.

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted in vegetable farm in the college of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University during 2003-2004 growing season to investigate the effects of two sowing dates: the Sept.20th and Oct. 20th, two planting methods of seedling: plots and furrows and with the application of nitrogen fertilizer (Urea 46% N) at rates 0 and 60 Kg/Donnum applied at two doses with three methods of splitting: 1- Half of the total amount was added after two weeks from transplanting and the other half was added at 21 days prior to harvest (30 + 30Kg Urea /Donnum). 2- One third of the total amount added after two weeks from transplanting and the other two thirds was added at 21 days prior to harvest (20 + 40Kg Urea/Donnum). 3- Two thirds of the total amount added two weeks from transplanting and the other one third added at 21 days prior to the harvest (40 + 20Kg Urea/Donnum) on growth, yield and quality of lettuce cv. Paris Island. The experiment consisted of 16 treatments conducted in the field in a factorial experiment within split plot using the Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. Results indicated that vegetative growth i.e. leaf number/plant, leaf area/plant, head circumferences and mean weight of marketable head were increased significantly by second sowing date (Nov. 20th), plot planting method as well as by applying nitrogen fertilizer, while the methods of splitting of nitrogen fertilizer had no significant effect on most above mention characters. A similar favorable effect of second sowing date (No.20th), plot planting method and applying nitrogen fertilizer on yield characters was obtained at harvest, However, it has increased significantly folded head percentage, total and marketable yield, whereas the percentage of bolting plants only decreased significantly by second sowing date. The interaction among sowing date, plating methods, nitrogen application gave positive and significant increase in the total and marketable yield.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT PLANTING DEPTH AND SOME PRE-TREATMENTS ON THE GERMINATION OF SEEDS AND SEEDING GROWTH OF CORIANDRUM SATIVUM L.
تأثير أعماق الزراعة وبعض المعاملات المسبقة في إنبات بذور ونمو بادرات نبات الكزبرة (Coriandrum sativum L.) 

المؤلفون: Gihan Y. Q. Saleh جهان يحيى قاسم صالح
الصفحات: 67-73
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الخلاصة

In this research we've studied the effect of Some Pre-Treatments on the germination of Coriandrum Sativum L. seeds such as surface and planting at 2.5cm depth from soil surface as well as using the technology of pre-soaking with the following treatments : without soaking in water, soaking in Gibberellin with a concentration of 200ml.g/lit, soaking in water, soaking in ether petroleum, soaking in ethanol and soaking in concentrated sulfuric acid. Findings showed that the surface planting has improved seeds, germination and seedlings growth for all the features under study comparing with planting at a depth of 2.5cm. Findings of coefficient's overlap showed that surface planting and processing with Gibberellin with a concentration of 200ml.glit gave the best results. Seeds germinated early with an increased germination percentage which were 8.69 day and 75% respectively, as well as an increase in the fresh and dry weight of the root and green gross and an increase in the length of the longest seedling, then followed by soaking in water. Using the ether petroleum and ethanol showed no great significant effect on the features being studied; whereas the using of concentrated sulfuric acid showed a negative effect on germination for all features which were germination percentage 25.83 while which were concentrated 36.33%.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF MULCHING ON SURFACE RUNOFF UNDER NATURAL PRECIPITATION OF MOSUL CITY
تأثير التغطية على حجم السيح السطحي تحت ظروف التساقط الطبيعي لمدينة الموصل

المؤلفون: K. F. Hassan خالد فالح حسن
الصفحات: 74-85
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الخلاصة

The study was conducted to determine the effect of mulching on surface runoff under natural precipitation of Mosul city (Northern of Iraq). Standard flumes (100 x 30 x 12 cm) were filled with soil and treated with four types of mulching (weeded soil, weeded soil control, wheat straw and gravels). The flumes were exposed to the natural precipitation of 2004 – 2005 season. The result revealed that all rainstorms gave a significant amount of surface runoff depth and the treatments were ranked in the following order: weeds control soil > weeded soil > gravel mulched soil > wheat straw soil. Runoff threshold values were determined graphically and showed some variation Among the treatments. The calculated runoff efficiency of the studied treatments showed that wheat straw gave the lower value while the weeded soil control offered the highest value of runoff efficiency.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE ROLE OF FEED WITHDRWAL AND POTASSIUM CHLORIDE IN DECREASING THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BROILERS
اثر قطع العلف و إضافة كلوريد البوتاسيوم للتخفيف من الأثر السلبي للإجهاد الحراري في الأداء الإنتاجي وبعض الصفات الفسلجية لفروج اللحم

المؤلفون: Ibrahim Matti Ibrahim إبراهيم متي إبراهيم
الصفحات: 86-94
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الخلاصة

This study was condluted find the effect of feed withdrawal and addition of potassium chloride in drinking water on decreasing the negative effect of heat stress on productive performance and some physiological parameters in broilers. Three handerants , one day old broilers hybrid ( Iraqi Faw Bro) were reared to 21 days under normal temperature . During the period started at 22 days of age till 56 days , the broilers were subjected to six treatments, these treatments were , first ; free feeding (control) ,second ; feed withdrawal , third ; addition 0.4% KCl in drinking water, fourth ; feed withdrawal + 0.4% KCl in water , fifth ; addition 0.6% KCl in water , and the sixth ; feed withdrawal + 0.6% KCl in water . All groups of broilers were reared during the experimental periods under rotational temp (26-37-26) ºC. Results of statistical analysis of treatments showed no significant effect on live body weight, weekly weight gain , feed intake , feed conversion ratio , relative growth rate , dressing percentage , mortality percent , and blood pH . However , results also indicated a significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect on behavior of feed and water intake as percentage of live body weight . Feed intake was decreased while water consumption increased during the mid day between ( 12 to 8 pm) , body temprichar was significantly decreased as effect by treatments . more over , a significant decrees in blood glucose was detected in all treatments as companied with control . Also significant differences between treatments were found in blood hemoglobin and PCV through the eight week of age .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
STUDY ON SOME ORGANOLEPTIC CHANGES OF LOCA L AND IMPORTED FROZEN CHICKEN MEATS
دراسة بعض التغيرات النوعية في لحوم أصناف من الدجاج المحلي والمستورد المخزن بالتجميد

المؤلفون: L.D.Al-Doori لؤي دوري خليل الدوري
الصفحات: 95-107
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الخلاصة

This study is aiming to investigate the effect of freezing on some organoleptic Properties for kinds of Domestic , Imported (Turkish & Brazilian) chicken meats at each thorax and thigh pieces which stored at -18 and -22c for 150 days . Organoleptic properties analysis including total volatile nitrogen, free fatty acids, water holding capacity and pH were performed each 30 days. Results showed that Brazilian chicken meat contain higher total volatile nitrogen and free fatty acids comparing with other kinds of chicken meats where as pH value and water holding capacity were highest in Domestic comparing with Turkish and Brazilian chicken meats. While there are a significant (P<0.05) decrease in water holding capacity, pH and a significant(P<0.05)increase in free fatty acids and total volatile nitrogen with increasing of freezing period for all kinds of chicken meats.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF USING SOME ADDITIVES ON SOME CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF LOCAL BASTURMA DURING STORAGE
تأثير استخدام بعض المضافات في التركيب الكيميائي للبسطرمــة المحليــة أثناء الخزن

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الخلاصة

The effect of using some food additives like ascorbic acid, nitrate and nitrite , sodium phosphate, lactic acid and acetic acid with different concentrations upon some chemical characteristics of local manufacture basturma during storage within open climate temperature from March to June, was studied. Significant differences were found in the values of the moisture content of different treatments of the stored basturma during storage period. The moisture content of stored basturma decreased simultaneosly with the increase of storage period which led to increase of protein and fat ratio significantly. Treatment with ascorbic acid resulted in the decrease of moisture content and the increase of protein quantity and slight changes in fat content during storage period. An increase in the ratio of protein was appeared when nitrate and nitrite were used. Generally, the use of sodium phosphate led to maintaining of the moisture content of the stored basturma during storage. The treatment with 5% of lactic and acetic acid did not affect significantly on moisture content in comparison with control and significant increase in protein content

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT BENZOATE CONCENTRATIONS AND STORAGE ON SOME ISOLATED FUNGUS WHICH GROW ON ORANGE AND GRAPE FRUITE JUICES
تاثير تراكيز مختلفة من البنزوات والخزن في بعض عزلات الفطريات النامية على عصيري البرتقال والكريب فروت

المؤلفون: Salah O.Ahmad صلاح عمر احمد
الصفحات: 116-125
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الخلاصة

Isolation and purification of fungus which contaminated four species of citrus fruits which are orange , grape fruit , sweet lemon and sour lemon . Isolated fungus characterized , Penicillium digitatum , Althernaria citri and A.crassa used in this study because they were the most spread species in studied citrus fruits, The flasks stored for four weeks at ambient temperature with the presence of sodium benzoate with different concentrations. Values of PH and number of each of three fungus in all treatments were measured . Results showed that p.digitatum had the most spread in the four kinds of citrus fruits except orange , then A.citri which had the most spread in orange . The three species of fungus affected significantly (p < 0.05) in increasing of pH value with the absence of sodium benzoate especially in the last week of storage , but the addition of sodium benzoate with concentrations 0.05 and 0.1 % lead to still pH value in the average of standard treatment (at Zero week) , an increasing in the number of the three fungus with the increasing of storage period in 0.0% concentration of sodium benzoate in the two kinds of juices especially P. digitatum wherever the numbers are 239.5 and 203 ×104 spores / ml of orange and grape fruit juices respectively , but the addition of sodium benzoate especially at 0.05 and 0.1 % were significantly decreased the numbers of the three fungus.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
STUDY THE EFFECTS OF HYPOCHORITE ON SOME MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION OF SOME TYPE OF SALAD VEGETABLES IN LOCAL MARKETS
دراسة تأثير الهايبوكلورايت في بعض الأحياء المجهرية الملوثة لبعض أنواع خضار السلطات

المؤلفون: Karkaz M. Thalij كركز محمد ثلج
الصفحات: 126-132
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الخلاصة

This study was done to analysis three hundred and tow samples of vegetables salad from local markets to found the total and fecal coliform, molds, and salmonella, in addition to study the role of sodium hypochlorite on counts of above microorganisms after infusion and shaking the samples for 5, 10, and 15 minutes. The results indicated the total counts of coliform were arranged from 2.8 × 105 in tomatoes to 4.2 × 108 cell/g in cucumber. When the fecal coliform counts were at range between 1.1× 103 in tomatoes and 2.9× 106 cell/g in lettuce, and the molds counts were from 1.3 × 105 in cucumber to 3.4 × 106 in lettuce. The bacterial types of salmonella were founds in tomatoes, Onion, Cucumber, Capsicums, Lettuce, and Celery samples at 4.1, 6.5, 7.4, 8.3, 13.8, and 22.7%, respectively. The infused of vegetables samples in hypochlorite for 5 minutes were causes reduced the total counts of coliform which became arranged between 17 in tomatoes to 120 cell/g in lettuce, and the fecal coliform were only founds in lettuce, celery, and cucumber samples at 10, 12, and 14 cell/g respectively, Also the molds were at 13, 12, and 10 cell/g respectively. Where the salmonella types were not founds in any samples after treatment. The infused vegetables samples in hypochlorite for 10 minutes causes a sharp reduced and non found any microorganism in all samples unless in lettuce and celery were found total coliform at 22 and 8, fecal coliform at 4 and 3 and molds at 6 and 4 cell/g, respectively. The infusion of vegetable samples in hypochlorite for 15 minutes causes clearance the samples from all microorganisms.

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Article
EFFECT OF YOGHART STARTER ON BRUCELLA MELITNISIS ISOLATED FROM HUMAN BLOOD AND SHEEP MILK
تاثير بكتريا بادئ اللبن على بكتريا Brucella melitensis المعزولة من دم الإنسان وحليب الأغنام

المؤلفون: Tarik Zaid Ibraheem طارق زيد إبراهيم
الصفحات: 133-137
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الخلاصة

Brucella spp. causes Malta fever a zoonotic disease that can be transmitted to human by consumption of raw milk and unpasteurized dairy products like soft cheese, whose production is wide spread in Iraq. Because of the harm of this disease on public health and the difficulty of treatment; therefore this study included the isolation of Brucella from human (final host) and raw milk (the main source of infection). Two isolates were obtained, isolate (1) was isolated from (23) blood speciemens taken from patients showed clinical findings of malta fever and their serum gave high agglutination titer in Rose Bengal Test, the second isolate (2) was isolated from (37) milk sample collected from regions (Mahweer, Manarat Shabbak and Bartillah) from sheep suffered from abortion and their serum gave positive results with Rose Bengal Test. After the diagnostic biochemical tests were done, we found that as aresult these two isolates belong to the species Brucella melitensis. It has also been found that both isolates didn’t withstand the decreasing of pH in yoghurt, the results also showed the use of starter bacteria Lactobacillus delbreukii subsp. bulgaricus alone or with the combination of L. delbreukii subsp. bulgaricus with Streptococcus thermophilus gave effective results on the resistance of these two isolates in yogurt as compared to the use of S. thermophillus alone.

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Article
EFFECT OF AFLATOXINS ON GOATS MILK PRODUCTION AND ITS CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL COMPOSITION
تأثیر سموم الأفلا والسموم مع البنتونایت والبنتونایت لوحده في إنتاج حلیب

المؤلفون: *موفق محمود احمد *موفق محمود احمد
الصفحات: 138-149
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted to show the effects of each aflatoxins (AF) or activated sodum bentonite(AB) .Singly or combination in the following groups:1- animals fed Diet (AF) alone at 2.5mg/kg.2-animal fed died (AF)at 2.5mg/kgwith AB(5g/kg). 3-animals fed diet AB alone (5g/kg).The result show that the effect of AFB1 on physical characteristics were investigated. The toxin caused changes in the physical characteristics of milk. Viscosity, density, curd tension and acidity of the produced milk were significantly (p<0.05) decreased while the pH and coagulation time were significantly increased. Addition of ASB proved to have a positive effect on the AFB1-treated animals. physical characteristics became closer to the normal milk. Ceasing AFB1- contaminated feed consumption by the animals also resulted in physical characteristics of the produced milk to normal.

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Article
FORAGE AND GRAIN YIELD OF SOME BARLEY GENO TYPES UNDER RAIN-FED CONDITIONS
حاصل علف وحبوب تراكيب وراثية من الشعير تحت الظروف الديمية

المؤلفون: Abbas M. Al Hasan عباس مهدي الحسن
الصفحات: 161-166
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الخلاصة

This study was carried out during three growing seasons , 1999-2000, 2000-2001 , 2001-2002 at Nineva Agriculture Experimental Station at Al-Rasheedia to compare forage and grain yield of Barley genotypes namely ; local Black , Rehan , Jazeera 1, select 11 , 21 and 31.Genotype did not differed significantly from each other in green forage yield , While there was a significant differences among strain in hay , silage , straw and grain yield and with superiority of selected strains over cultivated varieties in these studied characters . Forage and grain yield of genotypes significantly differed from season to other with seasonal variation in rainfall quantity and its distribution . Interaction between genotypes & growing seasons significantly affected all studied character with exception of green forage yield . genotype have law stability value for all studied characters ,with exception of that for green forage yield .

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Article
FFECT OF SOME HERBICIDES AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON NODULATION GROWTH IN LENTIL CROP (Lens culinaris MEDIC
تأثير مبيدي الترفلان والفوكس أللترا والتسميد النتروجيني في نمو العقد الجذرية لمحصول العدس

المؤلفون: A.M. Sultan أحمد محمد سلطان
الصفحات: 167-173
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الخلاصة

The factorial pots experiment was conducted in order to investigate the effect of some herbicides ( Trifluralin 2.4 , 3.2 , Focus ultra 1,2 L/ ha) with check treatment and nitrogen fertilizer ( 0.0 , 40 , 80 kg N / ha) on growth of nodulation in 2005-2006 season at Agric and Forestry college , Mosul Univ . The results indicate that treflan had effect negtively on number and weight of nodulation but focus ultra had positive result on it . Weight of nodulation had increased at 80 kg N / ha but numbers was reduced . The best results obtained with interaction between focus ultra 2 L / ha and 40 kg N / ha fertilization or 1 L/ ha of the same herbicide with 80 kg N / ha which gave good growth of nodulation on root lentil crop .

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Article
ESTIMATE OF PHENOTYPIC AND GENOTYPIC VARIATION, HERITABILITY AND CORRELATIONS ON NINE DURUM WHEAT CULTIVARS (Triticum durum Desf.) UNDER LIMITED RAINFALL CONDITIONS
تقدير التباينات المظهرية والوراثية والتوريث والارتباطات في تسعة أصناف من الحنطة

المؤلفون: Mohammed Y. Al-Fhady محمد يوسف الفهادي
الصفحات: 174-180
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الخلاصة

Nine cultivars of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) were tested for two years at Hammam Al-Alile on 1998 and 1999. Data on plant height, no. of days to heading and maturity,no. of spikes , no. of grains per spike ,1000 grain weight and grain yield were recorded and analysed for phenotypic and genotypic variances , heritability and correlations. Combine analysis exhibited significant differences between cultivars for all studied characters except grain yield. Cultivar X year interaction was significant for all studied characters except no. of days to maturity.High phenotypic and genotypic variances were found in plant height, no. of spikes , no. of grains per spike ,1000 grains weight and grain yield .Large environmental variability was observed in most characters except no. of days to heading and maturity and 1000 grain weight.High heritability estimations were found for all studied characters except grain yield and no. of days to maturity which gave low and moderate estimations respectively.Grain yield positively correlated with number of spikes in 98 and 1000 grain weight in two seasons.

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Article
GENETIC ANALYSIS FOR YIELD , ITS COMPONONTS AND QUALITY IN CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum L.)
التحليل الوراثي لصفات الحاصل ومكوناته والنوعية للحمص Cicer arietinum L

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الخلاصة

The study included seven parents of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) : Local, F85, F97-73c, Dijla, Marakishi, IPA69 and F97-158.The parents were crossed in a diallel fashion (excluding reciprocals) .The seeds of parents and F1’s were sown during the 2005-2006 season in the field of the College of Agric. & Forestry at Mosul University to estimate gene action. The additive variance (D) and dominance variances (H1 , H2) were significant for all characters but the dominance variance was greater than the additive variance values for all characters excepted 100-seeds weight. Dominance effect (h2), as the algebraic sum over all loci in heterozygous phase in all crosses, were significant for all characters except no. of pods per plant and biological yield .The values of average degree of dominance showed that over dominance effect controlled all characters except for 100-seeds weight . The ratio KD/KR was greater than 1 for all the characters. Values of K were less than 1 for all characters except no. of 90% maturation. High broad sense heritability ranged from (0.72-0.91) for all characters. Narrow sense heritability was high for 100-seeds weigh (0.62), and low for biological yield (0.18) and moderate for other characters (0.21-0.50).

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