جدول المحتويات

مجلة زراعة الرافدين العراقية

ISSN: 1815316X
الجامعة: جامعة الموصل
الكلية: الزراعة والغابات
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين لأول مرة عام 1966 واستمرت لغاية عام 1982، وتوقفت بعد ذلك لمدة ثلاث سنوات بسبب القرار الوزاري بتوزيع المجلات العلمية على الجامعات العراقية وحسب الاختصاصات حيث كانت حصة العلوم الزراعية لجامعة صلاح الدين التي أصدرت المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية (زانكو)، وكانت المجلة الوحيدة في العلوم الزراعية في وزارة التعليم العالي والبحث العلمي ، ثم صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين مرة أخرى وذلك في عام 1986 واستمرت إلى عام 2000 إذ تم اعتماد مجلة زراعة الرافدين مجلة قطرية وبهذا تم تغير اسمها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية . وحصلت على الرقم الدولي ISSN 1609-4077 واستمرت بالصدور إلى المجلة إلى عام 2004 إذ تم إعادة اسم المجلة إلى مجلة زراعة الرافدين واعتبرت مجلة قطرية – دورية-علمية – محكمة وحصلت على الرقم الدولي الجديد ISSN 1815-316X وصدر المجلد 33 العدد 1 وهو تسلسل مجلة زراعة الرافدين إذ أن المجلة أصدرت 32 مجلد قبل تحويلها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية. واستمرت المجلة في الصدور إلى الوقت الحاضر 2012 المجلد (40) .

كانت المجلة عند صدورها عام 1966 بعدد واحد سنوياً، وحالياً تصدر بأربعة أعداد دورية لكل سنة. ولابد من الإشارة إلى أن المجلة في بداية إصدارها عام 1966 كان يضم العدد خمسة بحوث باللغة الانكليزية، وتزايدت في الوقت الحاضر لتضم 30 بحثاً باللغتين العربية والانكليزية .

حصلت المجلة خلال مدة عملها على تقييمات وزارية عالية فقد حصلت هيئة التحرير في عام 1996 على كتاب شكر وتقدير من السيد الوزير لتميز المجلة ، كما اعتبرت المجلة متميزة في عام 2009 أيضا إذ حصلت على درع الوزارة وشهادة تقديرية .وقد حصلت المجلة في سنة 2012 على الاعتمادية الدولية وبالتالي اصبحت في متناول جميع دول العالم .

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معلومات الاتصال

E-mail:agrimeso@yahoo.com

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2008 المجلد: 36 العدد: 3

Article
DETERMINATING THE PROBLEMS OF OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION SYSTEMS UPON FARMERS IN AL-JAZEERA IRRIGATION PROJECT IN NENEVAH GOVERNORATE AND ITS RELATION WITH SOME VARIABLES
تحديد حجم مشاكل تشغيل وصيانة منظومات الري بالرش للفلاحين في مشروع ري الجزيرة بمحافظة نينوى وعلاقتها ببعض المتغيرات*

المؤلفون: Aamel F. AL-Abbassi عامل فاضل خليل العباسي
الصفحات: 4-12
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الخلاصة

The objectives of this research were to determine the range of problems operating and maintenance of sprinkler irrigation systems of the farmers in Al-Jazeera irrigation project in Nenevah governorate, and to find out if significant differences exist in range of these problems according to some variables. The research sample included 104 respondents, the data were collected through a questionnaire specially designed for determining the range of problems. After testing the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, the researchers used Arithmetic mean, Kruskal-Wallis test and t-test to analyze the data. It was found that there were very big problems for 66.348% of the respondents in operating and maintenance of sprinkler irrigation systems, also there were significant differences in the range of problems according to these variables: educational level, type of holding, years of utilizing the system, optimism, income, work in farm, and size of holding, while there were no significant differences according to: type of profession, sources of information and previous training.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF SOME TREATMENTS ON GROWTH AND ROOTING OF LATERAL SHOOTS OF TWO CVS OF Gerbera jamesonii
تأثير بعض المعاملات في نمو الفروع الجانبية لصنفين من نباتات الجربيرا

المؤلفون: H. S. S. Al-Qarakolly هالة شاكر ستار
الصفحات: 13-21
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الخلاصة

This study was carried out in the College of Agriculture and Forestry/Mosul University, between February and November/2006 on Gerbera jamesonii cvs Esstafette (red inflorescence) and Essandre (yellow inflorescence), to investigate the effect of different concentrations of plant growth regulators and stem tip excision on rooting ability of lateral shoots. Hence the factors investigated were: Excision of apical portion of stem (pinch) or without, spraying plants with Benzyl adenine (BA) at 0.250 and 500 mg.l-1 or Cycocel (CCC) at 500 and 1000 mg.l-1 separately, and response of two cultivars of G. jamesonii (Essandre and Estafette). The Factorial Experiment was conducted by using Randomized Complete Block Design, each treatment was replicated three times with four plants in block. The results showed that spraying plants with BA at 500 mg.l-1 caused a significant increase in the number of lateral shoots 1.83 shoots/plant. Lateral shoots taken from Essandre plants gave best results of roots number, root length, fresh and dry weight. Spraying the stock plants with CCC gave best results of roots number, roots fresh and dry weight.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ISOLATING AND DETECTING THIOPHENE FROM Tagetes patula PLANTS PRODUCED FROM TISSUE CULTURE AND FROM TRANSFORMED HAIRY ROOTS.
عزل وتشخيص مركب الثايوفين Thiophene من نباتات القديفة Tagetes patulaالناتجة من زراعة الأنسجة ومن الجذور الشعرية المحولة وراثيا

المؤلفون: Kasim M.AL-Hamdani قاسم محمود الحمداني
الصفحات: 22-30
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الخلاصة

In this study , thiophene which was a secondary metabolites product compound was isolated and detected from Tagetes patula plants, by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated the presence of high levels of thiophene in leaves, and roots of seedlings and callus of marigold plants, moreover, in callus culture and transformed hairy roots. High level of thiophene 40.01 and 44.54 mg/gm dry weight were recorded in the roots of plants produced from callus and the roots of seedling plants. Interestingly, the results showed that transformed hairy roots by Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1601 bacteria showed high content of thiophene reached up to 34.14 mg/gm D.W as compared to 5.64 mg/gm D.W in leaves callus cultures. In other words, hairy roots showed an increased amount of thiophene equal 6 folds the amount of thiophene in callus tissue. Therefore transformed hairy roots can be good source to obtain the secondary metabolite thiophene and may be other products.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF NPK AND POTASSIUM NITRATE FERTILIZATION ON YIELD, OIL PERCENTAGE AND SOME CHARACTERISTICS OLIVE CULTIVAR
تأثير السماد NPK والرش بنترات البوتاسيوم في زيادة نسبة الزيت والحاصل وبعض الصفات للزيتون صنف"أشرسي"

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الخلاصة

This study was carried out in a private local orchard north of Mosul, Iraq (Bashiqa area) for two growing seasons (2000- 2001) to study the effect of foliar application of potassium nitrate and NPK fertilization on the yield and oil percentage of Ashrasi olive cultivar (local variety olea europaea L.). The major results are summarized as follows: First spraying date (Autumn) was better than the second date (spring) in all characteristics namely: leaf content of nutritional elements such as nitrogen and potassium content, the dry weight of leaves, total of chlorophyll quantity, fruit set ratio fruit weight, yield. Did not differ significantly. Spraying with potassium nitrate leaf gave significant result in the content of nitrogen and potassium leaf dry weight, the total chlorophyll quantity, fruit set and fruit weight except the yield quantity which influenced with higher concentration of potassium nitrate only. Application of NPK fertilizer caused a significant increase in some characteristics such as the nutritional element content of nitrogen and potassium. Fruit weight in both concentrations the yield and fruit ratio in low concentration.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF (CHEMICAL AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS) ON THE FRUITS AND OIL CONTENT OF FENNEL
تأثير مستويات مختلفة من الأسمدة (العضوية والكيمائية) في حاصل ثمار وزيت نبات الغزنايج FENNEL Foeniculum vulgare

المؤلفون: Mothafer A. Al-Mosuly مظفر احمد الموصلي
الصفحات: 43-48
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الخلاصة

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is an important crop of considerable medicinal value, being carminative and stomachic. Fruits are used in the preparation of pickles and for chewing after meals as a digestive adjuvant. The oil of fennel is used to flavor different food preparations perfumery. The objectives of these experiments were to study the effects of organic fertilizers animal manure (sheep) total of Nitrogen 16, Phosphors 5 and Potassium 8 gm.Kg-1 with six levels 0 , 1, 2, 3,4 and 5 ton. h-1 and chemical fertilizer Nitrogen in the form of Urea 46 % N, Phosphors in the form of Mono super phosphate 9 % P and Potassium in the form of Potassium sulphate 43% K with six levels N0P0K0, N18P2K3 ,N36P4K6 ,N54P6K9 ,N72P8K12 and N90P10K15 Kg.h-1 on fruits yield and oil content from FENNEL (Foeniculum vulgare) growth in the silty loam soil plot 1x2 m2 ending with a recommendation for the suitable kind of fertilizer to be used. The following results were emerged : The control treatmentN0P0K0, 0 ton.hectar-1of animal manure gave Fruits yield 1600 Kg.h-1 and the oil 25.22 L.h-1.The treatment 2 ton.h-1 of animal manure gave Fruits yield 4420 Kg.h-1. And the highest quantity of oil 55.23 L.h-1. The treatment N72P8K12 equality balance 4 ton.h -1of animal manure gave Fruits yield 3536 Kg.h-1. The highest quantity of oil 45.44 L.h-1 was reached with the treatment N54P6K9 equality balance 3 ton.h -1 of animal manure.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ABILITY OF RHIZOBIAL STRAINS (R .leguminosarum ) IN SOLUBILIZATION OF ROCK-PHOSPHATE
قدرة بعض سلالات البكتريا العقدية (R . Leguminosarum) في اذابة الصخر الفوسفاتي

المؤلفون: Mowaffaq Yonis Sultan موفق يونس سلطان
الصفحات: 49-56
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الخلاصة

A Factorial experiment was conducted using (RCBD) to determine the ability of three strains of R. Leguminosarum Le719, Le726 and Le735 (which we it get it from ICARDA) on the solubility of rock-phosphate, calcium ,and pH media. The results showed an ability of strains understudy in the solubility rock-phosphate .The data was found significantly different when 200 and 400 gP.ml-1 was used (source rock phosphate). Strain Le719 had the supererioerty effect in solubilizing rock phosphate with an increase of 3.99% and 2.15% for the treatments mentioned above respectively. However strain Le735 showed less increasing effect and with no significant effect for strain Le726. In the same trend an increase in the solubility of calcium was observed (as a result of in crease in soluble phosphate) in media and in the same manner for the strains . Strain Le719 was increased by 143.36% compared to control treatment. Media reaction (pH-media) was decreased in media inoculated by the strains used. pH-media was 5.62, 6.20, and 6.43 for strains Le719 , Le735 , and Le726 respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF OAK (QUEREUS AEGILOPS) LEAVES EXTRACT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND LIPID PROFILE IN RABBITS
تأثير المعاملة بمستخلص أوراق البلوط في كلوكوز ومظهر دهن الدم للأرانب

المؤلفون: S.Y. Abdul-Rahman صائب يونس عبدالرحمن
الصفحات: 57-62
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الخلاصة

This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of boiled extract of oak (Quercus aegilops) leaves on blood, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), High density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (LDL-C) and risk ratio in male rabbits, also to study the effect of treatment on the chemical composition of liver and thigh as well as the glycogen level . Rabbits (5-6 months old) were divided into two groups (6 rabbits each). Rabbits in the 1st group was treated daily for 28 days with oak leaves boiled extract (250 mg/kg. B. wt) orally. The 2nd group treated with distilled water, served as control. Treatment caused a significant decrease in blood glucose, cholesterol, and LDL-C as compared with control values , risk factor also reduced significantly as compared with control , TG increased significantly as compared with control , treatment also causes a significant increase in liver and thigh glycogen concentrations as compared with control group , also a significant increase in dry matter % , ether extract % , crude protein % and ash % , and a significant decrease in carbohydrate % in both liver and thigh as compared with the control group . In a separate experiment, the single dose of oak leaves boiled extract caused a significant decrease in blood glucose level at 3, 12 and 24 hrs after drenching as compared with pre drenching level . Results revealed that oak leaves boiled extract caused an improvement in lipid profile, and hypoglycemic effect continue significantly for 24 hrs.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF USING PROBIOTICS IN PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKEN
تأثير استخدام المعززات الحيوية في الأداء الإنتاجي لفروج اللحم

المؤلفون: D. Th. Younis دريد ذنون يونس
الصفحات: 63-68
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الخلاصة

The objective of this study was to find out the effect of adding the probiotics to the diet in different concentration on productive performance of broiler. 200 of unsexed chickens (Cobb) one day old were used in this study .Chicks raised on standard condition to the age of marketing six weeks (42) days. Four treatments were used as follows: T1 Control No probiotics added. T2 addition of 2 Kg probiotics Ton of diet, T3 addition of 4 Kg probiotics / Ton of diet, T4 addition of 6 Kg probiotics Ton of diet, Feed and water were Ad Libitum. Statistic analysis showed that adding probiotics resulted in significant increase P ≤ 0.5 for life body weight, average weekly weight gain for treatment 3 and 4 (Adding 3,4Kg probiotics Ton of diet) and significant decrease P ≤ 0.5 in feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and mortality. Data showed no significant differences P ≤ 0.5 in relative growth rate and dressing percentage.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
UTILIZTING WHEY IN NATURAL AND ATRIFICIAL JUICES
استغلال الشرش في صناعة الشرابت الطبيعية والصناعية

المؤلفون: Riyadh M. Saleem رياض محمد سليم
الصفحات: 69-73
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الخلاصة

Natural juices were prepared by blending whey with natural juices such as banana and muskmelon squashes plus sugar and stabilizers. Whey juices were also prepared using only flavours of orange, strawberry and banana with proper colour for each one. General ingredients, physical properties, and sensational evaluation were measured as well as the effect of refrigeration for one week. The results showed that natural juices were better than the artificial ones for their higher content of total solid, besides being unaffected by one-week refrigeration. The percentage of the separated ingredients was very limited throughout the storage period and the taste was unchanged.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
IMMUNOGLOBULINS IN SHEEP´S AND GOAT´S MILK AND BLOOD SERUM
كلوبيولينات المناعة في سرسوب وحليب ومصل دم الأغنام والماعز

المؤلفون: Mowafak M.Ali موفق محمد علي
الصفحات: 74-87
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الخلاصة

The samples of milk had taken from ten animals ; sheep and goats , five samples from each after 6,12,18,24,48,72,240 hours from birth . Also, The samples of blood serum had taken for both sheep and goats after 6, 24 ,48 , 240 hours from birth . Chemical and physical changes in milk for both kinds were studied.It was noticed that the acidity,curd tention, clotting time, proteins, fat,viscosity and total solids for sheep and goat were higher at the beginning of milking stage. Lactose and pH show low values during colostrum stage then started to increase gradually during later stages of milking. During protein separation in both types of milk by acrylamide gel electrophoresis, β-lactoglobuline and α-lactalbumine were lower in the colostrums then increased gradually during the later stages of milking. The proportions of immunoglobulin, proteose-peptone, and blood serum albumin were high in colostrum stage , then reduced to there natural level in the milk.It was concluded that immunoglobulin proportions of Igs, IgG,IgM and IgA part in sheep and goat milk and blood serum were high in colostrum stage then reduced gradually.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
NONENZYMATIC BROWNING DEVELOPMENT OF NORMAL LEMON JUICE BY USING MODEL SYSTEMS DURING STORAGE
تطور الاسمرار غير الإنزيمي لعصير الليمون الحامض الطبيعي باستخدام النمذجة خلال الخزن

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الخلاصة

Synthetic model systems of single strength normal local lemon juice were prepared with different contents of some compounds ( ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, and amino acids ) that may play an important role in brown pigments (Melanoidins) formation samples were stored at 25 and 35 °C for 12 weeks. Results showed that the main brown pigment formation pathway in these highly acidic synthetic model systems (pH < 2.5) was ascorbic acid decomposition aerobic (oxidation) and anaerobic (acid catalysis) pathways rather than reducing sugar degradation by acid catalysis and Strecker decomposition of amino acids .The results showed that the highest rate of brown pigments formation was in synthetic model system which contain all components with similar ratio of model systems contain ascorbic acid .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ANTIMUTAGENIC EFFECT OF CARROT (Daucus carota) ON INDUCTION OF STREPTOMYCIN AND RIFAMPICIN RESISTANT MUTANTS IN BACTERIAL SYSTEMS
التأثير المضاد للتطفير للجزر Daucus carota في حث الطفرات المقاومة للستربتومايسين والريفامبيسين في الانظمة البكترية

المؤلفون: Ilham A. Khalaf الهام عبد الهادي خلف
الصفحات: 94-104
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الخلاصة

G-system was used to study the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of carrot root juice. The system composed of three bacterial strains: G3 (Bacillus spp), G12 (Arthrobacter spp), G27 (Brevibacterium spp). The strains are Gram positive, sensitive to crystal violet, Streptomycin (10µg / ml) and Rifampicin (20µg / ml) (Chromosomal markers). Effect of carrot root juice at different concentrations 50, 100, 200µl on log culture suspended cells was studied. Cyclophosphamide (Cp) drug (Mutagen) was used at 1, 10, 50, 100 µg/ml. The juice and the mutagen were tested for cytotoxicity by estimating the survival index (Sx), and genotoxicity by estimating the mutant frequency of Streptomycin and Rifampicin resistance. Results showed that low conc (s) (50, 100µl) of carrot juice had no cytotoxic or genotoxic effect, while 200µl had slight cytotoxic and genotoxic activity, therefore 100µl quantity was used for subsequent investigations. Cp had both cytotoxic and genotoxic activity. The effect of different combinations between carrot and Cp was studied (Using juice and mutagen together, treating cells with juice before and after mutagen treatment), the results revealed that carrot juice provided cells with high protection against cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, the protection effect ranged 80– 100 %.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF ROCKET JUICE (ERUCA SATIVA ) ON MITOTIC INDEX AND FORMATION OF MICRONUCLEI IN FEMUR BONE MARROW CELLS OF WHITE MICE
تاثير عصير نبات الجرجير (Eruca sativa) في معامل الانقسام وتكون النوى الصغيرة في خلايا نقي عظام الفخذ للفئران البيض

المؤلفون: Ilham A. Khalaf الهام عبد الهادي خلف
الصفحات: 105-114
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الخلاصة

The effect of orally administered rocket leafs juice on the mitotic index (MI) and micronuclei (Mn) formation was studied in white mice bone marrow . The effect of juice to retarded the abnormalities induced by cyclophosphamide (Cp) administered orally was studied as well . Results revealed that juice (0.1 , 0.25 , 0.5) ml had no effect on both MI and Mn , while using Cp at 50 mg / Kg body weight resulted in lowering the MI to 32 % of the natural values . Natural repairing process restored some of the MI values but still low compared to natural state (Negative control ) . Oral administration of juice before treating with mutagen (J/Cp) was able to restore 86 % of the normal value , while administering the juice after treating the animals with mutagen (Cp/J) restored 55 % of the control value . The administration of juice with mutagen (J+Cp) restored 82 % of the natural value . Treatment of animals with Cp raised the Mn formation nine times that of its natural frequency . The frequency , however , reduced to only 7 times after 6 days due to natural repair processes . Using the juice before or after treatment with mutagen (J/Cp) , (Cp/J) or (J+Cp) were unable to reduce the Mn count to the natural level , although the reduction was statistically significant at (P < 0.01) as compared to the positive control .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
QUALITATIVE & RHEOLOGICAL STUDY FOR SORGHUM FLOUR AS A PARTIAL SUBSTITUTE TO WHEAT FLOUR
دراسة نوعية وريولوجية لطحين الذرة البيضاء كبديل جزئي لطحين الحنطة

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الخلاصة

Gross Composition, Physical, Chemical and Rheological Properties for three varieties of certified local cultivars of Sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L.Mocnch) were studied . Sorghum varieties significantly varied (P<0.05) in most of their chemical content . However protein content was 6.43, 7.87 and 9.94% and Phytic acid content was 0.340 ,0.273 and 0.288 % for Rabh , Enkath and Kafir, respectively . While tannin content was 0.53, 0.47 and 0.53% for Rabh, Enkath and Kafir respectively. Chemical content for Sorghum Flour also varied between these varieties depending upon their flour extraction. Increasing Sorghum Flour substitution at 10, 20, 30 and 40% in composite flour increased Amylogragh gelatinization temperature , maximum viscosity which were 64.5C & 380,0 B.U, respectively for wheat flour while it were 72.75 and 1055,0 B.U respectively for sorghum flour, Farinograph arrival time , development time ,mixing tolerance time also increased which was indicated to weakness of dough, Extensograph resistant / Extension increased due to alteration of dough development and fermentation gas pressure. On the contrary , increasing Sorghum Flour substitution decreased Farinograph water absorption ,stability time, decline time, Extensograph maximum resistant ,Extension and energy (area ).Enkath was the identical variety among them which had the most acceptance by taste panel.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
USING DIFFERENT LOCAL ISOLATED LACTIC ACID BACTERIA TO RESIST BILE SALTS AND REDUCING ACHOLESTEROL
استخدام عزلات محليه مختلفة من بكتيريا حامض اللاكتيك في مقاومة املاح الصفراء وخفض الكوليسترول

المؤلفون: Ghanim M. H. غانم محمود حسن
الصفحات: 127-136
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الخلاصة

Bifidobacterium sp. and Lact. acidophilus bacteria were isolated from newly born infant’s stool while Lact. plantarum bacteria were isolated from pickles . As for Lact, bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus bacteria , they were isolated from local sheep yoghurt and identified by studying the morphological and biochemical tests . Then they were compared with Bergey’s Manual ( 1986 ) informations .The resistance of the above-mentioned bacteria to bile salt at aconcentration of 1 and 2% and the effect of these salts on the growth of bacteria were all studied . At the concentration of 2% , there was a reduction in the number of bacteria with the increase in exposing time to bile salt . At the concentration of 1% , the imported Bifidobacterium sp. was the most resistant to bile salt . On the other hand , Lact, bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus were the least one . All bacteria showed ability in reducing cholesterol outside invitro after a 24-hour incubation . The reduction increased with the increase incubation period up to 48 hours The highest cholesterol reducing bacteria were Bifidobacterium sp. However the least reduction was caused by Lact. bulgaricus and Strep thermophilus.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF WIDTH CROWN ON THE TAPER OF Populus nigra STEM IN ZAKHO REGION
تأثير عرض التاج على درجة استدقاق أشجار القوغ الأسود في زاخو

المؤلفون: Muzahim .S. younis مزاحم سعيد يونس
الصفحات: 137-141
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الخلاصة

Many mathematical function were used to estimate tapering degree of Populus nigra main stem tree in Zakho . 35 sample obtained thought stand classification and according to there density using strata randomized sampling method . Each sample area was 0.01 hectare .To record all changes that affect longitudinal and diametrical growth , one tree was chosen from each sample area , and all tree morphological dimension were recorded , in addition to distance between the trees . The chosen trees were felled and cuted into different parts at one meter length from ground level to 4 cm stem diameter . By using simple linear regression , four mathematical Models were established. In order to find the best fit model for these four Models , coefficient of determination, standard error of estimate were used and the following model give the best result d0 = b0+b1 cw (b2 (-b3hi) ) R2=0.87 S.E%=0.6369 By using above model , tapering tables was prepared for Populus nigra trees grown in Zakho at different stand density . By using this table a desired management decision can be chosen which can be suitable for the harvesting plan.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
IRRIGATED YIELD ESTIMATION OF Populus Nigra STANDS IN NINEVEH PLANTATION
انتاجية مشاجر القوغ الاسود الاروائية في نينوى

المؤلفون: Muzahim .S. younis مزاحم سعيد يونس
الصفحات: 142-149
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الخلاصة

Consequence of the use of Non-Linear function in this study, which is believed to be in harmonic with the characteristics of tree stand, twelve trees were selected which represents different location over an area planted with Populus nigra trees ,and after data analysis of variable values , three mathematical equations were obtains which link the yield per area ,a dependent variable and age ,mean height of stand quadratic mean diameter as the independent variable , in order to obtain yield table of revocable densities for Populus nigra , selecting the best model , different measures of precision , such as , coefficient of determination, standard error of estimate and residual analysis test, so following regressions selected : Y= 4.1356 G1.12355 R2= 0.9796 S.E=1.8 Y= 0.12788H2.27 R2= 0.913 S.E=3.54 Y= -0.64168+0.34744A2+0.063183Dq2.4 R2= 0.9674 S.E=2.29 Since there are good values of precision measures , so we will be able to use equations to prepare yield table at different densities of Populus nigra stands in Nineveh, depending on mean height or basal area per hectare or for age and quadratic mean. Nineveh.

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Article
EFFECT OF SOME HERBICIDES ON WEED CONTROL IN BROADBEAN ( Vicia faba L.)UNDER DRY LAND
تأثير بعض المبيدات الكيميائية في مكافحة ادغال محصول الباقلاء البذرية Vicia faba L. تحت الظروف الديمية في شمال العراق

المؤلفون: A.M.Sultan احمد محمد سلطان
الصفحات: 150-162
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الخلاصة

Factorial experiment was carried out at College farm (Mosul prov) and Sharkat (Salah alldeen prov) in 2006-2007 winter growing season to investigate the effect of some herbicides (Glyphosate 565 ,1250 ,Gesagard 1250 ,2500 Basgran 250 , 500 cm3 a.i /ha and check treatment ) on four varity of broadbean crop ( Babylon , Syrain , Koryshi, Towythai ) . RCBD design with three replications were used with Duncan multiple rang test .Unsignificant results had been showed between varitys in the weed biomass at Sharkat while Syrain varity had reduced the broad leave weed biomass at college farm . On other hand , Babylon varity was superior in the seed yield and protein at two locations . Herbicides used gave excellent reduction in weed biomass at Sharkat location but at college farm ,the reduction had seen on broad leaves weeds only . The interaction between Babylon× Basagran 500 cm3/ha gave a good result in increasing seed yield and protein up to 71 and 30.5 % , respectively at college farm and 75.8 and 24.6 % , respectively at Sharkat location if it compared with check treatment . The second option was with koryshi varity treated with same herbicide and dose in increasing seed yield only . Gesagard had no selectivety for broadbean which all crop plants under land farming . Generally , there is a negative correlation at two locations between seed yield and broad leave weed biomass while positive correlation had been seen between seed yield and number of pods per plant or number of seeds per pod at two locations .

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Article
GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSE OF TWO COTTON CULTIVAR FOR PLANT DENSITY AND DATE OF NITRONEN FERTILIZATION
استجابة نمو وحاصل صنفين من القطن للكثافة النباتية ومواعيد اضافة السماد النتروجيني

المؤلفون: S.M.I. Al-jobouri صالح محمد ابراهيم الجبوري
الصفحات: 163-171
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الخلاصة

The study was conducted to investigate the effecte of two cultivars,Lachata and Coker 310, two plant densities 20, 30 cm between each plant and three application dates of nitrogen fertilizer (first date: half recommended at sowing and half at boll formation stage. Second date: half recommended at sowing and half after 30 days from sowing. Third date: quarter recommended at sowing and half after 30 days and quarter at boll formation stage) on growth properties, yield and yield components. The study included a field experiment in summer season 2005 at Alshirqat location (150 km north Tikrit city). The randomized complete block design(RCBD) with three replications was used The results showed that cultivar Coker 310 was significantly superior compared with Lachata in the plant height, while the Lachata variety was significantly superior in boll weight charcter. Plant sown at densities of 30 cm were significantly higher at plant height , number of vegetative and sympodia branches /plant, the total number of boll / plant as compared of those plant sown at 20 cm.The height plant was significantly higher at first application dates of nitrogen,where as the total yield weight and lint yield was significantly higher in third application date .

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Article
EFFECT OF PLANT DENSITIES AND CULTIVARS ON YIELD COMPENENTS OF RAPESEED (Brassica napus L.) UNDER DRY LAND FARMING IN IRAQI NORTHERN
تأثير الكثافة النباتية والأصناف في مكونات حاصل السلجم (Brassica napus L.) تحت الظروف الديمية في شمال العراق

المؤلفون: Shaker A.T. أياد طلعت شاكر
الصفحات: 172-179
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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted at the college farm of Agriculture and Forestry – Mosul Univ . for two seasons 2005/2007 , to determine the effect of three plants density (500000 , 333333 and 250000 plants ha-1) with two cultivars (pactol and shiralee) on growth and yield of rapeseed under semi arid condition. The results showed that superiority of no. of seeds/siliqua , seed yield , oil percentage and oil yield with500000 plants ha-1 for both seasons . Pactol cultivar was superior on no. of siliqua/plant , wt. of 500 seeds , seed yield, oil percentage and oil yield for both seasons. The interaction of 500000 plants ha-1 with pactol cultivar gave excellent result on seed and oil yield , which increased up to 4796 and 1759.4kg ha-1 in the first season and up to 3835.3 and 1325.3kg ha-1 in the second season . Correlation between no. of seeds/siliqua and wt. of 500 seeds had positively related to no. of siliqua/plant, while oil yield correlated positively with the seed yield for both seasons .

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Article
ESTIMATING CROP PRODUCTION FUNCTION FOR SOME CROPS AT MOSUL AREA
استنباط دالات الإنتاجية لبعض المحاصيل في منطقة الموصل

المؤلفون: Eman Hazim Sheet إيمـان حـازم شـيت
الصفحات: 180-191
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الخلاصة

Crop production function for some crops in Mosul area are estimated. These crops are wheat and legume، as winter crops ،and corn and cotton ، as summer crops. A computer model was constructed to program daily irrigation for the four crops under investigation in order to find the relative production of each crop. The simulation model is based on daily water balance analysis on 20 years of climatological data for the period 1980-2000. Daily soil moisture depletion is evaluated, the model predicts the data and amount of irrigation when the soil moisture depletion in the root zone exceeds the maximum level of percent allowable depletion. The model is designed to give maximum daily deficit, irrigation water through the growing season ,daily and seasonal effective rainfall and actual evapotranspiration and seaonal relative production. Two production functions، linear and quadratic were assumed, the first is between relative production and amount of seasonal irrigation, and the second relation is between relative production and actual evapotranspiration . It was also found that the difference between the linear and quadratic production function is small but the correlation coefficient for quadratic production function is more than that for the linear function. The computer model can be used to estimate crop production function for other crops by changing crop data.

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Article
GENOTYPE – ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION IN DURUM WHEAT
التداخل الوراثي ـ البيئي في الحنطة الخشنة

المؤلفون: K. M. Dawod خالد محمد داؤد
الصفحات: 192-202
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الخلاصة

Ten durum wheat varieties (Sham3, Crezo, Semito, Icsad65, Abeu, Avanto, LD357E, Um-Rabie5, Bagrajo1 and Waha) were evaluated under rainfed conditions at Duhok using randomized complete block design with three replications for the two seasons 2004/2005 and 2005/2005. Four different row spacing between rows in each season (10, 15, 20 and 25 cm) were used. GE interaction was analyzed using linear regression techniques. Data recorded on: No. days to 50% flowering, plant height, No. of active tillers per plant, spike length, No. of grains per spike, biological yield per plant, grain yield per plant, 1000 grain weight, harvest index and protein percent. Combined analysis results showed that genotypes and environment mean square were significant for all studied characters except protein percent, where environments mean square not significant. GE interaction was significant for all characters except for No. days to 50% flowering and protein percent. Broad sense heritability appeared high for all characters. Simple correlation coefficient was positive and significant for grain yield per plant with plant height, biological yield and harvest index, for 1000 grain weight with plant height and for harvest index with No. of tillers per plant and no. of grains per spike. Stability parameters estimated by Eberhart and Russell method showed that Sham3 variety have stable performance in different environments for No. days to 50% flowering, plant height, No. of active tillers per plant and protein percent.

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Article
RESPONSE OF LENTIL CROP TO SOME SYSTEMS OF INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT IN NORTHERN IRAQ
استجابة محصول العدس للإدارة المتكاملة لمكافحة الأدغال في شمال العراق

المؤلفون: A.M.Sultan أحمد محمد سلطان
الصفحات: 203-216
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الخلاصة

Weed control study on lentil were conducted during growing season 2004 – 2005 at Dohuk and Singar in north Iraq. to determine the effect of different methods of weed control as integrated weed management .Cultural practices been used in different rates of seedling (60.100.140 Kg /ha). Also nitrogen fertilizer had used (0.0.40.80 Kg N/ha) while chemical methods (herbicides) used such as Treflan 1.08.1.44 and Focus ultra 0.1.0.2 L.a.i /ha). The results indicated that weeds compete lentil strongly and reduce lentil yield potentially. Weed density at Dohuk was more higher than at Singar. Increasing rate of seeding was able to improve the competition power against broad leaf weeds at Dohuk. which 100 kg/ha at Dohuk and 140 kg/ha at Singar had increased the seeds yield of lentil. Different levels of fertilizer use had insignificant result in increasing lentil yield .In general. rate of seeding had more important role for seed yield increasing than nitrogen fertilization . Focus ultra had reduced narrow leaf weed biomass at Dohuk up to 77.80% for two concentrations of herbicide respectively. where as Treflan had less effect (13.3.10.8%). On the other hand Terflan was more effect on broad leaves. biomass weeds than Focus which gave up to 74.77% if it camper with 28.30% for two doses of Focus ultra respectively.But there was no clear evidence in increasing seed yield related to increase herbicides doses. The best result in seed yield had seen at Dohuk when used Treflan at 1.44 La.i /ha with 140Kg/ha seed rate under 80Kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer. These results had also seen at Singar but under 40 Kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer.

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Article
STUDYING THE EFFECT OF THREE FACTORS ON THE WATER DISTRIBUTION UNIFORMITY USING STATIONARY SPRINKLER IRRIGATION SYSTEM
دراسة بعض العوامل المؤثرة في معامل تناسق توزيع الماء تحت نظام الري بالرش الثابت

المؤلفون: Essam A. Taha عصام عبدالقادر طه
الصفحات: 217-221
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted in the fields of Agriculture and Forestry collage in March 2005 to investigate the effect of a sprinkler spray nozzle heights (30 and 90 cm), spray nozzle diameter (3.1 4, 3.1 5 and 3.1 6 mm) soil surface level (sloped 20 %) and leveled and the interaction effect of the three previous factors on the water distribution uniformity. The randomized block design and Duncan's multiple range test for comparison between the means were used. Results showed that there was no significant differences between the water distribution uniformity of the soil surface levels. However, the spray nozzle height of 90 cm gave the highest water distribution (58.05%) and it was significantly differ from other height (30cm) the spray nozzle diameter of 3.1 6 mm gave the highest water distribution (58.627%) compared with other diameter. The interaction between spray nozzle height of 90 cm and diameter of 3.1 6 mm with level soil surface gave the best water distribution of 72.51% while the same spray nozzle height and diameter and sloped surface (20%) the second best water distribution (69.14%).

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Article
EFFECT OF INCREESE AND DECREASE OF PROPOLIS GATHERING ON THE EUROPEAN FOULBROOD FOR SOME OF HONEY BEES RACES
تأثير زيادة أو نقصان جمع البروبولس على الاصابة بمرض تعفن الحضنة الاوربي لبعض سلالات نحل العسلApis mellifera L.) )

المؤلفون: Salim Jameel Jarjees سالم جميل جرجيس
الصفحات: 222-232
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الخلاصة

The relation of increase or decrease gathering of propolis on infection with European Foulbrood when studying three races of honey bees that varied in their behavior of gathering propolis for five periods showed to be higher in the colonies of the Criniolian race, followed by the Italian and local Iraqi race 113.9 , 95.5 and 45.8 mm2/colony, respectively. According to Duncan's' multiple range test at (p=0.05). The study also showed that the highest increase of infected area associated with European Foulbrood was in June,with an average of (132.3 mm2/colony) with the lowest was in March, averaging (11.0 mm2 /colony) for the three different races.The local Iraqi race gathered the highest quantities of propolis, followed by the Italian race, and the Criniolian race 3.1 , 1.6 and 1.3 gr./ frame, respectively. The results showted that the highest quantities of propolis was gathered in June with an average of (2.8 gr./ frame) and the lowest quantities were gathered in March with an average of (1.1 gr. / frame ).

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