Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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Contact info

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2012 volume:43 issue:4

Article
EFFECT OF MAGNETIZED IRRIGATION WATER AND FERTILIZER LEVELS ON YIELD CHARACTERISTICS OF BREAD WHEAT
تأثير مياه الري الممغنطة ومستويات الأسمدة في صفات الحاصل لحنطة الخبز

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Abstract

Afield experiment was carried out during the winter seasons of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 at the farm of Department of Field Crop Sciences, College of Agriculture-University of Baghdad, to evaluate the response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) yield to irrigation with magnetized water and levels of fertilizers. A randomized complete block design by split plot arrangement was used with three replications. The main plots included four levels of magnetic water strength 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 GS, while the subplots included four levels of fertilizer 0, 1/2, 2/3 and 1F from the recommended level. The results showed that no significant effect of magnetized irrigation water on all yield characteristics studied was found in both seasons, although noticeable increasing was observed in some characteristics, such as number of spikes, number of grain in spike and biological yield in both seasons. However the levels of fertilizer significantly affected most yield characteristics of wheat in both seasons, and the recommended fertilizer level of 1 F caused greater effect on number of spikes 317.07 spike.m-2, number of grains in spike 61.95 grain.spike-¹, grain yield 6.20 t.ha-¹, biological yield 16.78 t.ha-¹, harvest index 37.03%, in first season, and number of spikes 318.55 spike.m-2, number of grain.spike-¹ 62.47 grain.spike-¹, grain yield 6.03 t.ha-¹, biological yield 15.65 t.ha-¹, harvest index 38.49% at second season as compared with others fertilizer levels. It was concluded that there was no significant responses of bread wheat cultivar IPA 99 to magnetized irrigation water. Irrigation with magnetized water did not lead to reduction in the fertilizer level usually applied to bread wheat. We recommend further studies to determine the response of other varieties of wheat and plant species to different magnetic irrigation water, and using other types of magnetic field and the forces are different, as the plant response to this technology vary according to species, plant species, types of forces and the magnetic field.

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Article
EFFECT OF WATER STRESS AND HILL SPACING ON SEED YIELD AND SOME GROWTH TRAITS OF SUNFLOWER
تأثير الاجهاد المائي ومسافات الزراعة بين النباتات في نمو وحاصل زهرة الشمس

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Abstract

To study the effect of different water regimes and hill spacing on some growth traits, grain yield, consumptive use and water use efficiency of sunflower, a field trial was conducted at experimental farm, College of Agriculture, Abu Ghraib, Baghdad, Iraq, during the fall season of 2009 and 2010. A factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Control treatment [(S1) a depletion of 50% of available water] and three other treatments S2, S3, S4 which represented 75%, 50% and 25% of the water amount of the control. Results showed that there was no significant difference between S1 (control treatment) and S2 irrigation treatment (75% of the watering amount of the control) in grain yield , leaf area index , plant hight , stem diameter , head size , and number of seed / head which means a 1200 m3 amount of water per / ha could be saved in both seasons.Plant population had significant effect on some growth traits under investigation. Increasing plant population from 44400 to 66666 plant / ha by change in distance within the plants increasing the values of plant hight, leaf area index, grain yield, water use efficiency. We therefore recommend that in the case of limited possibility of irrigation water by 75% by the need of full irrigation (50% depletion of available water) without a significant decrease in product of the grain yield.

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Article
EVALUATION OF OXADIARGYL HERBICIDE IN RICE WEED CONTROL
تقييم كفاءة مبيد Oxadiargyl في مكافحة أدغال الرز

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An experimental field was conducted at Al-Meshkhab Rice Research Station at Najaf governorate during 2008-2009 seasons to evaluate of oxadiargyl herbicide to control weeds and its effect on growth, yield and yield components for Anber 33 rice cultivar. Seeds were grown by dry seeding method at 20 June at each season. The treatments included: applied oxadiargyl in 150 cm3.ha-1 after 8 days of sowing (T1), 300 cm3.ha-1 (T2), 150 cm3.ha-1+10 liter.ha-1propanil after 14 days from sowing (T3), 300 cm3.ha-1 + 10 liter.ha-1 of propanil (T4), propanil of 10 liter.ha-1 at 14 days of sowing (T5) and check treatment (without control) (T6).A RCBD with three replications was used. Results showed the distribution of narrow leaf weeds. Herbicide treatments showed reduction in numbers of weeds especiallyEchinocholoa crus-galli L. andCyperusodoratus L., and decreased weed dry weight from 131.34 to 9.55 and from 149.67 to 11.19 g in both seasons, respectively. Oxadiargyl at 300 cm3.ha-1 attained significant increment in plant height (143.33 and 145.67 cm), number of panicle.m-2 (462.33 and 393.67), panicle length (27.5 and 32.4 cm), number of filled grain/panicle (166.4 and 172.9), weight of 1000 grains (21.5 and 22.2 g) and paddy yield (5.54 and 5.96 t.ha-1) for both seasons respectively. However this treatment led to reduction of sterility percentage. It can be concluded and recommend to use of oxadiargyl herbicide alone (300cm3.ha-1) or mixed (150 cm3.ha-1) with propanil (10 liters.ha-1) to control of weeds in rice fields in Iraq.

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Article
INHIBITION ACTIVITY OF CLOVE HEXANE EXTRACT, CINNAMON AND DATURA ETHANOL EXTRACT AGAINST ERWINA CAROTOVORA SUB SP. ATROSEPTICA CAUSATIVE AGENT OF SOFT ROT AND BLACK STEM DISEASE
الكفاءة التثبيطية للمستخلص الهكساني للقرنفل والمستخلص الكحولي للدارسين والداتورة ضد البكتريا ERWINIA CAROTOVORA SUBSP. ATROSEPTICA المسببة لمرض تعفن واسوداد ساق البطاطا

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Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Clove hexane extract, Cinnamon and Datura ethanol extracts against Erwinia carotovora sub sp. atroseptica causative agent of soft rot and black stem in potato on nutrient agar (NA) medium and under field natural conditions. The concentration, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5% of the 3 extract were mixed with the medium (NA) before solidification, and poured in sterile Petridishes 9cm diameter. The bacterial suspension (0.1 ml from 24 brs old culture) was spread on the medium and incubated at 25:2ºC .Colonies number was determined after 48 of incubation and inhibition percentage was calculated. Results showed that clove hexane extract at 0.2% was more effective than Cinnamon and Datura ethanol extracts at the same concentration with inhibition percentages 100%, 94%, and 88.8% for the three extracts respectively. The inhibition percentage of bacterial growth at 108 CFU /ml was found to be 100% with the concentrations 0.5, 1, 3, 5% for the three extracts. The treatment of tubers or the soil with Clove, Cinnamon, and Dature extracts at 0.2, 0.5, 0.5% respectively, was led to inhibition of E.C. atroseptica growth completely (zero infection) which indicate that it is necessary to focused on the elimination of primary infection sources in control program. The application of the extracts on the foliage of plants grown from bacterial contaminated tubers was led to reduce the infection to 80% compared with 100% in control plants, which indicate that treating plants after infection is ineffective. The spraying of foliage by the extract 0.2, 0.5, 0.5% at of plants grown from uncontaminated tubers in non-treated soil, then contaminated with bacteria by the extracts of Clove, Cinnamon, Datura at 0.2, 0.5, 0.5% after 48hrs of spraying led to reduction the infection percentage to 30, ,30, and 50% respectively compared with 100% in control plants, which indicate that the active compound in the extract induced systemic resistance in the plant against the bacteria.

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Article
NEW RECORD OF SANCASSANIA MITE ON WORKERS OF TERMITE IN IRAQ AND ITS EFFECT ON MORTALITY
أول تسجيل لجنس الحلم الأكاريدي Sancassania علـى شغالات حشرة الأرضة فـي العراق وأثره في قتلها

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Abstract

Mites Sancassania sp. Oudemans from the family (Acaridae) Order Astigmata was registered first time in Abu–Gharib city in Iraq on individuals of termites (Miceocerotermes diversus (Silv.)) in 2010 .The presence of large numbers second nymphyl instar (hypopus instar ) on the body of workers especially at head , chest , and limbs , had caused weakness and death to workers due to paralysis and inability to feed . This 2nd nemphal instar is completely differ in morphology and behavior with other nymphyl instar and adult stage .Deutonymph stage is characterized by yellowish or Brown color, cylindrical or oval form , the upper convex ,the front legs most clear than other legs . Mouth part is vestigial and the abdominal surface with sucker plates .While the adult stage and other stages are characterized by oval soft bodies , light yellowish color , all legs cleared , setaceous distributed with all parts of body. Mouth part active and free fasting movement . It was also seen that the adults and other stage of mites were feeding on workers cadavers under laboratories condition leaving corpuses with head capsule and thin layer of cuticle . The effects of different densities of mite (4 , 8 , 10 ) mite / worker that may cause death of workers on culture media revealed that (8 , 10) caused a similar effect on killing workers , with an advantage on density 4 (mites / worker).. Mortality percentage rate was 33.50 , 93.75 ,95.31 % after 15 days of infection to densities 4, 8 ,10 mite worker respectively, incubation condition 30 ± 5o C. Whenever the number of mite increase the death of workers be faster , from a biological control point of view , the mites were not good candidates for controlling termites.

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Article
EVALUATION OF FOLIAGE SPRAY OF SOME RESISTANCE INDUCED CHEMICAL AGENTS TO CONTROL DOWNY MILDEW DISEASE OF CUCUMBER
تقويم كفاءة رش مركبات استحثاث المقاومة على المجموع الخضري في مكافحة مرض البياض الزغبي على الخيار

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of β- Aminobutyric acid, Chitosan, compound, and Salicylic acid as a resistance inducing agents in cucumber plants against downy mildew disease caused by Pseudoperonosporacubensis(Berk. & Curt.)Rostow compared to fosetyl- Al. Results of this study revealed that there was a significant effects of the above agents in reducing the percentage of infected leaves, disease index (DI) and the rate of disease increase (r) compared with control treatment. Results also indicated the prescience of high efficiency of β- Aminobutyric acid when it used as a foliage spray at 2000 µg/ml concentration two days after the artificial inoculation with fungal suspension.Results also improved the efficiency of β- Aminobutyric acid at 1000 µg/ml concentration, Chitosan at 2000 µg/ml concentration asfoliage treatments two days before the inoculation with fungal suspension in reducing the disease infection. The spray of β- Aminobutyric acid on cucumber plants at 2000 µg/ml conc. two days after the inoculation with fungal suspension resulted in reducing infection of downy mildew compared with fungicide or control treatment. Results of this work also revealed that the higher the concentration used the more effects were got compared to lower concentration. Foliar spray with chitosan was superior over the spray with salicylic acid, fosetyl- Al and resulted in decreasing the disease infection percentage, disease index and rate of disease increase and also superior over fosety-Al spray treatment.

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Article
EFFICIENCYOF PROJECTS PERFORMANCE OF GREENHOUSES IN THE GOVERNOR OF KARBALA IN 2009-2010
كفاءة أداء مشاريع البيوت البلاستيكية في محافظة كربلاء للعام 2009-2010

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Vegetables occupy an important role in agricultural production and they are an essential source of food for different people and an effective factor in agricultural production development. The aim of research is to analyze the efficiency of economic performance of vegetables cultivated in greenhouses. The study was carried out by choosing a deliberate sample of vegetables farms cultivated in greenhouses in Karbala containing 92 farms included 982 greenhouses which represented 53% of total greenhouses in the province. The results showed that the total investment costs were ID 4717 million’s and 85% of the investments were the costs of greenhouses and the average investment cost for each house was ID 5.76 million’s. the results also showed that the total fixed costs were id 825.3 million’s and the average fixed cost for each house ID 840 thousands and the average variable cost for each house was ID 2292 thousands and the variable costs consisted 73% of total costs for each house which were ID 3133 thousands. The application of the economic performance criteria (net money income, financial profit, average return on investment, the return on invested dinar, and the productivity of capital) showed that the net money income was ID 1934675 and the financial profit per house was ID 1117390 which indicated the profitability of farms sample. The results also showed that the average return on investment was 19% which indicated the efficiency of farm management of the sample as it achieved a return more than the rate of loans interests. The invested dinar yield was 1.357 which means that the profit per dinar was ID 0.357

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Article
ECONOMIC STUDY FOR THE MOSTIMPORTANT FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE THE FARM NET INCOM IN DIYALA GOVERNORATE - Jalowla Case Study-
دراسة اقتصادية لأهم العوامل المحددة لصافي الدخل المزرعي

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Abstract

The agricultural sector was caractarizedupon the other sectors according to its influences in the national income ,butliving standard in this sector was very low as compared with the living standard in the other sectors. The aim of this research was to study the influence of the most important factors affect the farm net income. The data from different sectors were taken randomly from 29 farms in Diyala governorate.Econometrical methods to study the relation between the changing in net farm income and other factors such as the area of the farm .The value of equbement and bulding, the production cost, the production value for the planting and animals sectors, the number of family and the age of the farmer. Theexperimental results showedthat the liner equation was the best method for this study. The studied factor showed 88% of the changes in the followed factor except the values of land building and equbement ,the age of the farmer and the production of animals sectors.The our results showed that the size of the farm and the increment of this size influenced the farm net income.The results of this study also showed that the majority of the farmer which included 65% used about 5ha. from the farm and that will decreased the yield of the farm. The income per hacter was increased due to the increases in the size of the farm specially in the range of 7.5 -10 ha up to 2.6 million Dinar per ha.The income of the farmer was 2.1 milliondinarfrom the farm income.

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Article
THE COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF FISH PRODUCTION IN IRAQ
الميزة النسبية لإنتاج الأسماك في العراق

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Fish production is considered an important part of people's food in different parts of the world. It is also considered an important component of the economies of many countries in the world including Arab countries. Some of these countries are characterized by their efficient production and consequently their comparative advantage on the world scale. The aim of this study is to measure protection coefficients and the comparative advantage of fish production in Iraq .It also aimed at specifying the nature of intervention policy in fish production in Iraq by using policy analysis matrix. Technique through which the efficiency and competitiveness of domestic fish production on world level can be determined. By estimation of policy analysis matrix elements, revenue transfers I, tradable input transfers J, factors transfers K, were calculated which were13724thousand dinars/hectare,-2636 thousand dinars/hectare,-80 thousand dinars/hectare, consecutively. Net transfer L, was about 16440 thousand dinars /hectare, which could be explained that government intervention was in favor of fish producers in short run, the results also showed that domestic producer achieved private profitability by investing in fish projects according to the value of private profitability (D) which was about 7305.6 thousand dinars /hectare in comparison with social profitability (H) which appeared with negative value of about 9136 thousand dinars / hectare. In addition Iraq hasn't a comparative advantage in fish production in comparison with the rest of the world as the value of domestic resource cost (DRC) appeared with negative value of -0.80 in spite of the support which the domestic producer received whether for the product or the subsidies for tradable inputs according to the values of NPCI and producer subsidy ratio which were about 0.81 and %180 respectively. The study arrived at some suggestion according to conclusion.

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Article
DETERMINATION OF FIELD PERFORMANCE OF CHISEL PLOW AND SPRING CULTIVATOR
تحديد كفاءة أداء المحراث الحفار والعازقة النابضية

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An experiment was conducted on the field of the College of Agriculture at Abu-Ghraib in 2011.This was to study some technical parameters for machinery units .The study consisted of two factors: first factor was practical depth with two levels: 10 and 20 cm represented main plots, second factor was tractor speed with two levels(3.11 and 5.61) km/h representing sub plots, . Slippage percentage, practical productivity, field efficiency and soil disturbed volume were studied in this experiment. The results showed that spring cultivator gave best performance in scored higher speed (4.013 Km/hr) while chisel plow scored lower speed( 3.808Km/hr) , spring cultivator gave lower slippage percentage (8.40%), while chisel plow gave higher slippage percentage( 12.81%) . Spring cultivators gave best performance in scored higher practical productivity )0.761ha/hr) while chisel plow scored gave lower practical productivity ) 0.675ha/hr) , spring cultivators gave best performance in scored higher field efficiency (%58.3) while chisel plow scored gave lower field efficiency) 47.4%) , spring cultivators gave best performance in scored higher soil disturbed volume (987 m3/h) while chisel plow scored gave lower soil disturbed volume (888 m3/h).The spring cultivator gave best performance as compared with chisel plow in recording low slippage percentage, higher practical productivity, ,higher field efficiency and higher soil disturbed volume as well ass the depth 10 cm gave best performance in recording low slippage percentage ,higher practical productivity ,higher field efficincy and the slow speed gave the lower slippage percentage.

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Article
STUDYING SOME TECHNICAL INDICATORS FOR A COTTON PLANTERUNDER DRY CONDITIONS
دراسة بعض المؤشرات الفنية لباذرة قطن في ظروف الزراعة الديمية باستخدام تقانات الزراعة الدقيقة

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The experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance indicators for NewHolland Tractor TM 140 and Massey Ferguson TSB 555 precision planter, eight lines, in Sudan. Air pressure system with two levels included 2.0 and 2.5 PSI represented main plots. Planter speed with three levels included 6.36,8.7 and 10.14 km/h were sub plots.A split plot arrangement with (RCBD) three replications was used. Effective field capacities, field efficiency, amount of seeds per meter and fuel consumption werestudied. Ag leader control was installed in the NewHolland tractor to control and measure the indicators of the performance for both planter and tractor. The results showed that increasing of air pressure system from 2 to 2.5 PSI increased the amount of seeds from 8.5 to 8.8 seeds per meter and increase fuel consumption from 13.68 to 14.37 lit/hand increase slippage percentage from 8.21 to 9.61% but decreased effective field capacity from 4.74 to 4.66 hec/hand also decrease field efficiency from 92.00 to 90.34 %. The increasing of practical velocity from 6.36 to 8.7then to 10.14 increased effective field capacity from 3.66 to 4.86 to 5.67hec/h,fuel consumption from 12.79 to 13.67 to 15.62 lit/hand slippage percentage from 5.50 to 7.70 then to 13.56 %, but decrease field efficiency from 94.46 to 92.28 then to 86.42 %. Best performance for each planter and tractor at 2 PSI and practical velocity 8.77 km/hr where the average of seeds 9.2 seeds/meter, field efficiency 93.08%, fuel consumption 13.14 lit/h and slippage percentage 6.9%.It can be recommended for this speed and pressure when working in this or similar conditions and the importance of using modern technologies in agriculture fields and make training courses for farmers about it.

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Article
EXTRACTION OF CATECHINS FROM WASTES OF PRESSED GRAPES AND STUDY OF ITS ACTIVITY AS ANTIMICROBIAL*
استخلاص الكاتكينات من مخلفات العنب المعصور ودراسة فعاليتها المضادة للأحياء المجهرية *

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This experiment was carried out for extracting catechins form waste of grape juice .The extractions were tested as antimicrobial,and was carried out in two methods , mix sample with distilled water (1:10) and with ethyl acetate ethyl acetate and distilled water (10:90) adding 50 ml hexane for economic reason, active samples have been tested against some organism (7 of them were bacteria) Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus cereus , Bacillus subtitlis, Salmonella typhimurium , staphylococcus aureus , Escherishia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens,and 2 of them were Yeasts ; Kluyveromycesmarxianus and candida albicans,and 2 of them were Molds ; AspergillusnigerandRhizobusstolonifer .for the later, the method of disk diffusion and agar dilution method were used. : the antimicrobial effectiveness for extracts were verified according to the variation of the extracts and the microorganism type. While the yeasts and molds showed less sensitivity toward the extracts, except waste grape juice extract which showed antimicrobial activity against A. niger with proportion of 27.55% at the concentration 200 microgram/ ml.Upon the qualitative estimation of inhibition effectiveness for the three extracts against bacteria, E.coli ,Bacillus cereus and B.stearothermophilus were choosed. and the limited inhibition was estimated , there was no inhibition at 100 ppm , while the concentrations 250 ppm for both grape seeds extract and the concentrations 500ppm for waste grape juice extract,were the best inhibition concentrations. against the three bacteria mentioned . The percentage of inhibition of the concentrations used at 250, 500 ,750 and 1000 ppm against the bacteria B.stearothermophilus were 30.76, 53.84, 23.07 and 7.69% respectively,and the percentage of inhibition of Bacillus cereus were 77.33, 81.33, 66.66 and 66.66% respectively,and the values of inhibition of bacteria, E. coli were 90, 93.75, 75 and 63.75%respectively.

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Article
KNOWLEDGE OF GRAPE FARMERS IN THE AREA OF SERVICE OF THE CROP AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH SOME FACTORS IN THE DISTRICT OF BALAD
معرفة زراع العنب في مجال عمليات خدمة المحصول وعلاقتها ببعض العوامل في قضاء بلد

Authors: Ali L. Jasim علي لطيف جاسم
Pages: 121-135
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ABSTRACT: The grape crop of economic importance the big land-use others are valid for types of fruit such as sandy soil and land a few fertility and land shallow as it is important to stabilize soil and prevent erosion as well as the growing importance of the fruit and its products from fresh fruit, raisins, juice and use its leaves in the human dietary as well as for medical treatments. So the aim this research is to measure the level of knowledge of growers of grapes in the field of service operations yield addition determine the level of knowledge in the field of service soil and environmental friendly service and the crop and the field of propagation and the maturity and the field of diseases, insects and jungle, as well as diagnosis of the relationship between their level of knowledge and some of the independent factors, and also stand, the problems and constraints faced by farmers in the process of grapes production. This research was conducted on a random sample of 172 farmers, representing 11% of grape growers in the Balad. The results of the research that the level of knowledge of grape growers in the area of service of the crape is described as a weak to moderate. And found significant positive correlation positive correlation with each variable of the financial benefits (income) of the grape crop and variable academic achievement of the growers and the trend towards variable extension and variable sources of information. Also found significant negative correlation with the inverse variable participating in training courses for grapes. It recommends that research should be of interest to the feedback from farmers as well as providing technical support and goal to provide beam guiding integrated and relating to service vintage by direct contact with farmers and the establishment of specialized training courses in this area and in a form which contributes to the improvement and development of their levels of knowledge as well as increasing the confidence of farmers the role of the agricultural extension system in the countryside.

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Article
USING IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR CABBAGE AND ASSESSING WATER USE EFFICIENCY
استخدام نظم لادارة ري اللهانة وتقييم كفاءة استخدام الماء

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This research was conducted to assess the amount of water added for Cabbage, the actual evapotranspirtion, ETa and the water use efficiency under different irrigation systems including Micro-sprinkler irrigation (MSI), drip irrigation (DI), sub surface drip irrigation (SDI), and furrow irrigation (FI). The experiment was conducted in a field specialized in vegetable production in northern Baghdad at autumn season 2009 (latitude 33 north and longitude 45 east). The experiment was designed according to RCBD in four replications. The amount and time of irrigation were identified depending on the attrition of soil moisture by assessing the moisture content until the depletion of 50-55% of available water. The equation of water balance was used to determine ETa for each stages of plant growth (vegetative growth, leaves wrap, maturity and harvest). The results showed that the amounts of irrigation water were 3417.80, 2080.86, 1733.75 and 4612.44, m3.ha-1 for MSI, DI, SDI and FI respectively. Micro-irrigation systems (MSI, DI, and SDI) saved amount of irrigation water about 26%, 55%, and 62% comparing with FI. The total of ETa of cabbage was 405.82, 380.68, 364.70, and 393.43, mm.season-1 for MSI, DI, SDI, and FI respectively. The highest consumption of water was obtained at the MSI treatment. The increased percentage is 6.6%, 11.2% and 3.1% for DI, SDI and FI respectively. While the ETa increased percentage is 3.3% and 7.8% for FI treatment comparing with DI and SDI, respectively. The DI treatment increased 4.4% comparing with SDI. It is clear that micro-irrigation systems have reduced the amount of irrigation water and also reduced the water consumption of the plant, increased water use efficiency and saved 50% of irrigation water as compared with Furrow irrigation system.

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Article
EFFECT OF RAM EXPOSURE ON POSTPARTUM UTERINE INVOLUTION AND LUTEAL FUNCTION OF AWASSI EWES IN TEMPERATE REGION.
أثر تعريض النعاج العواسية للكبش على حركة أرتداد الرحم و وظيفة الجسم الأصفرخلال فترة ما بعد الولادة في المنطقة المعتدلة.

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Turkish Awassi ewes lambing in December and January (n = 30) were used to evaluate the effect of ram exposure onpostpartum uterine involution, volume of lochia, luteal function, dimater of endometrium, carnncle size, and luteal function ( progesterone concentration) Ewes were allotted in to two groups. Group 1 exposed to vasectomized rams (exposed group) one day post lambing day. The other group was kept isolated from rams (control) until day 63post partum. The diameter of each uterine horn was measured using trans abdominal and trans rectal ultrasounography every 7 days starting from days 7 post lambing. Blood samples were collected at these times from jugular vein. The plasma was harvested for progesterone assay. Intrauterine volume of lochia and size of endometeriumcaruncles were scoring on scale coded from 1-4. The result of experiment indicated that the diameters of uterine horns, volume of lochia, and size of caruncles were not different between two groups during early postpartum period until 42 days post lambing and progesterone concentration to day 63 post lambing. The exposed ewes come to estrous and became pregnant earlier than isolated ewes when mixed with fertile ram 3-4 months post lambing. The result of the present study indicate that exposure of Turkish ewes to ram during deep anestrous postpartum period had no effect on uterine involution, luteal function but the exposure ewes came to fertile estrous and became pregnant earlier than non exposure ewes when mixed with rams three month later.

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