جدول المحتويات

مجلة زراعة الرافدين العراقية

ISSN: 1815316X
الجامعة: جامعة الموصل
الكلية: الزراعة والغابات
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين لأول مرة عام 1966 واستمرت لغاية عام 1982، وتوقفت بعد ذلك لمدة ثلاث سنوات بسبب القرار الوزاري بتوزيع المجلات العلمية على الجامعات العراقية وحسب الاختصاصات حيث كانت حصة العلوم الزراعية لجامعة صلاح الدين التي أصدرت المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية (زانكو)، وكانت المجلة الوحيدة في العلوم الزراعية في وزارة التعليم العالي والبحث العلمي ، ثم صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين مرة أخرى وذلك في عام 1986 واستمرت إلى عام 2000 إذ تم اعتماد مجلة زراعة الرافدين مجلة قطرية وبهذا تم تغير اسمها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية . وحصلت على الرقم الدولي ISSN 1609-4077 واستمرت بالصدور إلى المجلة إلى عام 2004 إذ تم إعادة اسم المجلة إلى مجلة زراعة الرافدين واعتبرت مجلة قطرية – دورية-علمية – محكمة وحصلت على الرقم الدولي الجديد ISSN 1815-316X وصدر المجلد 33 العدد 1 وهو تسلسل مجلة زراعة الرافدين إذ أن المجلة أصدرت 32 مجلد قبل تحويلها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية. واستمرت المجلة في الصدور إلى الوقت الحاضر 2012 المجلد (40) .

كانت المجلة عند صدورها عام 1966 بعدد واحد سنوياً، وحالياً تصدر بأربعة أعداد دورية لكل سنة. ولابد من الإشارة إلى أن المجلة في بداية إصدارها عام 1966 كان يضم العدد خمسة بحوث باللغة الانكليزية، وتزايدت في الوقت الحاضر لتضم 30 بحثاً باللغتين العربية والانكليزية .

حصلت المجلة خلال مدة عملها على تقييمات وزارية عالية فقد حصلت هيئة التحرير في عام 1996 على كتاب شكر وتقدير من السيد الوزير لتميز المجلة ، كما اعتبرت المجلة متميزة في عام 2009 أيضا إذ حصلت على درع الوزارة وشهادة تقديرية .وقد حصلت المجلة في سنة 2012 على الاعتمادية الدولية وبالتالي اصبحت في متناول جميع دول العالم .

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معلومات الاتصال

E-mail:agrimeso@yahoo.com

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2009 المجلد: 37 العدد: 2

Article
THE ROLE OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN FIGHTING POVERTY IN IRAQ FOR THE PERIOD 1980-2005
دور التنمية الريفية في مكافحة الفقر في العراق للمدة 1980 -2005

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الخلاصة

Poverty is considered a complicated phenomenon which has serious social, political and economic dimensions. Poverty scope is unlimited by a certain geographic region or a certain period of time. If the problem of poverty had increased and with no solution for it, then, there would have been negative reflections that might have threatened the whole community. Thus, this research aims at explaining the role of rural development in fighting poverty in Iraq for the period 1980-2005 by recognizing the economic variables of development. The relation represented poverty index (Individual Share of Income) being a relevant variable and its Limited factors. These factors are (Agricultural Investment, Invested capital in agriculture, cultivated area, Agricultural Productivity, Inhabitants of the Countryside, and expenditure on Education) as being independent variables. It has been clear throughout the analysis that there is an effect for Capital invested in agriculture, agricultural productivity, income demand flexibility has been estimated to recognize the economic welfare of agricultural sector in Iraq. The ratio is 1.7%.This signifies that individual income in this sector does not achieve the wishes in Consumption. Therefore, agricultural sector in Iraq Suffers from shortage of providing so many necessary needs for production, investment and agricultural techniques. The backwardness of agricultural development in Iraq represents the most significant features of productivity imbalances in which the Iraqi economy faces. This has been reflected upon poverty in agricultural sector. People living in rural areas under poverty line from 70 -80 % and it is a high percentage . Therefore, it is necessary to use policies and rural development programs which may work to increase local capacities and to concentrate upon the poor and to encourage sustainable development and to find out new chances for work.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ESTIMATING IMPORT FUNCTIONS OF MAIN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS IN SELECTED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES FOR PERIOD 1980-2005
تقدير دوال استيرادات بعض المنتجات الزراعية الرئيسة في بلدان نامية مختارة للمدة 1980- 2005

المؤلفون: Kays Nadhim Ghazal قيس ناظم غزال
الصفحات: 11-17
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الخلاصة

The research aims at estimating and analyzing the function of imports of some main agricultural products in some developing countries from 1980- 2005. Four developing countries were chosen : Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Syria. These countries are characterized by increase of the quantities of their imports of four types of agricultural crops: Sesame, wheat, rice, and sugar. An econometrical model was used in three formulas which are : linear double- logramatic, and semi – logramatic to estimate the functions of the imports for the mentioned products during the research period. To prove the hypothesis, we have depended on the economical theory concepts and the previous studies which discussed the same subject and collected the variables of study from time serials data and to each country individually because they represent its properties and features which vary from one country to another, and the following conclusions were found : The significant variable (local product) of rice and (the foreign exchange rate) in affecting rice imports in Morocco; the significant variables (purchase price) in importing sesame in Egypt and rice in Morocco; the significant variables (National income) in importing sesame in Egypt and rice in Morocco and sugar in Syria; the significant variable (population rate) in importing wheat in Jordan, rice in Morocco and Sugar in Syria.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE IMPACT OF RISK ON THE OPTIMUM LEVELS OF THE RESOURCES OF PRODUCING TWO CLASSES OF COTTON: COKER 310 AND ASUR IN NIMROD DISTRICT NINEVAH GOVERNORATE
أثر المخاطرة على المعدلات المثلى لموارد إنتاج صنفي القطن كوكر 310 وآشور في منطقة النمرود / محافظة نينوى*

المؤلفون: Imad Y. Asmail عماد يوسف إسماعيل
الصفحات: 18-24
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الخلاصة

The study aimed at estimating the optimum use levels of seeds, fertilizer, machinery and manual work resources involved in producing Coker 310 and Asur classes of cotton depending on field data, season 2001-2002 and for the sample, consisting of 72 farmers in Nimrod district/Ninevah governorate. The risk impact on the optimum levels were studied, because the economic studies that ignore risk in solving the rain-dependent cultivation problems recommend levels, which exceed the levels of the use imposed by risk. When we compare the optimum levels of production resources under the risk conditions, we observe that they are smaller under certainty conditions. For the class Coker 310, levels were 1.41% for seeds, 13.82% for fertilizers, 3% for machinery and 9.59% for the manual work. The same were for the class Asur as risk leads to the decrease of use levels with the rates; 1.59% for seeds, 13.59% for fertilizers, 2.63% for machinery and 7.31% for the manual work. Results indicated that the class Asur led to decrease the optimum use of seeds and manual work resources, and increased the optimum use of fertilizers and machinery resources compared to the class Coker 310. It is clear that risk-reluctant farmers will respond to the risk conditions they encounter by decreasing the use levels of the resources to the minimum. This requires decreasing cotton production resources to decrease the economic loss accompanies that.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF COMPOUND FERTILIZER AND FOLIAR APPLICATION OF IRON , GIBBERELLIC ACID ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF SALEMY POMEGRANATE CULTIVAR (Punica granatum L.) 1. SETTING , GROWTH AND SOME FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS
تأثير السماد المركب NPK والرش بالحديد وحامض الجبرليك في نمو وحاصل الرمان صنف سليمي (Punica granatum L.) 1.العقد ، النمو وبعض الخواص الثمرية

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الخلاصة

This investigation had been conducted in an special orchard in Al-Hawija town which belongs to Kirkuk governorate for two growing seasons during 2005 and 2006 in order to study the effect of NPK fertilizer and foliar application of iron and gibberellic acid (GA3) and their interactions on the setting , growth and some fruit characteristics of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) trees CV. Salemy . The trees fertilized by compound fertilizer (NPK) at rates of 0 , 440 and 880 Kg/Hectare , and the trees were sprayed by iron (Fe–HEEDA) at rates of 0 , 100 and 200 mg Fe/l and gibberellic acid (GA3) was at rates of 0 , 100 and 200 mg GA3/l . The results showed that NPK fertilizer, Iron and gibberellic acid sprayed caused non-significant differences at the flowering, fruit abscission and fruit setting characteristics . There are significant increment in leaves chlorophyll contents, leaf area, flesh percentage of fruit, thickness and weight of epicarps when 880 kg NPK/Hectare fertilizer or 200 mg Fe/l or 200 mg GA3/l were used alone. Interaction between 880 kg NPK/Hectare + 200 mg Fe/l + 200 mg GA3/l gave the best result for the chlorophyll content and the leaf area for both seasons .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZATION AND FOLIAR APPLICATION OF IRON , GIBBERELLIC ACID ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF SALEMY POMEGRANATE CULTIVAR (Punica granatum L.) 2. STUDY THE YIELD AND ITS PHYSIGAL COMPONENTS
تأثير السماد المركب NPK والرش بالحديد وحامض الجبرليك في نمو وحاصل الرمان (Punica granatum L.) صنف سليمي 2.دراسة الحاصل ومكوناته الفيزيائية

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الخلاصة

This investigation had been conducted in an special orchard at Al-Hawija town which belongs to Kirkuk governorate during 2005 and 2006 growing seasons in order to study the effect of NPK fertilizer and foliar application of iron and gibberellic acid (GA3) and their interactions on the growth and yield of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) trees CV. Salemy (local variety) .The results are summarized as follows: Addition of NPK fertilizer at 880 kg NPK/Hectare or the spray with the chelat iron (200 mg Fe/l) and with gibberellic acid at 200 mg GA3/l caused significant increments in total yield of tree, number and weight of fruit per tree, weight of 100 berry and juice percentage of berries .The interactions of 880 kg NPK/Hectare +200 mg Fe/l + 200 mg GA3 /l was the best treatment which caused significantly increased in the total yield, number of fruit per a tree, weight and size of 100 berries and the juice percentage of berries for both seasons.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF PROPAGATION METHODS, SPRAYING WITH PACLOBUTRAZOL AND MICRONUTRIENT ON GROWTH OF Dahlia hybrida cv. Edinburgh, 3-TUBEROUS ROOTS CHARACTERS
تأثير الرش بالباكلوبترازول والعناصر الغذائية الصغرى في نمو نباتات الداليا Dahlia hybrid صنف Edinburgh باستخدام طريقتين للإكثار 3- صفات الجذور المتدرنة

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الخلاصة

This study was carried on Dahlia hybrida cv. Edinburgh, to compare two propagation methods, application of paclobutrazol PBZ at 0, 10 and 20 mg/liter and micronutrients at concentrations 0, 0.25 and 0.50 g/liter on tuberous roots growth. The results can be summarized as follows: The plants propagated by tuberous roots gave significant increase in roots number, fresh and dry weight and specific weight. But tuberous roots of plants propagated from cuttings contained higher percentage of Inulin 13.33 and 9.95% dry weight for two seasons, respectively. Tuberous roots taken from plants treated with 20 mg/liter PBZ gave largest number of tuberous roots and heaviest fresh weight, in addition to Inulin percentage.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF STEM TIP EXCISION, SPRAYING WITH BENZYLADENINE AND CYCOCEL ON FLOWERING OF TWO CULTIVARS OF Gerbera jamesonii
تأثير قرط القمة النامية والرش بالبنزايل أدنين والسايكوسيل في إزهار صنفين من نبات الجربيرا jamesonii Gerbera

المؤلفون: A. O. Al – Atrakchii عمار عمر الأطرقجي
الصفحات: 62-72
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الخلاصة

This study was carried out in the College of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University, between February and November/2006 on Gerbera jamesonii cv. Esstafette (red inflorescence) and Essandre (yellow inflorescence), to investigated the effect of stem tip excision and spraying plants with benzyl adenine (BA) at 0, 250 and 500 mg.l-1 or Cycocel (CCC) at 500 and 1000 mg.l-1 separately, on flowering character. The factorial experiment was conducted by using randomized complete block design, each treatment was replicated three times with four plants in block. The results can be summarized as follows: Inflorescence taken from Essandre plants recorded higher values of diameter 76.50 mm, while Estafette inflorescences recorded longest peduncles 34.32 cm, and dry weight of peduncles.Stem tip excision plants caused a significant decrease of inflorescences number, diameter, and dry weight, in addition to peduncle diameter, and scape dry weight. Spraying plants with BA at 500 mg.l-1 gave a significant increase in inflorescences number 5.52 inflorescence/plant, and dry weight of inflorescence 8.63 and 1.71 g, respectively in addition to peduncle length, and scape dry weight when compared with control. Treated non-pinched plants with BA at 250 and 500 mg.l-1 gave higher number of inflorescences 6.59 and 6.82 inflorescences/plant for Estafette cultivars, respectively and for Essandre cultivars 5.87 and 6.00 inflorescences/plant respectively. Furthermore, the treatments above pointed to the best results of other inflorescences characters for two cultivars.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF PLANTING DATES AND FOLIAR APPLICATION OF GIBBERELLIC ACID ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH, QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF YIELD IN TWO CULTIVARS OF CAULIFLOWER (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis)
تأثير مواعيد الزراعة والرش بحامض الجبرليك في النمو الخضري وكمية ونوعية الحاصل لصنفين من القرنابيط var.botrytis) Brassica oleracea)

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted in a private farm at Al-shallalat region approximately 15 km far from Mosul /Iraq during growing season of 2005_ 2006 to investigate the effect of three sowing dates (15th Aug, 1st Sept. and 15th Oct.), and the foliar application of GA3 at (0, 200 and 400 mg/l) on the vegetative growth, quantity and quality of curd yield in two Cauliflower cultivars Rami (Hybrid ) and White Cloud ( pure ). Treatment of GA3 were sprayed in two times, the first treatment was after a month of transplanting whereas the second treatment was done one month following the first spraying. The experiment involved 18 treatments arranged in a factorial experiment within split-plot using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. The results could be summarized as follows: 1- White Cloud cv. Showed a significant increase in some vegetative growth (leaf number and leaf area), all yield quantity and quality characters (marketable curd weight, total marketable yield, curd circumference, curd thickness, curd color and curd compactment) as compared with Rami cv. Whereas Rami cv. revealed a significant decrease in the number of days from sowing to maturation 10٪ of curd as compared with the White Cloud cv. 2- Early sowing date (15th Aug) leads to a significant increase in all vegetative growth (leaf number and leaf area), all yield quantity and quality characters for both cultivars, whereas late sowing date (15th Oct) leads to a significant decrease in the number of days from sowing to maturation 10٪ of curd in the two cultivars 3- Treatment with GA3 at two concentrations (200 and 400 mg/l) showed a significant effects on average of marketable curd weight, total marketable yield, curd circumference and curd thickness, while it has no significant effects in the number of days from sowing to maturation 10٪ of curd, curd color and curd compactment. There where no significant effects between concentrations of GA3 in all the previous characters.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
STUDYING THE RESPONSE OF CORONET PEACH TRANSPLANTES TO FOLIAR SPRAY WITH ZINC AND ASCORBIC ACID
دراسة استجابة شتلات الخوخ صنف Coronetللرش الورقي بالزنك وحامض الاسكوربيك

المؤلفون: Jassim M.Al-A'areji جاسم محمد علوان الاعرجي
الصفحات: 86-96
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted in the nursery of Hort.& Land Scape Dept./ College of Agriculture and Foresory / University of Mosul during 2006 and 2007 growing seasons. Coronet peach transplants were sprayed three times aseason with four concentrations of chelated Zinc ( 0 , 10 , 20 and 30 mg.L-1.) and three leveles of Ascorbic acid ( 0 , 50 and 100 mg . L-1) , twenty days intervals between each spray and another , the first spray is done at the first week of may . Results of both seasons indicated that foliar spray of chelated Zince and Ascorbic acid each alone or both significantly increased leaves N , K , Zn and carbohydrate concentration , leaves content of total chlorophyll , transplantes leave area , transplants height , main stem diameter , number of new branches , vegetative and roots dry weight .While leaves P concentration significantly decreased with the application of chealated Zince . The treatment 30 mg .L-1+100 mg Ascorbic acid .L-1was the best,which gave the highest means of all studied parameters except P concentration in the leaves which were the highest means of it was in the transplantes which were sprayed with 100 mg Ascorbic acid .L-1 only in both seasons .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF TREATMENT WITH 10-20 C FOR DIFFERENT PERIOD BEFORE COLD STORAGE ON PHYSIOLOGY DISORDERS OF HONEY CRISP APPLES
أثر المعاملة بدرجتي حرارة 10-20مْ ولمدد زمنية مختلفة قبل التخزين البارد في الأضرار الفسلجية لصنف التفاح هني كرسبي

المؤلفون: Tarek Wardeh طارق وردة
الصفحات: 97-104
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الخلاصة

Honeycrisp apple [Malus domestica (Borkh.)] Fruit the susceptible to storage disorders were treated by keeping them at 10 C for (5 – 10 - 15) days and 20 C for (2 - 5 – 10 -15) days before cold storage at 1 C, and control was transferred directly to 1Cْ. According to the result: Soluble pectin were reduced, Firmness were increased at the temperatures 10 - 20 C for all period compared with control, both soluble pectin and Firmness were getting better for longer period under 10 - 20 C. While moisture loss after delayed cooling and after storage were higher for 15 days at 10 - 20 C. Both Flesh browning and soft scald were markedly reduced compared with untreated control and were reduced more when the period of keeping at 10 - 20 C were longer. Both Bitter pit and Rot were increased by keeping the fruit at 10 - 20 C compared with untreated control.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
GENETIC VARIABILITY , EXPECTANT GENETIC ADVANCE AND PHENOTYPIC CORRELATION FOR YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN SUMMER SQUASH (Cucurbita pepo L.)
التباين الوراثي والتحسين الوراثي المتوقع والارتباط للحاصل ومكوناته في قرع الكوسة

المؤلفون: Majid K. Al-Kummer ماجد خليف الكمر
الصفحات: 105-111
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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted in the Field of Horticulture and landscape design department , College of Agriculture and Forestry Mosul University during spring and autumn seasons of 2006 to estimate the genetic and aspectual variability to the yield and its components by using six summer squash varieties viz., (Local , Middle East, Syrian , Zucchini , Tala and Bather Elbethor).The investigation revealed high variability between varieties for all studied characters , and variety Tala was highly superior for yield , fruit number / plant , fruit length and weight. There was a high genetic variation for fruit weight and plant length. High heritability for plant length, number of days for staminate and pistil late flower production , fruit length and weight which is due to the high variability among these characters. There was a high positive and significant correlation coefficient between yield and fruit weight , fruit diameter , number of fruits / plant and sex expression ratio.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF TRAINING SYSTEMS ON THE LEAF AREA OF SOME PHYSICAL , MECHANICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE YIELD AND BUNCHES OF TAIIFI GRAPEVINE CULTIVAR Vitis vinifera L. UNDER NON-IRRIGATED CONDITIONS
تأثير نظم التربية في المساحة الورقية وبعض الصفات الفيزيائية والميكانيكية والكيميائية للحاصل ومكوناته لصنف العنب طائفي Vitis vinifera L. المزروع ديما

المؤلفون: Shymaa M. Abdul-Qader شيماء محفوظ عبدالقادر
الصفحات: 112-121
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted in a private vineyard locates in Bare Buhar village near Dohuk city, Iraq. During the growing season 2005.The cultivar used in this study was Taifi .Three training systems had been used namely:- head, cane (Kniffin) and " T ' trellis training systems. The load lifted on each vine for every training system was 32 eyes (four canes each with six eyes and four renewal spurs each with two eyes) for the cane and " T " trellis systems and eight spurs each with four eyes for the head training system. Each training system consisted of three replicates (one vine per replicate) using RCBD and means were tested by Duncan's multiple range test at 0.05 levels. The results could be summarized as follows: Total leaf area per vine. The " T" trellis system was significantly overtopped over the other two training systems in total leaf area per vine. Physical, Mechanical and Chemical characteristics of the yield, its components and the berries. The yield per vine, clusters number, cluster width, berries number per cluster, weight and volume of 100 berries, numbers of seeds per berry, juice density, cluster compactness, anthocyanin and total phenolics content and total sugars were significantly overtopped with " T " trellis training system. The cluster weight, cluster length, berry length and width, berry attachment force, total soluble solids, total soluble solids / total acidity. were significantly surpassed with cane training system .While the head training system did not showed any overtopping in any of the studied characteristics. It was concluded that the best training system for the Taifi cultivar was " T " training system.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT RATES OF (CHEMICAL AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS) ON FRUITS YIELD AND OIL CONTENT OF CORIANDER (Coriandrum sativm)
تأثير مستويات مختلفة من الأسمدة (العضوية والكيميائية) في حاصل الثمار والزيت لنبات الكزبرة Coriandrum sativm

المؤلفون: Mothafer A. Al-Mosuly مظفر احمد الموصلي
الصفحات: 122-126
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الخلاصة

Cultivated fruits Coriander conducted in sheets (1 x2 square meters) of soil type (Silty Loam) using animal compost (sheep waste) levels (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 tons. ha-1) and other chemical transactions at levels equaled values (NPK)valaes at in the organic compost, named N0P0K0 ,N18P2K3 ,N36P4K6 ,N54P6K9 ,N72P8K12 and N90P10K15 kg. Ha-1 (urea "45% N" source of nitrogen and phosphate Super unilateral "9% P" source of phosphorous and potassium sulphate "43% K" source of potassium). Results were : 1-Treatment comparison (without organic or chemical fertilizer) The sum of fruits (658 kg. Ha-1) and the quantity of oil (5.42 liters. ha-1). 2-Treatment (2 tons. 1 hectare) of manure gave the highest sum of fruits reached (1348 kg. Ha-1) and the highest quantity of oil (13.48 liters. ha-1). 3-N72P8K12 excelled treatment of chemical fertilizer excelled equaled 4 tons. 1 ha of compost gave the sum of the fruits of the (1008 kg. Ha -1), whereas treatment N54P6K9 was equivalent to 3 tons. 1 ha of compost) oil hit (11.25 liters. ha-1).

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING MICROORGANISMS 1 -EFFECT ON PHOSPHORUS AVAILABILITY TO WHEAT PLANT
ألأحياء المجهرية المذيبة للفوسفات 1-التأثير في جاهزية الفسفور لنبات الحنطة (Triticum spp ) صنف أكساد محلي

المؤلفون: Bahjat D. Yalda بهجة دنحا يلدا
الصفحات: 127-133
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الخلاصة

The study was undertaken to measure the efficiency of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms to solubilize nature and applied (P) fertilizers . The results obtained indicate that Partially sterilization of soil , adding B2 (Bacillus megaterium) , f3 (Asperjellus olivaceo-fuscus) , or the addition of phosphate fertilizer to natural soil in pots caused an increase in available P in soil ,and an increase in leangth , shoots dry matter of Wheate Plants .No (significant) differentiation within treatments in the mentioned parameter’s under the enviroment ,clay soil, little duration time of experiment which lasted (30) days of plant growth after inoculation was ditected .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING MICROORGANISMS 2- EFFECT ON PHOSPHORUS AVAILABILITY TO CORN PLANTS Zea mays LOCAL SPECIES
ألأحياء المجهرية المذيبة للفوسفات 2- التأثير في جاهزية الفسفور لنبات الذرة الصفراء Zea mays (صنف محلي)

المؤلفون: Bahjat D. Yalda بهجة دنحا يلدا
الصفحات: 134-140
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الخلاصة

To study the effect of complete soil sterilization on corn plant growth Zea mays and Phosphorous availability comparable to with that with unfertilized treatments, Fertilized in phosphate, fertilized and inoculated in B2 Bacillus megaterium and F3 Asperjellus olivaco-fuscus phosphate dissolving in the same treatments and design mentioned in (part one of the study). The results obtained showed that complete sterilization of soil didn`t cause any clear changes in available Phosphate behavior in soil, but limited plant shoots , shoots dry matter in sterilized treatments (control) and also caused an increase in corn shoots concentration of both P and N. The results also indicated to a convenient P fertilizers used in the study and no important role of phosphate solubilizing Microorganisms in the lathe house experiment which lasted (45) daysafter inoculation was detected .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EVALUATION OF TEST-DAY MILK YIELD FOR AWASSI EWES
تقويم إنتاج حليب الاختبار اليومي للنعاج العواسية

المؤلفون: Faris Younis Abdul-Rahman فارس يونس عبد الرحمن
الصفحات: 141-147
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الخلاصة

Data were collected from 83 Awassi ewes raised on to two flocks during the lambing season (2003-2004). The first flock belongs to private farmers, at Al-Nahrawan region, 5 Kms to the west of Mosul city, whereas the second flock belongs to the General Directorate of Applied Agriculture Researches (Animal Husbandry Station of Mosul). 750 and 614 records of test – day of milk yield and fat percentage, respectively, were used in this study. Data were subjected to statistical analysis using by General Linear Model (GLM) to study the effect of fixed factors on milk yield and fat percentage, to find the correlation coefficients between variables studied and prediction equations of total milk yield . The overall mean of TDMY (Test Day Milk Yield) and fat percentage were 569.824 g, %4.461 respectively. The effects of flock, age of ewe, stage of lactation were significant (p < 0.01) on TDMY. However, the effect of sex of lamb was not significant . All the non-genetic factors studied had significant effect (p < 0.01) on fat percentage. Repeatability estimates for TDMY and fat percentage were 0.481, 0.273 respectively.

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Article
STUDY OF NONENZYMATIC BROWINING DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL SOUR ORANGE JUICE BY USING MODEL SYSTEMS 1-EFFECT OF SOLUBLE SOLIDS CONCENTRATION ON ASCORBIC ACID CONTENT AND MELANOIDINS FORMATION IN MODEL SYSTEMS OF LOCAL SOUR ORANGE JUICE DURING STORAGE
دراسة تطور الأسمرار غير الأنزيمي لعصير النارنج المحلي بأستخدام النمذجة 1– تأثير تركيز المواد الصلبة الذائبة على محتوى مشابهات عصير النارنج من حامض الأسكوربيك وتكون الميلانويدات خلال الخزن

المؤلفون: Majid,B.Al-Asuad ماجد بشيرالأسود
الصفحات: 148-155
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الخلاصة

Synthetic model systems of local sour orange juice were prepared by different concentrations 10, 30 and 50%, with different contents of some compounds (ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, amino acids) that might play a role in brown pigments formation. Samples were stored at 20, 30 and 40ْC for 4 months. Results showed that increasing temperature and period storage caused decreasing in ascorbic acid content and increasing melanoidins formation of model system. Increasing total soluble solids concentration caused decreasing in ascorbic acid degradation and melanoidins formation. The study showed that high value of melanoidins formation was noticed in model system that contained ascorbic acid. This indicated that ascorbic acid was the principle component that responsible for nonenzymatic browning development in this type of food products.

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Article
STUDY OF NONENZYMATIC BROWNING DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL SOUR ORANGE JUICE BY USING MODEL SYSTEMS 2-KINETIC STUDY OF ASCORBIC ACID DEGRADATION IN MODEL SYSTEMS OF LOCAL SOUR ORANGE JUICE DURING STORAGE.
دراسة تطور الأسمرار غير الأنزيمي لعصير النارنج المحلي بأستخدام النمذجة 2-دراسه حركية لهدم حامض الاسكوربيك في مشابهات عصير النارنج المحلي اثناء الخزن

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الخلاصة

Synthetic model systems of local sour orange juice prepared of concentrations 10,30 and 50%, with different contents of some compounds (ascorbic acid, glucose and amino acids) that might play a role in brown pigments formation. Samples were stored at 20, 30 and 40ْC for 4 months. Results of kinetic parameters of ascorbic acid degradation showed that the reaction order was first order, and the value of reaction constant (k) and degradation rate increased with increasing concentration of model system. The highest value of activation energy for ascorbic degradation was found in model system contained all compounds mentioned above and decreased with increasing concentration. Temperature coefficient (Q10) increased with increasing storage temperature ,The shelf life of model systems increased with increasing concentration and decreased with increasing storage temperature.

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Article
EFFECT OF ROCKET (ERUCA SATIVA) ON INDUCTION OF SPERM ABNORMALITIES IN WHITE MICE
تاثير عصير اوراق الجرجير (Eruca sativa ) في حث تشوهات رؤوس النطف لذكور الفئران البيض المعاملة بعقار Cyclophosphamide

المؤلفون: Ilham A. Khalaf الهام عبد الهادي خلف
الصفحات: 167-174
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الخلاصة

The effect of rocket ( Eruca sativa ) leave juice on induction of sperm - head abnormalities was studied using the white mice males , the effect of cyclophsphamide (Cp) on such abnormalities was studied as well . In addition to studying the effect of different combinations between the plant juice and the mutagen (Cp) . The results indicated that rocket juice 0.1 , 0.25 , 0.5ml / animal administrated orally had no effect on induction of sperm - head abnormalities , while Cp induced abnormalities in order of 5 times the background level , which remain unrepaired even after 6 days . The combinations such as using the juice before the mutagen (J/Cp) or using the juice with the mutagen (J+Cp) were able to lower the abnormalities almost to the baseline level (i.e., the negative control) or slightly higher but , without statistical significancy (P<0.01) . Treatment of animals with juice after mutagen (Cp/J) was able to restore the normality in manner depending on time and reaching the normal starting baseline after 6 days. Types of abnormalities were different and Cp induced sperms without hooks at high level , which also represented the highest abnormalities when animals treated with mutagen and juice simultaneously . The J/Cp treatment was able to reduce all types of abnormalities compared to the positive control and was statically significant (P<0.01) and some abnormalities were disappeared such as the rod – head shaped sperm . (Cp/J) treatment resulted in persistence of some abnormalities even after 6 days .

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Article
EFFECT OF ROCKET LEAVE JUICE (ERUCA SATIVA) JUICE ON CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS OF WHITE MICE BONE MARROW CELLS
تاثير عصير اوراق الجرجير ( Eruca sativa ) في التشوهات الكروموسومية لخلايا نخاع عظام الفئران البيض

المؤلفون: Ilham A. Khalaf الهام عبد الهادي خلف
الصفحات: 175-184
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الخلاصة

The effect of the rocket juice Eruca sativa (A cruciferous plant ) and its counter effect on chromosomal aberrations induced by Cyclophosphamide (Cp) drug was studied in white mice bone marrow cells .The effect of different combinations of plant juice and mutagen was studied to find out the patterns of protection exert on the aberrations . Results revealed that rocket juice 0.1 , 0.25 , 0.5 / ml animal administrated orally had no effect on induction of chromosomal aberrations , while Cp administrated orally (50 mg / Kg of body weight) , increased the chromosomal aberrations 7 – 11 times of the natural level (Negative control) . Natural repair and activities failed to restore the natural levels as the aberrations still very high .The structural chromosomal aberrations (Chromosome breaks , chromatid breaks , ring chromosomes , and dicentric chromosomes ) induced by Cp were lowered upon using the juice before or after or with the mutagen with significant difference . The prevention (Protection) was proportional to time intervals of treatments , and reached its maximum value (91 % ) when treatment with juice before treatment with mutagen was conducted for 6 days .

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Article
STUDY OF FIBER DIMENSIONS AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF Luecaena leucocephala GROWING IN THE MIDDLE OF IRAQ
دراسة أبعـاد الأليـاف والوزن النوعي لخشـب اللوسينا Leucaena leucocephala النامية في وسط العراق

المؤلفون: Basim A. Abd Ali باسم عباس عبد علي
الصفحات: 185-189
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الخلاصة

The research has conducted to investigate some wood properties of Leucaena leucocephala growing in the middle of Iraq. Specimens were taken from five trees around Baghdad to study the variation of fiber dimension and specific gravity longitudinally and transversely among the stem. Results showed that length , diameter , and wall thicknesses of fibers near the bark were more than that located near the pith of the tree. Effect of longitudinal factor was not steady ; while fiber length was slightly more in the base than in the upper stem levels, fiber diameter and wall thickness had their higher mean values at the higher positions of stem. Wood specific gravity showed no significant differences neither longitudinally nor transversally among the stem. Results referred to the possibility of using this wood species for pulp production in addition to its conventional uses.

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Article
ESTIMATION OF THICKNESS AND VOLUME OF THE BARK AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE DIAMETER AND THE HEIGHT OF Populus nigra L TREES GROWN IN STANDS AT THE NORTHERN OF IRAQ
تخمين سمك وحجم القشـرة وعلاقته مع القطر والارتفاع لأشجار الحور الأسود Populus nigra L. النامية في مشاجر شمال العراق

المؤلفون: Mohammed Asim Saeed Al-Ali محمد عاصم سعيد العلي
الصفحات: 190-197
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الخلاصة

The study was carried out in Dohok in the north of Iraq, exactly in Zakho region, Where Populus nigra stands are widely spread within irrigated stands that are depending on feshkhabour river. Study area involved (45) samples which are randomly selected regions that represents state of the stands. Each sample was (0.1) hectare area, from these plots eighty six reading were recorded for the diameter over and under the bark taken from different height level for 13 standard trees that represent all ages, densities, and diameters for these stands. Data were inserted in linear and non linear regression program, to determine bark factor (K), which found to be (0.95). The volume of the bark was calculated by taking (30) standard trees that represent all ages and densities. Tree volume over and under the bark and difference between them were calculated. Several mathematical equations were found that represent the relation between bark volume as a depended variable, and the diameter at d.b.h. and total height as an in depended variables. From these equations, bark volume was estimated depending on these easy in depended variables. Also we be able to found a mathematical equation to estimate bark thickness from diameter.

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Article
YIELD PREDICTION EQUATION FOR Pinus brutia Ten. PLANTATION IN SINJAR REGION
تحديد إنتاجية مشاجر الصنوبر البروتي النامية في جبل سنجار

المؤلفون: Mohammed Y. S. Al-Allaf محمد يونس العلاف
الصفحات: 198-103
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الخلاصة

Yield models for Pinus brutia Ten stands grown of Sinjar regionhas been prepared depending on data collected from 30 sample plots, the area of each plot was (0.25) ha. Different variables of each plot (volume / ha , dominant height , mean diameter and age)was measured and stepwise, multiple, and non-linear regressions were used to develop different equations . The dependent variables were yield per hectare while the independent variable were Age, H0, and Da in their original and transformed and combined forms. After screening of the developed equations the following one were selected,: V=-2.774+43050.7(1-e(-0.0002A)) R2=92.4 S.E%=306.13 as it give the best fit compared to the remaining equations. Since this study can be considered as on initial step in predicting the yield tables for pinus brutia Ten. Plantations, also, we were determining the mean annual increment and current annual increment , to find out the rotation of maximum volume production.

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Article
GENETIC ANALYSIS OF MEANS AND PHENOTYPIC VARIANCES FOR GRAIN YIELD AND SEVERAL TRAITS IN SEVERAL GENERATIONS FOR TWO CROSSES OF BARLEY
التحليل الوراثي للمتوسطات والتباينات الظاهرية لحاصل الحبوب وبعض الصفات في عدة أجيال لتهجينين من الشعير

المؤلفون: N.K. Yousif نجيب قاقوس يوسف
الصفحات: 204-218
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الخلاصة

Genetic analysis of means and phenotypic variances for grain yield and several traits in five generation (P1,P2,F2,F3, and F4) for to crosses of a six row barley , Hordeum vulgare L.(Gezera-1 x Benedict and Baraka x Arivate) were carried out to estimate: gene action parameters, component of genetic variance, environmental variance ,average degree of dominance ,narrow sense heritability and expected genetic advance from selection in each of segregating generations (F2,F3 and F4). Tow models were applied in analyzing the component of generation means and weighted least squares method where used to analyze the phenotypic variance of generations rank. The results showed that :(1) the three parameter genetic models were adequate for the inheritance of 100 grain weight in the tow crosses and there were additive, dominance and epistemic effects on the other characters .(2) over dominance for plant height, number of spikes, grain yield and 100 grain weight but partial dominance for other traits in the two crosses .(3) narrow sense heritability and expected genetic advance from selection were higher in the F4 for studied traits.

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Article
STUDYING THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FACTORS IN SOME PERFORMANCE EVALUATION FOR STATIONARY SPRINKLER IRRIGATION SYSTEM
دراسة تأثير عوامل مختلفة في بعض مؤشرات التقييم لمنظومة ري بالرش الثابت*

المؤلفون: Essam A. Taha عصام عبدالقادر طه
الصفحات: 219-224
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الخلاصة

This study loan conducted in the fields of Agriculture and forestry collage in the beginning of 2008 to investigate the effect of pressure 3 and 2 bar, spray nozzle heights 180 and 90 cm and the irrigated area between sprayer 144, 216 and 324m2 and the interaction effect of the three previous factors on the coefficient of water distribution uniformity (UC) and distribution uniformity (DU). The randomized block design and Duncan's multiple range were tested for the comparison between the used means. Results showed that there were significant differences among the three factors, the pressure 3 bar gave the highest coefficient of water distribution uniformity and distribution uniformity, The height 180cm gave the highest coefficient and highest distribution uniformity and the under area gave the highest coefficient and distribution uniformity. The interaction among the three (sparer 3 bar, height 180 cm and the smolar area) gave the highest coefficient of water distribution which was 87.266% and highest distribution uniformity which was 76.866%.

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