جدول المحتويات

مجلة زراعة الرافدين العراقية

ISSN: 1815316X
الجامعة: جامعة الموصل
الكلية: الزراعة والغابات
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين لأول مرة عام 1966 واستمرت لغاية عام 1982، وتوقفت بعد ذلك لمدة ثلاث سنوات بسبب القرار الوزاري بتوزيع المجلات العلمية على الجامعات العراقية وحسب الاختصاصات حيث كانت حصة العلوم الزراعية لجامعة صلاح الدين التي أصدرت المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية (زانكو)، وكانت المجلة الوحيدة في العلوم الزراعية في وزارة التعليم العالي والبحث العلمي ، ثم صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين مرة أخرى وذلك في عام 1986 واستمرت إلى عام 2000 إذ تم اعتماد مجلة زراعة الرافدين مجلة قطرية وبهذا تم تغير اسمها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية . وحصلت على الرقم الدولي ISSN 1609-4077 واستمرت بالصدور إلى المجلة إلى عام 2004 إذ تم إعادة اسم المجلة إلى مجلة زراعة الرافدين واعتبرت مجلة قطرية – دورية-علمية – محكمة وحصلت على الرقم الدولي الجديد ISSN 1815-316X وصدر المجلد 33 العدد 1 وهو تسلسل مجلة زراعة الرافدين إذ أن المجلة أصدرت 32 مجلد قبل تحويلها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية. واستمرت المجلة في الصدور إلى الوقت الحاضر 2012 المجلد (40) .

كانت المجلة عند صدورها عام 1966 بعدد واحد سنوياً، وحالياً تصدر بأربعة أعداد دورية لكل سنة. ولابد من الإشارة إلى أن المجلة في بداية إصدارها عام 1966 كان يضم العدد خمسة بحوث باللغة الانكليزية، وتزايدت في الوقت الحاضر لتضم 30 بحثاً باللغتين العربية والانكليزية .

حصلت المجلة خلال مدة عملها على تقييمات وزارية عالية فقد حصلت هيئة التحرير في عام 1996 على كتاب شكر وتقدير من السيد الوزير لتميز المجلة ، كما اعتبرت المجلة متميزة في عام 2009 أيضا إذ حصلت على درع الوزارة وشهادة تقديرية .وقد حصلت المجلة في سنة 2012 على الاعتمادية الدولية وبالتالي اصبحت في متناول جميع دول العالم .

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معلومات الاتصال

E-mail:agrimeso@yahoo.com

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2009 المجلد: 37 العدد: 4

Article
EFFECT OF OVER DOSE SYNTHETIC ESTRADIAL 17- β HORMONE ON SOME PERIPHERAL BLOOD PARAMETERS AND BONE MARROW STEM CELLS IN ADULT FEMALE RATS
تأثير الجرعات العالية من هرمون الأسترادول 17- بيتا المصنع في بعض قياسات الدم والخلايا الجذعية لنخاع العظم في إناث الجرذان البالغة

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الخلاصة

This research was conducted on Animal Production Department's laboratories / University of Duhok, from the beginning of July to the end of October 2006, by using (36) female rats to investigate the effect of over dose of gonad hormone (estradiol 17-β) with dose of 0.5 mg injected intraperitonealy twice a day for 1 week. The rats were divided into three groups (12 rats for each) the first group was the control and the second injected with estradiol, while the third group was as the second one but the measurement of studied parameters were taken after 7 days after hormone injection. Some hematological parameters from blood samples and stem's cells of bone marrow were studied at 12 weeks of rats age. The results showed no significant differences effect in the (RBC) count , (Hb), Basophiles percent and Band Basophiles among the three experimental groups, while significant (P≤0.05) depression in PCV among the control and the third group , second group, respectively. Significant (P≤0.05) increase were observed in WBC between the control and the second group , third group and significance (P≤0.05) increase in the Neutrophiles and Monocytes between the control and the third group and the second and the third group, respectively, as compared with significant (P≤0.05) decrease in the Lymphocytes between the control and the third group and the two treated groups. However, significant difference (P≤0.05) decrease in Early erythrocytes were noticed between control and the second group and significant (P≤0.05) increase between the control and the third group and the two treated groups respectively, while significant (P≤0.05) increase were noticed in Intermediate erythrocytes and Late erythrocytes and Band neutrophiles between the three groups respectively. Also significant (P≤0.05) increase in Eosinophiles % and Band eosinophiles were noticed between the control and the second group , third group, and significant (P≤0.05) increase in Myelocytes number and Megacaryocytes were noticed between the second and the third group only. We concluded that the estradiol 17- β treatment neither suppress erthropoisis nor increase the immune system cells, but it caused a lymphoma in the peripheral blood.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS FOR PRODUCING MASS LEAVES AND VOLATION OIL OF LEMON GRASS PLANT AND ITS PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICIPATION
التحليل الاقتصادي لإنتاج الكتلة الورقية والزيت الطيار لنبات حشيشه الليمون ومساهمته في صناعة الأدوية

المؤلفون: Adnan Ahmed Thalaj عدنان أحمد ثلاج
الصفحات: 4-15
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الخلاصة

This study contained the range of suitability of environmental conditions of the city of Samarah in planting cymbopogoncitratus (DC) which is called Lemon Grass (West Indiana Type) in the General Firm for pharmaceutical industries inorder to produce this plant locally and providing volatile oil extracted from it as a natural raw material for pharmaceutical industries . The study included Also, the economic avail to establish the project in which it is characterized by high demand on its outputs from the company . There was a sort of dependence on the value of company’s import (SDI) of the raw material Nystation as a basis for knowing the size of local demand throughout studying the market . It was clear through that the study the basic aspect practiced upon the plant to prepare and analyze the project and its compatibility with the environmental conditions for the city of Samarah to produce the plant . We were able to get four monthly cultivars of the plant and oil quantity was 15 liters per hectare for the first year and the production increased later to reach 39 liters per hectare . The basic tests made upon the plant have shown a high competency to use it in pharmaceutical industries for it retard the growth of Somany fungis which cause human, plant and animal diseases and this is more than the foreign kind used for a limited number of fungis and this encourage to apply studies and researches in order to be used in new products . It was also clear from the study using the economic evaluation criteria compared with the evaluation results that the project is considered of high economic avail and this is considered to be a significant remark for the decision markers in economic and drug fields .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
تأثير بعض المضافـات في الخصائص البكتيريولوجية في منتج لحمي محلي (البسطرمـة) المصنع في العراق أثناء الخزن
EFFECT OF SOME ADDITIVES ON BACTERIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LOCAL MEAT PRODUCT (BASTURMA) DURING STORAGE

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الخلاصة

هدف هذه الدراسة الى التعرف على تأثير اضافة حامض الاسكوربيك والنتريت والنايترايت وفوسفات الصوديوم وحامضي اللاكتيك والخليك في تثبيط نمو بعض الاحياء الدقيقة في السيطرة اثناء مدة الخزن تحت الظروف المناخية الطبيعية . اظهرت النتائج ان المضافات التي استخدمت قد قللت نمو بعض الاحياء الدقيقة التي تمت دراستها وحددت وقللت اخرى اثناء الخزن وحسب نوع وتركيز المضافات . بصورة عامة ان استخدام تراكيز مختلفة من حامض الاسكوربيك والنترات والنايترايت وفوسفات الصوديوم قد قللت البكتريا الكلية والكوليفورم والمحللة للدهن والمحللة للبروتين طيلة مدة الخزن . وعند استخدام تراكيز عالية من المضافات المستخدمة حدث تثبيط تام لجميع انواع البكتريا ، كما اظهرت النتائج حالات مشابهة في الاشهر الاخيرة من الخزن . ان معاملة قطع اللحوم قبل الثرم بـ 5% من كلا حامضي اللاكتيك والخليك ادى بصورة عامة الى انخفاض العدد الكلي للبكتريا والكوليفورم ونمو ضعيف جدا للبكتريا المحللة لبروتين وتثبيط تام في اعداد البكتريا المحللة للدهن

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF MAGNETIC TECHNOLOGY ON GROWTH OF SCINDAPSUS AUREUS PLANTS AND WATER CONSUMPTION
تأثير التقنية المغناطيسية في نمو نباتات البوتس Scindapsus aureus و احتياجاته من ماء الري

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الخلاصة

A study on the effect of magnetic technology of irrigating water on watering requirements of Scindapsus aureus was conducted. Two factors were tested; reducing water requirements up to 2.5 , 5 or 7.5% and zero% decreasing of water needed as acontrol, the second factor was irrigation with or without magnetization of water levels. The results showed that leaf area, fresh and dry weight of vegetative and root systems decreased as the water levels were reduced. The highest values of leaf area, fresh and dry weight of roots (70.63 cm2/plant; 0.453 g.; 0.167g. respectively) were recorded when plants were irrigated with unmagnetized and non reduction of water requirements. However, reducing and magnetized of water was superior in elevating dry weight of roots (2.246 g., 0.563 g.). A significant decrease in soil moister content (SMC) was obtained when magnetized water was applied up to 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th irrigation comparing with unmagnetized water. While SMC was significantly decreased and the 2nd, 3rd, and 5th irrigation process comparing with unmagnetized water (4.91, 14.78, 12.9, 8.16, 11.37%) respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF BENZYAMINOPURINE AND GIBBERELLIC ACID ON FLOWER LONGEIVITY OF TWO CULTIVARS OF Dianthus caryophyllus L.
تأثير البنزايل أدنين BA وحامض الجبرليك GA3 في حياة أزهار صنفين من القرنفلDianthus caryophyllus L. بعد القطف.

المؤلفون: A. O. Al- Atrakchii عمار عمر الأطرقجي
الصفحات: 16-27
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الخلاصة

This experiment was carried out in the Horticulture Department, College of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University, on Dianthus caryophyllus plants CVS. Jeanne Dionis Blano (white flower) and Marie Chabaud Jaune (yellow flower), to investigate the effect of pulsing treatments of the flowers of two cultivars at two concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3) 25 and 50 mg/liter and two concentrations of 6-Benzyaminopurine (BA) 20, 40 mg/liter in addition to control, on flowers vase life. The Factorial Experiment was conducted with Completely Randomized Design. Each treatment replicated three times with 9 flowers. The results were summarized as follows: Flowers treated with GA3 at 50 mg/liter and BA at 20 or 40 mg/liter gave significant higher values of vase life 19.0, 19.3 and 19.2 days, respectively. While flowers treated with 40 mg/liter manifested best results of water uptake, the increase in fresh weight and flower diameter percent. After 4 days from cutting flowers manifested higher significant values of changing in fresh weight flower diameter percent, while, glucose and fructose concentration decreased to a lowest significant values at final stage of vase life. The results showed that higher percent of increase in flower diameter recorded after 4 days from cutting 136.1% for white flowers cultivar when treated with 20 mg/liter BA and 139.4% for yellow flowers cultivar when treated with 25 mg/liter GA3.While at the end of vase life the flower diameter reduced to lower values 95.2 and 92.0% for yellow flower cultivar at control and 50 mg/liter, respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF MICROBIAL TRANSGLUTAMINASE TREATMENT ON SOFT CHEESE PROPERTIES
تأثير المعاملة بإنزيم الترانس كلوتامينيز الميكروبي في صفات الجبن الطري

المؤلفون: Waleed A. Mahmood وليد أحمد محمود
الصفحات: 19-27
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الخلاصة

Microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) was isolated from the bacteria Streptoverticillium mobaraense and used to improve the yield and properties of soft cheese manufactured from cow milk by enhancing the cross-linking reaction among milk proteins. The enzyme was applied at different concentrations and at various addition times. Results indicated that the addition of the enzyme before rennet prevented milk coagulation while the simultaneous addition of MTGase and the rennet significantly decreased curd strength and cheese hardness and increased the loss of proteins and fat in the whey. It was found that the most suitable way of adding the enzyme was after coagulation and curd cutting. This treatment enhanced the cross-linking of whey proteins with the curd proteins which was proportional to the concentration of the added enzyme up to 60 enzyme units/liter. The cross-linking reaction was verified by SDS-PAG electrophoresis experiment which showed a high molecular weight band accompanied by a decrease in the density of αs-casein, β-casein and whey proteins bands. Transglutaminase affected the produced cheese composition noticeably by increasing protein content, total solids and decreasing the protein content of the whey. Sensory evaluation of the obtained product showed that the enzyme treated cheese was superior to the untreated cheese throughout all storage period (8 days).

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASE FROM APRICOT, APPLE, EGGPLANT AND POTATO
إستخلاص وتوصيف إنزيم البولي فينول اوكسيديز من ثمار المشمش والتفاح والباذنجان والبطاطا

المؤلفون: Waleed A. Mahmood وليد احمد محمود
الصفحات: 28-36
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الخلاصة

Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) from the fruits of apricot, apple, eggplant and potato tubers were extracted by homogenization with potassium phosphate buffer followed by precipitation with 1.5 volumes of cold acetone. Some properties of the isolated PPOs were studied. The optimum pH for potato PPO activity was found to be 6.4 while it was 7 for the other fruits PPOs. Optimum temperature of activity was 20oC for apricot and apple PPOs, while it was 22oC for eggplant and potato PPOs. Potato PPO was the most thermostable followed by eggplant, apricot and apple PPOs. The enzymes from the four sources were stable at neutral pH values at room temperature. Their stabilities decreased sharply at pH below 5. Storage of the enzymes solutions at 4 and -18oC at pH 7 for 3 months indicated that potato PPO possessed the highest stability followed by apricot, eggplant and apple PPOs. Km values toward the substrate catechol were 4, 4.16, 1.25 and 2.4 mM for PPOs of apricot, apple, eggplant and potato, respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIZED SALINE IRRIGATION WATER ON HISTOLOGICAL OF Gerbera jamesonii
تأثير مستويات ملوحة ماء الري والمعالجة بالتقنية المغناطيسية في بعض الصفات التشريحية لنبات الجيربرا Gerbera jamesonii.

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الخلاصة

The study was conducted on spring of 2005 to investigate the influence of different salinity levels of water with / without magnetization on some histological characters of Gerbera jamesonii. Two factors were tested; Salinity levels of irrigation water (0.758 . 1.5 . 2 . 3 . 4 ds/m) the second factor was watering plant with / without magnetized saline water. Split plot in RCBD with three replicates two pot for each replicate was designed. Number of stoma in the lower epidermis of leaves was affected by irrigating plants with saline water, where increased at 1.5 and 4.0 ds/m levels comparing with 0.758, 2 or 3 ds/m the lowest number of stoma was obtained at 3 ds/m level (132.42 stoma/mm2). However . 2 or 3 ds/m levels decreased the number of stoma. Surprisingly the number elevated again at 4 ds/m level (189.67stoma/mm2). Magnetized water increased the water content of petiole. Some parenchyma cells of the petiole were torn especially with the highest level of salinity. Magnetic technology of water reduced the epidermis thickness of petiole.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF ALSOL AND ETHREL AND THEIR COMBINATION FOR HARVEST AND SOME CHARACTERS OF OIL CONTENT OF OLIVE FRUITS C.V. ASHRSI
تأثير تركيز وموعد الرش بمعوقي النمو الالسول والايثرل ومزيجهما في عملية الجني وبعض صفات ثمار الزيتونL .Olea europaea صنف اشرسي

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الخلاصة

The study was carried out during the growing seasons 2001-2002 on olive Olea europaea l c.v. Ashrasi ,15 year-old in an orchard of olive trees located in Bashika Uniform trees were chosen in terms of size , growth and production. The aim of this experiment was to study the effects four constrictions of growth regulators Alsol and Ethrel 0, 500, 1000, 2000 ppm and their combinations 1000, 2000, 4000 ppm and date of spary 25/12/2001 on the fruit of olive fruits in order to ease harvesting and some fruits characteristics (i.e. oil and protein percentage). Fruits were harvested at two dates (one week or two weeks after spraying ). The experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design; each treatment was replicated three times. The study showed that the application of growth retardant Alsol and Ethrel and their combinations reduced significantly the attachment force of olive fruits as well as their times and concentration , whereas Alsol and Ethrel and their combinations increased significantly the percentage of fruit drop. Also the highest concentration of these chemicals increased significantly leaf abscission .Also the effect of these chemical and their combinations increased significantly the percentage of oil content.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
AUXINS APPLICATION ON PROPAGATION OF OLIVE C.V. CHEMLALI BY SEMI-HARDWOOD CUTTINGS
استخدام الاوكسينات في إكثار الزيتون صنف شملالي بالعقل نصف الخشبية

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الخلاصة

This research was conducted at plastic house in Horticulture Dept. of Agriculture and Forestry College , University of Mosul during 2007-2008 season .To study the effect of three dates 20 Dec , 1 Feb , 10 March and the effect of Auxin treatments 0 ppm , 2000 ppm IBA , 2000 ppm NAA and 2000 ppm IBA + 2000 ppm NAA on propagation of semi- hardwood of Olive cutting Cv. Chemlali . The obtained results could be summarized as follows : A significant effect of the date of cutting planting on the root percentage and the date of 10 march was the most effective date on root percentage , number of root , length of root and number of leaves. The high percentage of living unrooted cutting the date of 20 Dec which 41,66%. All auxin treatments significantly increased on all vegetative and root growth characteristics and the best treatments was when applied auxin as a mixture 2000 ppm IBA + 2000 ppm NAA. The more effective interaction treatments between 2000 ppm IBA auxin and date of planting was 10 March which 93.33% of root percentage , followed by treatments of a mixture between 2000 ppm IBA + 2000 ppm NAA when planted at 10 March which 90% both interaction treatments significant increased as compared with interaction treatments.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF USING CHEMICALLY TREATED BARLEY ON MILK PRODUCTION & COMPOSITION AND SOME BIO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN CROSS BRED FRESIAN CATTLE
تأثير استخدام الشعير المعامل كيميائياً في إنتاج وتركيب الحليب وبعض صفات الدم الكيمو- إحيائية في أبقار الفريزيان المضربة*

المؤلفون: Kassem M. M. مظفر محي الدين قاسم
الصفحات: 65-73
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الخلاصة

This study has been achieved in the field of the agricultural college in Salah-Aldeen University, to investigate the effect of using barley treated with formaldehyde (9 liter/ ton) with Soya bean meal or urea in feeding hybrid dairy cows (fresian x karadi) with barley straw ad libtum on milk production and composition . 4 cows were used with 4 experimental rations and 4 periods (3 weeks each) using (4 × 4) latin square design. The 1st ration contained untreated barley with Soya bean meal (UB + SBM), the 2nd formaldehyde treated barley with Soya bean meal (TB+SBM), the 3rd ration (UB + urea) and the 4th ration (TB + urea). Cows consumed similar quantities of dry matter. There were no significant differences in average daily milk production which was 9.62, 9.79, 9.31, 8.76 kg/day for the 4 treatments respectively. There was a significant decrease in milk fat content when treated barley was fed with either Soya bean meal or urea as compared with untreated barley (3.75, 3.60, 3.52, and 3.40% respectively). There was a significant decrease in milk fat % in the treatments that contained urea compared with those containing soya bean meal, also significant increase in the average milk fat yield 14% with the both treatments that contained soya bean meal compared with those containing urea. Treating barley with formaldehyde resulted in a significant increase in milk protein % with either soya bean meal or urea 4.00 & 3.46% respectively. Also milk protein % significantly increased with rations containing Soya bean meal as compared with rations containing urea. As a result there was a significant increase in daily milk protein yield 24% in treatments containing soya bean meal compared with those containing urea. Finally a significant increase in lactose yield was registered with the treatment (TB + SBM) compared with the treatment (TB + Urea).

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
LIMITING THE VERTICAL VARIANCE OF ANNUAL RING AREA OF POPULUS NIGRA PLANTATION IN NINEVAH
تحديد التباين العمودي في مساحة الحلقات السنوية لأشجارالقوغ الأسود في نينوى

المؤلفون: Muzahem Younis مزاحم سعيد يونس البك
الصفحات: 74-80
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الخلاصة

Limitation of annual ring area along the extension of the principle stalk has an important role in the estimation of the quantity and quality of stalk wooden segments, The thickness of the ring distribution inside the stem is correlated to the wood density, which in turn related to the physical and chemical characteristics of tree wooden stalk. More over it could be explaining the translocation along the bole estimated of annual ring area at any location . it is very important for the forest management to table discern manger related with siliviculture activities, which apply in the forest, for this reason, we chose (12) tree of populous nigra grown normally in the forest plantation of Nineveh. The selected samples were of deferent ages and density. Stem analysis using to obtain the data for tree, by using the filed and stem analysis data and different available regression method within stat Graf program system, and it became possible to prepare forecasting equation of vertical distribution area. This involved different regression methods depending on statistical analysis scales in evaluation the equation and the result equation is as follows: S= b0 + b1(hb2/Ab3) R2= 0.77 S.E% = 0.73 Determination of equation coefficients and standard error show accurate values, also the equation were tested by taking standardized residual. The model is accurately describe the fluctuation of cross-sectional area increment along tree stem from the top to ground level, and it is possible to represent the ring area by curve which could be segmented into two parts, initially increasing part, which is looked as an s-shaped with infection point, while the second part is linear and the third part with an exponential shape which describe the stem portion of the base. A table has been prepared representing the annual ring thickness for any height level and annual growth of the tree for any age of different densities.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
BIOMASS AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON STAND OF POPULUS NORTHEN IRAQ
الكتلة الحية والخزين الكاربوني لمشاجر القوغ الاسود في شمال العراق

المؤلفون: Muzahem Saeed Younis مزاحم سعيد البك
الصفحات: 81-85
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الخلاصة

We was divided the stand at three stratums depending on the density of the forest, from each strata take ten frequency. The sample area was (0.1) ha, on each sample, the diameter at breast height, total height, dry and wet weight of component tree measure was estimated carbon sequestration was estimated by drive allometric equation depending on variable of tree, to known the potential of biomass, we classified the sampling according to diameter class size (6.5-9.5), (9.6-12.5), (12.6-15.5) and (15.6-18.5)cm respectively. As result carbon sequestration found varied in different class in the density 20000 treeha , as (107.711, 481.916, 275.462, 219.975) tones/c/ha. A carbon sequestration potential correlated to diameter breast height. The tree size class at (he tree size class at (6.5-9.5) up to (9.6-12.5)cm had great potential in carbon sequestration from the small to medium diameter trees. While in size class (12.6-18.5) cm had lower potential to store carbon . in general old growth stand had more carbon sequestration than logged stand and secondary rotation. Each size class had a different carbon equation potential almost small up to medium size of trees had a greater potential for carbon storage, if compare with big trees because growth will slowly in digger trees.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
STUDYING SOME ANATOMICAL AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPRESSION WOOD FOR Pinus brutia Ten. LEANING TREES
دراسة بعض الصفات التشريحية والميكانيكية لخشب الضغط Compression Wood في اشجار الصنوبر البروتي المائلة Pinus brutia Ten.

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted to show the effect of compression wood on some anatomical characteristics and mechanical characteristics of brutia pine Pinus brutia Ten. trees growing naturally at Dohuk provenance and to compare it with the standing trees (tree leaning type) for four levels of stem height, and between compression wood and opposite wood present in front of compression wood (wood location) and between heart wood and sap wood (wood type) to know the possibility of using tree stems containing compression wood in various technological wood products. The results showed that the highest values for tracheid length and tracheid diameter were in the standing trees, while there was little increase in tracheid cell wall thickness of leaning trees. Also leaning trees were significantly better than standing trees in rankel ratio. It was found that there was increase in the values of most anatomical characteristics from stem base to stem top. The lowest values for the studied anatomical characteristics were in the first level of height ( 1.5 m), then they began to increase gradually by increasing stem height level until they reached the maximum values at the 3rd level of height (4.5m), then these values were decreased slightly at the 4th level of the height ( 6 m). The results indicated that the highest mean values of tracheid length and diameter were in opposite wood. While there was slight increase in tracheid cell wall thickness in compression wood, but it was not significantly different to opposite wood. Also, there was significant increase in rankel ratio in compression wood compared with opposite wood. Sapwood showed the best values for all anatomical characteristics except rankel ratio compared with heart wood. This indicated that most anatomical characteristics will increase by increasing the distance from pith to bark which may relate to age effect. It was found that the highest mean of modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) and tension perpendicular to grain was in the standing trees and significantly higher compared to the leaning trees. Also, it was noticed that the highest values of the mechanical characteristics were in first height (1.5m), they decreased gradually by increasing height levels and it reached lower value at the 3rd height level (4.5 m) then they increased slightly in the 4th height level (6 m). Also, the study showed that opposite wood were better than compression wood in all mechanical characteristics. Sapwood showed the highest values of the studied mechanical characteristics compared to heartwood. The results showed that the base of the leaning tree stem was eccentric, and it became more centric by increasing height level.

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Article
EFFECT OF PROCESSING OPERATIONS OF CAKES ON AFLATOXINS CONTENTS
تأثيـر العمليات التصنيعية للكيك في تحطيم سـموم الأفلا

المؤلفون: Salah O. Ahmed صلاح عمر أحمد
الصفحات: 98-106
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الخلاصة

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different food processing operations including chemical and physical methods of cakes on the presence of added aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. Different concentrations of baking powder were added to the dough of the cake treatments. The dough of cake was ripenned in the conventional oven or in the microwaves oven or using both ovens successively. Aflatoxins concentrations were determined. Results demonstrated That significant (P<0.05) reduction of all aflatoxins contents was shown in the manufacturing of the cakes, in which 29.8-100, 31.3-100, 55.6-100 and 32.9-100% of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were reduced, respectively. Addition of 1% of baking powder to the cakes dough resulted in more reduction in all aflatoxins among the treatments and also in case of reduction index. Results also show that ripening of the cakes dough in microwaves oven and both conventional and microwaves ovens reduced all aflatoxins more than others using the conventional oven.

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Article
EFFECT OF LONG TERM ADMINISTRATION OF GARDEN CRESS (LEPIDIUM SATIVUM ) ON SOME CYTOGENETIC PARAMETERS IN WHITE MICE
تاثير الاطعام طويل الامد بالرشاد Lepidium sativum في بعض مؤشرات الوراثة الخلوية في الفئران البيض

المؤلفون: Ilham A. Khalaf الهام عبد الهادي خلف
الصفحات: 107-116
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الخلاصة

The adverse effect of long term administration of Cyclophosphamide (Cp) , and the revesrse effect of garden cress on some cytogenetic parameters was studied in bone marrow cells . The parameters were mitotic index (MI) , formation of micronuclei (Mn) , and chromosomal aberrations (Ch. ab.) in somatic cells, as well as in germ cells (Sperms ) . The treatments included administration of Cp for 2 months as a positive control , negative control was without any treatment . The other treatments were : feeding the animals with garden cress for a month with the normal meal (1:1) and then administration of Cp with normal meal only (R/Cp) ; the other treatment was feeding the garden cress with normal meal for 2 months and giving the animal the Cp (R+Cp) ; the third treatment was administrating the Cp for a month , then feeding the garden cress with the meal (1:1) for a month (Cp/R) . Results revealed that Cp treatment reduced the MI by 44 % of the normal value (6.84) , treatment (R/Cp) raised the index to 73.5 % of the normal value , (R+Cp) treatment raised the index to 87.9 % and Cp/R raised the index to 84.6 % of the natural value . Cp induced high number of micronuclei (18.16) compared to the negative control (1.62) , R/Cp treatment reduced the number to 6.56 , R+Cp treatment reduced the number to 6.11 , and Cp/R to 5.82 . All these values were significantly differed from the negative control (P<0.01) . Cp raised the Ch. ab. to (17) compared to the natural value (1.62) , and were differed significantly(P<0.01) .They were R/Cp (6.06) , R+Cp (4.37) and Cp/R (4.81) and these variations were conducted to the types of aberrations . Cp increased the sperm-head abnormalities to ( 21.01) compared to negative control (1.15) . All treatments reduced the number of abnormalities . R/Cp treatment reduced the number to 6.73 , R+Cp to 6.06 , Cp/R to 6.03 , all of them were higher than the negative control with statistical significance (P<0.01) , such treatments affected the types of studied abnormalities .

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Article
EFFECT OF GRADEN CRESS (Lepidium sativum) ON CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS AND ITS ANTI - EFFECT ON INDUCTION OF CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS IN WHITE MICE BONE MARROW CELLS USING SHORT – TERM TESTS
تأثير الرشاد Lepidium sativum في حث التشوهات الكروموسومية والتأثير المضاد لحث التشوهات في خلايا نقي عظام فخذ الفئران البيض باستعمال الفحوص قصيرة الأمد

المؤلفون: Ilham A. Khalaf الهام عبد الهادي خلف
الصفحات: 117-125
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الخلاصة

Effect of garden cress Lepidium sativum (a cruciferous plant) on induction of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of white mice was studied , in addition to its effect to reverse the chromosomal aberrations induced by drug cyclophosphamide (Cp). The results showed that Cp induced chromosomal aberrations in order of 4.7 folds of the natural state , i.e., Negative control (1.75) , the high level of chromosomal aberrations continued for 6 days and the difference was insignificant compared to the positive control (P<0.01). No chromosomal aberrations was induced by when used at 0.1 , 0.25 , 0.5 ml / animal administrated orally and the aberrations were statistically insignificant compared to the negative control . The results of combined treatments of plant juice and the mutagen (Cp) revealed that the best treatment was using the juice before administrating the mutagen (R/Cp) and the chromosomal aberrations were similar to the natural state .Using the juice with the mutagen (R+Cp) or using the mutagen first then followed by the juice (Cp/R) did not lower the aberrations and the differences were statically significant compared to the negative control. These were reflected on the types of aberrations studied such as chromosomal breaks, chromatid breaks, ring chromosome and dicentric chromosomes.

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Article
USING OF ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED FROM SOME SPICES TO EXTEND THE SHELF LIFE OF SOFT WHITE CHEECE
استخدام الزيوت العطرية المستخلصة من بعض التوابل لإطالة مدة حفظ الجبن الأبيض الطري

المؤلفون: S. Kh. Badawi سمية خلف بدوي
الصفحات: 126-131
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الخلاصة

Essential oils of aniseed, nigella and clove were used to extend the shelf life of soft white cheese preservation at 0.05% of curd weight and to get rid of whey before salting . Having been preserved in 250 gm cans and kept for 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 days at 5 Co, cheese was analyzed regarding the ratio of total solid materials, fat and protein . Microbic content was studied by counting the total number of bacteria, coliform bacteria, lipolytic and proteolytic bacteria .Results showed no significant differences of spice on cheese chemical composition for all treatments whereas storing duration had a significant effect . Inhibiting effect of aniseed oil , nigella and clove on microflora especially the total number of bacteria, coliform bacteria, lipolytic and proteolytic bacteria during storage periods was incorporeal . It was shown that the aniseed inhibiting effect was higher than those of nigella and clove . It was also shown that there were incorporeal differences of storage periods on sensory evaluation of fresh white cheese concerning flavour and bitterness due to essential oils effect . Results showed the possibility of using essential oils as preservatives . The study managed successfully to increase the preservation duration of white soft cheese stored for 28 days whereas the control expired after 7 days . it is recommended to add aniseed oil , nigella or clove to prolong the shelf life of white soft cheese without affecting its chemical properties .

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Article
EFFECT OF NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC SWEETENERS ON ASCORBIC ACID CONTENT AND BROWN INDEX OF SOME CITRUS JUICE ANALOGEOUS SYSTEMS
تأثير المحليات الطبيعية والصناعية في كمية حامض الأسكوربيك وقيم دليل الاسمرار لبعض مشابهات عصائر الحمضيات

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الخلاصة

Synthetic model systems of single strength orange juice prepared by different types of natural and synthetic sweeteners (Mannitol, Sucrose, Fructose, Glucose) to study their effect on ascorbic acid degradation during storage at 25, 35 and 45Cْ for 4 months. Results showed that adding different kinds of sweeteners used in this study caused a decreasing effect in ascorbic acid degradation with different reduction ratio depending on the type of sweeteners (Mannitol >Fructose >Sucrose >Glucose). Increasing the time and temperature of the storage caused increasing in reduction ratio and K constant of ascorbic acid degradation with decreasing in activation energy which led to this increasing in Brown index especially at the end of storage period at 45 Cْ.

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Article
APPLYING SOME GROWTH REGULATORS IN THE INITATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF CALLUS TO REGENERATION OF DWARF MARIGOLD (Tagetes patula cv. nana) plants 2- CALLUS DIFFERENTIATION AND SHOOT REGENERATION
استخدام بعض منظمات النمو في استحداث وتمايز الكالس لإعادة تكوين نباتات القديفة القزميةnana .cv Tagetes patula 2- تمايز الكالس وتكوين الأفرع الخضرية

المؤلفون: Kasim Mahmoud Al-Hamdani قاسم محمود الحمداني
الصفحات: 137-147
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الخلاصة

This study showed the differentiation capability of dwarf Tagetes patula cv. nana callus to regenerated of plants directly and indirectly on in vitro aseptic medium, whereas was obtained of shoot organogenesis by two methods. The first by direct differentiation of callus which initiated on solidified MS medium containing 5mgL-1 of each of BA and IAA after 23 days of culture ,the second method was from indirect differentiation of callus on MS medium supplemented with 3mgL-1 BA with 0.5 mgL-1 NAA .The shoot arise after four days of transplanting of callus (21 days age) to same medium or to MS medium containing 5mgL-1 of BA with 0.1mgL-1 2,4-D. The producing shoots were readily rooted on MS medium containing 0.5mgL-1 of NAA. , and subsequently the plantlet producing from leaves callus were adapted(77.8%) to the environmental conditions through transplanting them in soil. they were showed faster growth in the first vegetative growth stage compared with seed plants.

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Article
APPLICATION OF SOME GROWTH REGULATORS IN THE INITATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF CALLUS TO REGENERATION OF DWARF MARIGOLD (Tagetes patula cv. Nana) plants 1- CALLUS INITATION
استخدام بعض منظمات النمو في استحداث وتمايز الكالس لإعادة تكوين نباتات القديفة القزميةnana .cv Tagetes patula 1- استحداث الكالس

المؤلفون: Kasim Mahmoud Al-Hamdani قاسم محمود الحمداني
الصفحات: 147-154
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الخلاصة

The current study applied many of growth regulators involved: 6-benzyladenine (BA) alone and interacted with the two auxin each of ; naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The callus was obtained from different explants (leaves, stem, and roots).The results showed that leaves were the best explants for callus initiation specially by application of BA with 2,4-D in solidified MS medium which gave 100% initiation percentage of callus in all interaction was used ,this interaction of BA and 2,4-D also was active in initiation of stem callus (85%) . The interaction of BA with NAA also gave higher initiation percentage of leaves and roots callus with height weight of leaves callus reached 9.847g/explants after 30 days of growth on MS medium supplemented with 5mgL-1 of BA and 0.1mgL-1of NAA. BA alone by the used concentrations was able to induce the callus in all explants , and showed 100% initiation percentage of leaves and roots callus at 4 and 5 mgL-1 concentrations and prompt ,on MS medium with5 mgL-1 BA, the growth of stem and roots callus reached to 4.78 and 3.87gm respectively after 30 days of culture .

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Article
EFFECT OF PLANT DENSITY AND METHODS OF APPLICATION AND LEVELS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN COTTON
تأثير الكثافة النباتية وطريقة إضافة ومستويات السماد النيتروجيني في الحاصل ومكوناته والصفات النوعية لمحصول القطن

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الخلاصة

The study was conducted to investigate the effect of plant density , methods of nitrogen fertilizer application , and levels of nitrogen fertilizers on yield and yield components and quality traits of cotton, cultivar (Lachata). The study included field experiment for the summer season 2007 in Al-Rahmanya village, Mosul city. Split-split plot design in RCBD with three replications was used .The experiment included two planting spaces between rows 60 , and 75 cm and two methods of nitrogen fertilizer application The first method used half the quantity at thinning and second half at blooming .The second method used one third of the quantity of fertilizer at thinning and the rest two thirds at blooming and four levels of nitrogen fertilizers Zero , 108 , 216, and 324 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the spacing of 60 cm between rows was significantly superior compared with the spacing 75 cm in the trait of total cotton yield and Lint cotton. The spacing between rows was not significantly in the rest of the yield traits , components , and quality traits. The method of nitrogen fertilizer application had no significant impact on the yield traits , components and quality traits except for the seed index and total cotton yield of plant in which the second method of application was significantly superior over the first Significant differences show in the levels of applied nitrogen fertilizers in all yield traits and its components except for the percentage of ginning of cotton. The levels of applied nitrogen fertilizer didn’t differ significantly in all quality traits .

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Article
ECONOMICAL EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT PLOWING SYSTEMS FOR PLANTING TWO TYPES OF WHEAT UNDER RAINFED AGRICULTURE CONDITIONS
الآثار الاقتصادية لنظم حراثة مختلفة في زراعة نوعين من الحنطة تحت ظروف الزراعة الديمية

المؤلفون: Yassen H. AL-Tahan ياسين هاشم الطحان
الصفحات: 167-173
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الخلاصة

This study was carried out in two sites during agriculture season(2005-2006). The first was at the fields of agriculture and forestry college / University of Mosul. The second one was in Talkaif district , Al-nawaran region (30 km north of Mosul). The aim of study was to compare costs and net revenues of four different tillage systems (mold board plow +harrowing , chisel plow +harrowing , offset disk and no tillage ) for two types of wheat ( large grain and small grain wheat ). Randomized complete blocks were designed by using split plot design with three replications. Means of values were compared according to Duncans multiple ranges test. The results were summarized as follows: No tillage system recorded smallest value of costs in both sites and their average, while the( mold board plow + harrowing) system significantly surpassed in net revenue for Al- nawaran site and the average of both sites . Small grain wheat recorded lowest value of costs and significantly surpassed in net revenue in both sites and their average . Al-nawaran site significantly surpassed in net revenue. The interaction of Al-nawaran site with small grain wheat for all tillage systems and that of college site with small grain wheat for all tillage systems recorded smallest value of grain wheat costs . The interaction of Al-nawaran site with both types of grain wheat by using no tillage system and the college site with both types of grain wheat by using no tillage system recorded smallest value of tillage systems costs .The interaction of Al-nawaran site with small grain wheat by using (mold board plow +harrowing) system recorded highest value of net revenue .

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Article
EFFECT OF TWO PULVERIZATION SEASONS WITH TWO TYPES OF PULVERIZATION EQUIPMENT ON THE PERCENT OF ANNUAL WEED CONTROL AND SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL
تاثير مواعيد التمشيط بنوعين من معدات التنعيم في نسبة الحد من الادغال الحولية وبعض صفات التربة الفيزيائية

المؤلفون: Rafi'e A. Al-Jawady رافع عبد الستار الجوادي
الصفحات: 174-179
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الخلاصة

This research was included the effect of two seasons. winter and spring with two types of harrows. offset disk harrow and spring harrow on the percent of annual weed control. soil moisture content. bulk density. number of soil aggregates greater than 5cm/m2. cutting depth. cutting width. coefficient of cutting width. and the percent of slippage. Results showed that the spring harrow showed higher significance in the percent of annual weed control. cutting depth and coefficient of cutting width while the offset disk harrow showed higher significance in the number of soil aggregates/m2 and the percent of slippage. The effect of interaction between seasons and pulverization equipment was significant in all studied characteristics except the moisture content and bulk density.

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Article
THE ROLE OF SOME SECONDARY COMPOUND ON THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SOME PEAR VARIETIES TO INFECTION BY PEAR LACE BUG Stephanitis pyri (F.) (Tingidae: Hemiptera)
دور بعض المركبات الثانوية في حساسية بعض اصناف الكمثرى للاصابة بحشرة بق الكمثرى المطرز Stephanitis pyri (F.) (Tingidae: Hemiptera)

المؤلفون: Nazar M. Al-Mallah نزار مصطفى الملاح
الصفحات: 180-186
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الخلاصة

The results of the recent study showed the toxic effect of some secondary chemicals compounds extracted from pear leaves varieties such as (Zafarania, Othmani, Le-conte and Calleryana) in the pear lace bug Stephanitis pyri (F.); the results showed a variation in mortality percentage according to pear variety, concentration and insects stage. Phenols of the calleryana leaves showed a significant mortality percentage superior to the phenols of other pear varieties, which reached to 88, 71 % for nymph and adult at 10% concentration respectively. While the calleryana pear alkaloids demonstrated a significant mortality percentage superior to alkaloids of other varieties. It reached 80, 64% for nymph and adult at 10% concentration respectively. Similarly, calleryana pear terpens showed a significant mortality percentage superior to terpens of other varieties. It reached 63, 70% for nymph and adult at 10% concentration respectively; whereas the water-part of the calleryana pear leaves also showed. A significant mortality percentage reached 36, 42% for nymph and adult at 10% concentration respectively. Toxicity values have also confirmed that the calleryana pear phenols are more toxic, and its relative toxicity; followed by alkaloids, terpens and water-part respectively in comparision with other extracts of the rest varieties which had low relative toxicity to the Stephanitis pyri (F.).

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