Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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Contact info

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2011 volume:42 issue:1

Article
YIELD OF MAIZE UNDER SKIP IRRIGATION AND PLANTING DEPTH
معايير النمو وحاصل الذرة الصفراء بالري المتبادل وعمق الزراعة

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Abstract

A field experiment for two seasons was conducted on maize cv. Buhooth-106 in 2009. This was on the Field Crops Res. Sta. of the College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad to determine the influence of skip irrigation and planting depths; 6, 12, and 18 cm in growth and yield of maize. Irrigation treatments were, skip irrigation, furrow and row plantings irrigated weekly and two weeks. Data of spring and fall plantings were similar in response to irrigation treatments and planting depths. Results of fall planting showed that skip irrigation and furrow planting irrigated weekly gave plant growth rate (CGR) 12.6 and 15.8 g/m2/d, grain yield 5.9 and 7.6 t/ha, respectively. These two treatments were given 3600 and 6600 m3water/ha. However, furrow and row plantings irrigated every two weeks, gave CGR 10.8 and 10.0 g/m2/d, grain yield 4.8 and 4.5 t/ha, respectively. Planting depths of 6, 12, and 18 cm gave CGR 12.4, 13.3, and 13.1 g/m2/d, grain yield 5.8, 6.1, and 5.9 t/ha, respectively. Skip irrigation with 18 cm deep, gave CGR 13.6 g/m2/d, grain yield 6.2 t/ha. Whereas, highest grain yields (8.2&8.4 t/ha) were obtained from furrow planting irrigated weekly with 12 and 18 cm deep, in spring and fall, respectively. According to these results, skip irrigation gave grain yield 77% of that obtained from furrow planting irrigated weekly. This implies that skip irrigation saved less than 50% of irrigation water. It was recommended to use skip irrigation for maize production and planting 12 cm deep in areas of water shortage. Planting 18 cm deep could be tested in future on soils of sandy texture.

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Article
ROLE OF CYTOPLASM TO INHERIT TRAITS OF SUNFLOWER SEEDS
دور السايتوبلازم في وراثة صفات البذرة في زهرة الشمس

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Abstract

To determine the role of cytoplasm organelles of egg cell of sunflower to inherit seed characteristics to the F1 seeds, crossing was undertaken between two cultivars; Akmar and Shumoos in both ways. Crossing was facilitated by applying GA3 to heads of female plan¬ts .In the second season , seeds of both cultivars and the two crosses were grown in the field of the Dept. of Field Crop Sci. / College of Agric / Univ. of Baghdad in spring and fall seasons of 2010.At physiologic maturity, measures were taken on plants of each genotype . Heads were taken, dried and weighed.The cross Shumoos x Akmar gave highest leaf area (1.15 m2/plant) , chlorophyll content (46.2 SPAD) , and 553 g/plant total dry matter. This cross gave 1824 seed/head, 102.5 mg/seed and 7.2 t/ha seed yield. However, both crosses gave same results of inheriting seed characteristics in the F1 and F2. This include , seed weight , color , striping, and seed coat thickness.It was thought that mitochondria was responsible for inheriting seed traits . Inheriting these traits in the F1 seeds is clear due to dominance , but the explanation of inheriting same traits to the F2 was vague .This suggest the necessity to expand this study in the future to involve several cultivars of wide seed variations and studying seed traits in the F1 to F3 on enough samples of plants.This is quite important when developing sunflower hybrids of desired F1 seed traits.

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Article
PERFORMANCE OF RICE AT DIFFERENT RATES OF CHEMICAL HERBICIDES
اداء محصول الرز تحت معدلات مختلفة من المبيدات

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A field trial was carried out during summer season of 2008 and 2009 at Mishkab Research Station Al-Najaf Governorate to investigate the effect of Herbicides (Contail, Stam F-34 , Ronstar and Nominee) on paddy yield of rice and companion weeds. A factorial experiment design was used according to RCBD design with four replications.Nominee caused reduced number of weed, at 30, 60 and 90 days from plant sowing in both seasons (6.3, 14.8, 16.7,4.2, 10.3 and 12.6 plant.m-2)and also reduced the dry weight of weeds by 87% and 89.2% in both seasons respectively compared with weedy treatment , therefore, it gave highest number of tillers .m-2 in both seasons (316.2 and 292.4) respectively which was translated in the higher number of grain per panicle (140.8 and 142.5 grains) in both seasons respectively hence nominee herbicide gave highest grain yield in the first season 801.4 gm.m-2 and 758.4gm.m-2 in second season respectively while the weedy treatment gave lowest paddy yield of rice 225.1 and 253.1 gm.m-2 in both seasons respectively. The nominee increased paddy rice by 71.9% in first season and 66.8% in second season compared with weedy treatment. We can conclude that herbicide gave good weed control of weed's rice , so rice was more competive than weed. Also there were significant difference between herbicide in their effect on growth and yield character.

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Article
EFFECT OF SOWING DATE ON YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS OF CARAWAY
تأثير موعد الزراعة في الحاصل ومكوناته لصنفين من الكراوية

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Abstract

A field experiment was conducted at the field of the Department of Field Crop Science university of Baghdad during two winter successive seasons of 20072008 and 20082009.The objective was to study the effect of four sowing dates 510, 1510, 511 and 1511 on yield, umbellet no., umbel no., fruit no. and thousand fruit weight of two cultivars of caraway common (Iraqi) grown wildly in northern west of Iraq and balady (Egyptian) sown in Syria . RCBD was used under factorial experiment with three replicates. Results showed that the first date was superior in umbellets no. 14.65 and 14.77 umbellet. umbel-1, for each season, respectively. While, the second date gave highest fruit yield of 985.6 and 992.8 kg.h-1 for each season, respectively. Iraqi cultivar was superior in thousand fruit weight of 7.19 and 7.35g, and fruit yield of 954.8 and 962.5 kg.h-1. While balady gave highest umbels no. of 62.52 and 67.74 umbel.plant-1, for each season, respectively. Also, the interaction of first date X Iraqi cultivar was superior in umbellets of 15.00 and 15.63 umbellets.umbel-1,umbels of 68.2 and 70.3 umbel.plant-1and fruits yield of 1083.00 and 1092.00 kg.h-1 It concluded that the best date to sow caraway was 5/10 and the best cultivar was Iraqi.Therefore, it was recommended to sow Iraqi cultivar seeds upto 15/10.Also,it is very important to subjected Iraqi cultivar to breeding and improvement program via selection to obtain Iraqi genotypes had high yield

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Article
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT WATER QUALITY ON FLAG LEAF AREA ,CHLOROPHYL CONTENT AND YIELD OF SOME BREAD WHEAT CULTIVARS
تاثير نوعية مياه الري في مساحة ورقة العلم ومحتواها من الكلوروفيل والحاصل ومكوناته لاصناف من حنطة الخبز

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Abstract

A field experiment was carried out at the experimental farm of the Dept.of Field Crop Sci., college of Agriculture Univ.of Baghdad.during 2008- 2009and 2009-2010 winter seasons . Soil texture was Typic Torrifluvient .The aim of the experiment was to investigate the effect of different water types on flag leaf area , its content of chlorophyl and yield of five bread wheat varieties(Iraq,IPA99,IPA95,Fatah and Tahaddi).Asplit plot design had been followed with three replications,the main plots represented by the varieties while the three water types (river water ,well water and alternating irrigation), occupied the sub plots .Plants were harvested on 12/5 and 30/4 for the two seasons, respectively. The cultivar IPA99 gave larger flag leaf area , grains /spikeand grain weight(45.36cm2,52.37 grain/spike,0.0418mg) in the first season but in the second season gave 44.93 cm2,48.83 grain/spike,0.0423 mg respectively.The cultivar Tahaddi gave higher chlorophyll content, spike.m-2 and grain yield(46.11 Spad units ,329.9 spike/m2,6.30 t/ha)first season while in second season it gave (42.40 Spad units ,332.0 spike/m2,6.29 t/ha),respectively.The well water gave highest values in flag leaf area ,chlorophyll content ,spikes/m2and grain yield (43.89 cm2,42.97 Spad units,319.2spike/m2 and 6.78 t/ha)for first season and 42.77 cm2,42.84 Spad units,305.9spike/m2and 6.38 t/ha for second season, respectively.There was no significant interaction in the first season but in second season ,the cultivars IPA99 and IRAQ which irrigated with well water gave higher flag leaf area,number of grain/spike(46.85cm2,50.14grain/spike), respectively. There were significant differences. IPA99,IRAQ which irrigated with well water gave higher flag leaf area ,when number of grain in spike 46.85cm2,50.14 grain/spike respectively.The cultivar Tahaddi which irrigated with well water gave higher chlorophyll content in flag leave ,number of spikes/m2 and grain yield(43.97 Spad units,346.9 spike/m2 ,7.29 ta/h).It can be concluded that well water gave highest yield for wheat because of its high content of nutritive agents.

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Article
COMBINING ABILITY , GENE ACTION AND HERITABILITY IN SUNFLOWER BY USING LINE X TESTER
قابلية الاتحاد والفعل الجيني والتوريث في زهرة الشمس باستخدام سلالة x فاحص

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Seven inbred lines of sunflower crop were conducted in this study where carry fertility restoration genes and multi – heads (R-line) and two testing lines having cytoplasmic male sterile (A-line) with other similarity cytoplasmic fertile (B-line). These lines (A-line) females and (R-line) males were put in crossing program on Line x Tester mating system , at spring season of 2008 in Field Crops Research Station of College of Agriculture / Tikrit University produced F1 seeds . Genotypes (9 parents + 14 hybrids) were grown at spring season of 2009 using R.C.B.D. with three replications to study general and specific combining ability and estimate some genetic parameters . The results showed significant differences at 1 % level between genotypes for all characters studied . Lines of R2 , R4 and R12 and second tester were showed good general combining ability in desire trend for most characters , the hybrids A1xR2 , A2xR4 were showed highly specific combining ability in desire trend for most characters. Additive and dominance variance values were differed from zero for most studied characters. Additive and non additive genes compained to get her to controlling in inheritance of most characters . Heritability in broad sense values were higher for all characters , it ranged from (82.09%) for yield of seeds to (97.16%) for day of flowering in lines, and from (85.25%) for fertility percentage to (97.92%) for seed weight in testers, while heritability in narrow sense ranged from (20.33%) for stem diameter to (71.79%) for oil ratio in lines , while in testers ranged from (1.15%) for number of seeds to (88.18%) for oil yield , over dominance of genes were controlled for some characters where as bigger from one in degree of dominance , but other characters were governed under partial drominance effects, that mean of degree of dominance was less than one. Therefor we can recomonded of using some of lines program of sunflower hybrid production .

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Article
PLANNING KNOWLEDGE NEEDS OF STAFF WORKING IN EXTENSION PLANNING PROCESS FOR STATE BOARD AND AGRICULTURAL COMPANIES
الحاجات التخطيطة المعرفية للقائمين بعملية التخطيط الإرشادي في الهيئات والشركات العامة الزراعي

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The research aimed to identify the planning knowledge needs of staff working for state board and agricultural company in extension planning process , which provide for server development goal to Iraqi rular. To achieve the research goal , planning needs scale was prepared including: 6 axes consisted of 45 items which are general frame work ( guide curriculum), external environment, organizational structure, planning mechanize ,monitoring ,and evaluation , Data was collected from sampl; of 73 planning extension employers by questionnaire. The results showed that the degree of extension planning staff needs with this subject was ranging between 6-135 degree , with an average of 66.8 points out of 135 points on the planning needs scale. The average of the planning needs degree in the subject axes: guide curriculum, external environment, organizational structures ,planning mechanize ,Monitoring, evaluation have been reached to 8.6,16.8,6.5,11.8,5.2,5.3 degrees on sequence and on planning knowledge needs scales reached 21,45,15, 30,12,12 point respectively ,with lower limit of(zero)the research indicated that the planning knowledge needs of agricultural extension staff in planning was large and middle need to be met by training, moreover the addition of extension program and activities to improve the effectiveness of agricultural rural level .

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Article
JOB STRESS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO PERFORMANCE OF EXTENSION AGENTS IN MIDDLE REGION OF IRAQ
ضغوط العمل وعلاقتها بأداء المرشدين الزراعيين في المنطقة الوسطى من العراق

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The research aimed to identify the level of job stress which the extension agents are subjected to during their work , the performance level of the extension agents of their duties, the relationship between the level of job stress and the level of the performance of the extension agents. A random sample of individuals was chosen in Middle region provinces of Iraq which were Baghdad, Salah Al –Deen ,Najaf ,Karbala and Al-Anbar. Random samples from the extension agents and The manager which were 138,60 respectively . The research had concluded that the extension agents suffered from medium job stress level , but at the same time it was inclined to increase and the highest percentage lied with in the medium class of stress level which was 49% with a mean of 137.3 degrees over a measure ranging 0-210 degrees, As for the level of extension agents performance of their duties it was medium ,but it was inclined to decrease and the highest percentage lied within medium class of performance level which was 43% with a mean of 85.8 degrees over a measure ranging 0-150 degrees . also the results shows There was a negative significant relation between the level of job stress and the level of performance in which the value of accounted z reached -17.6 .so The researcher recommends that more attention should be given to the preparation of training courses for the extension agents about job stress. The importance of agricultural extension and its role in agricultural development through raising the performance level of extension agents. It also was recommended that the items of job stress should be included in the extension management subjects which is taught to the undergraduate students at the Department of Agricultural Extension to acquaint them with the importance of that subject .

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Article
INFLUENCE OF MEDIUM COMPONENTS AND EXPLANTS ON INITIATION MULTIPLICATION AND ROOTING OF Citrus aurantifolia IN VITRO
تأثير مكونات الوسط الغذائي والجزء النباتي في نشوء وتضاعف وتجذير الليمون بنزهير خارج الجسم الحي

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This study was conducted in the tissue culture labrotaries of the Department Horticulture – College of Agriculture / University of Baghdad for the period 2007 -2009, study the possibility of in vitro propagation Lemon tree Citrus aurantifolia by various plant parts shoot tips ; single nodes , internodes and cleared of trees trees in developing extremely Fruit Research Station / Latifiya experience of a global design complete randomization. . And Sterilized plant parts at 0.1 % Murcury Chlorid . It has been noticed from the results achieved at the stage evolution to respond to the differing growth in vitro and recorded the highest proportion opens in the single node growth regulators where the percentage reached 75% . In the multiplication stage has studied the effects of different concentrations BA 0, 0.5 , 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 mg / l , and studied the effect of GA3 concentration 1mg/l in media of containing different concentration BA 0.5 ,1,1.5 ,2 mg/l on the number of branches formed and size from , where they were to achieve the highest rate of increase branches In MS medium is equipped with 1.5 mg / l BA + 1 mg / l GA3, which was 6.9 branch /explant, The highest rate achieved in the lengths that enabled in MS medium is equipped with 1 mg / l BA + 1 mg / L GA3 and reached 1.43 cm . At rooting stage studied the effect of 1 and 2 mg / l from IBA, NAA on the rooting percentage and number of roots formed and the size from where achieved the highest percentage of rooting of 60% in the 1 mg / l NAA added to MS medium with half strength salts, and the highest number of roots 0.8 root / branch and 0.98 cm in half-strength MS medium salts plus 1 mg / l NAA. From this it fllows that the concentration 1.5 mg/l BA + 1 mg/l GA3 the best in the multiplication of shoots , as well as the facus 1 mg/ l BA + 1 mg/l GA3 have achieved a higher rate to the length of shoots , with the highest percentage of rooting in the1 mg / l NAA.We recommend that you consider these plants that we have we have obtained the untreated control and monitoring their performance . In addition to the study of concentrations and other types of Auxins and Cytokinins to get to the other combinations used in the micropropagation of the tree lime in vitro.

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Article
EVALUATION OF SOME MICROBIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF IRAQI CAMEL MEAT PASTIRMA INOCULATED WITH LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS
تحسين بعض الخصائص المايكروبية والمظهرية في البسطرمة العراقية المصنعة من لحم الإبل والملقحة ببكتريا Lactobacillus acidophilus

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Iraqi pastirma was manufactured from camel meat and hump fat, the ratio was 3 meat: 1 fat, the microbiological quality of crude meat and mixture (meat and fat) were examined, total number bacterial count were 78×104 and 71×104 cfu/gm , coliform bacteria 93×102 and 54×102 cfu/gm , yeasts and molds 57×102 and 49×102 cfu/gm respectively, psychrotrophic 74×102 and 69×102 cfu/gm , Staphylococcus aureus 33×102 and 23×102 cfu/gm respectively, Salmonella was not shown in each samples and pH were 5.67 and 5.74 respectively. Fermentation process was conducted at a temperature in 37 c˚ and 80-85% relative humidity for 48 hours for treatments which inoculated (Lb. acidophilus in both percentages 2.5 and 5%) of the sample mixture after adding sugar and salt. Added the other materials used in the manufacture pastirma which include spices and garlic, then packaged mixture of pastirma in natural casings. Pastirma matured at 15-17 c˚ and 75-80% relative humidity for 4 weeks, the microbial quality was followed during the fermentation and maturation, as well as sensory (morphological) tests during the period of maturation. Pastirma inoculated with each percentage of Lb .acidophilus gave the best results than the control treatment in preventing growth of examined undesirable microorganisms, reducing the pH and good result in (appearance & color.(

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Article
EFFECT Of WATER EXTRACTS OF SOME PLANTS ON TWO- SPOTTED SPIDER MITES Tetranychusurticae Koch (Acariformes: Tetranychidae)
تأثيرالمستخلصات المائية لبعض النباتات في الحلم ذي البقعتين (Tetranychusurticae Koch Acariformes:Tetranychidae)

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The research was carried out in the laboutaries of State Board for Agricultural Research, Ministry of Agriculture, during the year 2009 to study the effect of three kinds of plant water extract used to control of the two spotted spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch. . Water extracts were, Citrullus colocynthsis (fruits) and Dianthus carphyllus (fruits). The last was Lantana camara (leaves ). Three concentration 0.5,1 ,2 g/L , for each extracts . The leaf disc methods used for preparing di fferent stage of spider mites. The result showed that hundull and koronfull extracts were more effective than mena showjery in prevention of eggs hatching of TSSM .The percent was 100.0,96.1 and 50.9 % respectively when the concentrat of 2g/ L of extracte were applied. Then the percent decrease to 79.1,83.1 and 40.2 % respectively using 1g/L concentrate .However the concentration 0.5 g/L indicates lower effects on egg hatching (38.4,76.5,55.0)% respectively.Similar effects were obtained when water extracts applied against nymph stages of TSSM . mortality percent 94.0, 90.0 and 20.6 % ,82.3,85.6 and 0.0 %, 80.0, 70.3 and 0.0 % respectively .

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Article
STUDYING SOME TECHNICAL PARAMETERS AND ENERGY REQUIREMENT FOR MACHINERY UNIT (MASSEY FERQUISON 650 WITH MOLDBOARD PLOW)
دراسة بعض المؤشرات الفنية ومتطلبات القدرة للوحدة الميكنية للساحبة ماسي فيركسن (650 - MF) مع المحراث المطرحي الثلاثي القلاب

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An experiment was undertaken in a field of the Faculty of Agriculture at Abu-Ghraib on a silty clay loam soil in April 2009. This was to study some technical parameters and energy requirements for a machinery unit. Three levels of tillage depth included 10, 20 and 30 cm representing main plots and tractor speed included 3.21 and 3.72 km/h representing sub plots were used. Slippage percentage , practical productivity, soil disturbed volume and fuel consumption were studied in this experiment .A split plot arrangement with completely randomized design with three replications was used .The results showed that increasing speed from 3.21-3.27km/h lead to increased slippage percentage , practical productivity and soil disturbed volume but decreased fuel consumption . Increasing the depth represents 10-20-30 cm lead to increased slippage percentage and fuel consumption but decreased practical productivity and soil disturbed volume. The first depth (10 cm) with second speed (3.27 km/h) gave the highest rate of practical productivity (0.2667 ha/h). The third depth (30 cm) with second speed (3.72 km/h) gave higher rate of soil disturbed volume (637.7 m3/h). While the third depth (30 cm) with second speed (3.72 km/h) gave the less rate of fuel consumption per unit area (72.5 l/h). We recommend the use of second speed (3.27km/h) and depth (30cm) because it scored the third highest rate of the volume of soil and raised the lowest rate of fuel consumption per unit area.

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