Table of content

Jornal of Biotechnology Research Center

مجلة مركز بحوث التقنيات الاحيائية

ISSN: 18151140
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Biotechnology Research Center (BRC) in a Al-Nahrain University issued in 2007 the first edition of a tightly seasonal scientific journal named as the journal Biotechnology Research Center (JBRC) which got authorization in 2005 and held an impact number ISSN: 1815-1140.The journal accepts scientific researches in Arabic and English.
JBRC’s main interest is Biotechnology researches in the Medical, Molecular, Agriculture and environmental fields which have an important impact on the public and private sectors in Iraq.
JBRC’s structure consists of editing committee (headed by the manger of the BRC and the editor in chief), consulting committee (contains a well- known iraqi scientists in biotechnology) and editing secretary.
All researches are submitted to the JBRC’s regulations which is mainly is that they must be according to the journal directions and instructions , then the researches will be evaluated by three well-known scientists in the field and after that reviewing occurred by the editing committee to ensure and verify all JBRC’s instructions and regulations are taken into consideration .
A special edition of JBCR is issued to cover all researches that presented to the BRC’s scientific conferences which subjected to all regulations and instructions of publishing in JBCR.

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Contact info

brcn2012@yahoo.comيتم الاتصال عبر البريد الالكتروني لمجلة مركز بحوث التقنيات الاحيائية


0096407707766148او للاتصال تلفونيا
بسكرتارية التحرير
م.م. سعاد محمد مجيدب
محمد منير حسين

Table of content: 2009 volume:3 issue:1

Article
Cytogenetic Studies on Goat Blood Lymphocytes:Cell Cycling
دراسات خلوية وراثية على خلايا دم الماعز اللمفاوية: دورة الخلية

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Abstract

Peripheral blood lymphocytes from goats (local breed) were cultivated in RPMI-1640 medium containing 15µg/ml of BudR 20 µg/ml of PHA for different times (12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 96( hrs. to determination the cell cycle duration. Blastogenesis was appeared post first 12hr of cultivation followed by first mitoses post 24 hrs. of culture initiation. The second and third cell cycling lasted 22 and 21 hrs, respectively. Effects of 6-thioguanine, methotrexate , colchicine and tamoxifen on cell cycle progression were investigated. Goat cells were found to be resistant to tamoxifen and MTX and sensitive to 6 TG and colchicine, which could be use as genetic markers to chick cellular genome integrity. Priming of goat blood lymphocytes was achieved by treating the blood with PHA for 24hr. Such treatment increased the in vitro growing period of derived lymphoblasts with short cycling time. However, PHA was found to be a promoting factor for initiation of blastogenesis and cell divisions in goat blood lymphoblasts. These techniques: Genetic markers, cytogenetic analysis cell cycling and lymphoblast explantation are crucial processes for nuclear transplantation processes.

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Article
In vitro Fertilization in Iraqi Local Goats
ألاخصاب الخارجي في الماعز المحلي العراقي

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Abstract

412 primary ova were used in the study of in vitro fertilization, these ova were collected from ovaries samples of does at different stages of oestrous cycle collected from abattoirs. These follicles were classified according to their size into large follicles (> 2-6 mm) and small follicles (1-2 mm). Ova aspirated from these follicles were evaluated depending on the presence or absence of cumulus oophorus cells and on the presence of the first polar body. The aspirated ova from large and small follicles were maturated in tissue culture medium 199 to study their ability of maturation.. The microdrops technique from tissue culture (Medium 199) and granulosa cell co-culture technique were used for the maturation of ova, also the in vitro fertilization was inducted in these ova with the sperm which were capacitated in Bracket Medium. The results showed that the highest rate for ova aspiration and the highest rate of ova surrounded by cumulas oophorus were from the large, follicles. The size of follicle has a significant influence on the degree of ova growth and maturation. The results showed the absence of significant differences in the efficacy of two techniques used in the ova maturation and their ability of fertilization.

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Article
Extraction and partial Purification of ipopolysaccaride (LPS) from E. coli O157:H7 ioslate
استخلاص وتنقية عديد السكريد الشـحمي LPS من العزلــة المحلية E. coli 0157:H7

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Abstract

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was partialy purified from E. coli O157:H7 local isolate by Sepharose – 4B gel filtration chromatography, after extraction by phenol-chloroform –petroleum ether mixture. The results show the presence of two peaks of proteins; while one peak of carbohydrates when tested at wave length 490nm. Nucleic acids were not found in the sample after partial purification. Electrophoresis pattern shows one large band with a molecular weight of 69000 daltons.

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Article
Optimal conditions for production of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) from local Fusarium oxysporum F2
دراسة العوامل المؤثرة في انتاج منظم النمو حامض الاندول خليك من العزلة المحلية Fusarium oxysporumF2

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The isolate Fusarium oxysporum F2 was selected based on its high production of growth regulator IAA and used in the present study . The optimal condition for the production of Plant hormone (IAA) by using cultural medium composed of 4.5% sucrose, 0.6% Yeast extract, 0.3g KH2PO4 , 0.05g MgSO4 , 3mM Tryptophane and optimum inocula size was 1×106 spore/ ml and the initial pH was 8.5 the incubation period was 10 day at 28 Co in dark by using shaker incubator at 120 rpm.

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Article
The effect of Curcurma longa (Turmeric) rhizomes extracts on pathogenic bacteria In comparison with standard antibiotics
تأثير مستخلص السيقان الجذرية للكركم Curcuma longa (Turmeric) على البكتريا المرضية بالمقارنة بمضادات الحياة الاساسية

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Four extracts of Curcuma longa rhizomes ( commonly known as turmeric widly used as spice and coloring agent and known for its medical properties) were evaluated for their anti- bacterial action against pathogenic bacteria of gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium ) and gram- positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus) comparing with antibiotics (gentamycin, ampicillin and erythromycin). Essential oil which was extracted from turmeric found to be most active against pathogenic bacteria in comparison with other extracts (water, chloroform and methanol extract). Using 40 microgram/disc of essential oil of turmeric as a minimum inhibitory concentration posses significant activity on pathogenic gram-negative and gram- positive bacteria

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Article
The Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus cell free extract on micronuclei in white male mice
تأثير مستخلص الخلايا الحر لـ Lactobacillus acidophilus على تكوين النوى الصغيرة في ذكور الفئران البيضاء

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Abstract

This study dealt with the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus concentrated filtrate on polychromatic erythrocyte. The result showed that Lactobacillus acidophilus concentrated filtrate caused a non significant decrease in micronucleus formation at first dose in comparison with negative control while a significant decrease in micronucleus formation was shown in albino male mice at second and third doses in comparison with negative and positive controls. The result of post-treatment by concentrated filtrate also caused a significant decrease in micronucleus formation while the pre-treatment caused non significant decrease in the micronucleus formation in comparison with the corresponding control.

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Article
Comparison of some introduced wheat Genotypes under Iraqi Conditions
مقارنة اداء بعض التراكيب الوراثية المدخلة من الحنطة في وسط العراق تحت ظروف البيئة العراقية

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Abstract

Compare some wheat introduced genotypes from Pakistan with the local cultivars (Tamooz 2 and Mexipak), two field experiments were conducted at in Tiwatha and Latifya experimental stations during 2001- 2002 season. The experimental design was RCBD with 3 blocks. Yield and its components were studied. The objective of this study was to screen and select of superior genotypes to the control. Results indicated that there were significant differences among the genotypes in their yield. The results of Tiwatha station showed that the genotypes P11, P13 were superior in yield when compared with other genotypes and local cultivars, while some genotypes gave the lower yield than the local cultivars. The results of Latifya station revealed that all the genotypes gave higher yield production than the check cultivars expect the genotypes P8. The genotypes P11, P12 were superior in yield when compared with the other genotypes and local cultivars. The results of combined analysis showed that, Tiwatha station was superior in yield to the Latifya station, and the genotypes P11, P13 had more yield than the other genotypes and check cultivars.

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Article
The Role of Emergent Aquatic Macrophytes in Changing Water Quality at Al-Shafi Marsh, Southern Iraq
دور النباتات المائية البارزة في تغيير نوعية المياه في هور الشافي جنوب العراق

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This study was done at Al-Shafi marsh, southern Iraq, to determine the role of emergent aquatic macrophytes in changing the water quality. Three dominant emergent aquatic macrophytes were identified in the marsh and the vegetation cover percentages for them were measured, which were Phragmites australis covers 40%, Typha domengensis covers 30%, and Schoinoplectus litoralis covers 15%, while the other 15% was open water. The water environmental variables [pre the marsh, in the marsh (distributed emergent macrophytes), and post the marsh] were measured. The statistical program t-test was applied at the significant levels (P-value < 0.01) and (P-value < 0.05) to know the significant differences in the environmental variables among the sites. This study showed that light penetration, total suspended solids, water turbidity, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate concentrations differed significantly (P < 0.01). While, Water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, calcium, and magnesium were differed significantly (P < 0.05) among the sites. In addition, no significant differences in electrical conductivity, salinity, and chloride were observed by emergent macrophytes. Therefore, this study concluded that emergent macrophytes play important role in changing some water characteristics


Article
Evaluation of Ammonium Phosphate Fertilizers Efficiency on Growth and Yield of Wheat by Using Saline Water
تقييم كفاءة استخدام أسمدة فوسفات الأمونيوم في نمو وحاصل الحنطة بأستخدام الري بالمياه المالحة

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Abstract

A pot culture experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of two fertilizers, mono ammonium phosphate (MAP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP), on growth and yield of wheat irrigated with saline water. Six levels of saline water, 2.0 , 4.0 , 6.0 , 8.0 ,10.0 and 12.0 dSm-1 was used, and river water '1.0 dSm-1' as a control The above levels were obtained by mixing drainage water with river water. The experiment was designed according to the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Results show significant decrease in grain yield, total dry weight, weight of 100 seed, protein content, and N and P absorption with the increase in the salinity of irrigation water. The results also revealed that MAP fertilizer was superior to DAP fertilizer, and a negative linear relation between plant parameters and irrigation water salinity. The study was concluded that water with 4.0 dSm-1 salinity and leaching fraction to 20% can be safely used for irrigation of wheat cultivated in soil with silty clay texture with efficient drainage system under suitable agriculture practices. Ammonium phosphates are more efficient fertilizers for plants and MAP is superior to DAP.

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Article
Modulating the Mutagenic Effects of Mitomycin C by Aqueous Extract of Lentil (Lens culinars)
تعديل التاثيرات الوراثية لعقار المايتومايسين C باستعمال المستخلص المائي لنبات العدس

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Abstract

The present study aimed to evaluate the toxic and mutagenic effect of Lentil (Lens culinars) seed aqueous extract (0.5 , 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg) and its ability to modulate the mutagenic effects of mytomycin C, using the male albino mice for hematological and cytogenetic analyses (total leukocyte count and mitotic index, chromosomal aberration and micronucleus formation of bone marrow cells). The evaluations were carried out through three type of treatment. In the first treatment the extract was dosed alone to the animals, while in the second and third treatment, interaction between the extract and mytomycin C (pre and post treatment) were carried out for such evaluations. The study showed that there was no toxic and mutational effects of the used extract .The result also showed that the dose 1.5mg/kg was significantly better than the other doses in all tests that were carried. The result also showed that there was aninhibition effect of the extract in relation to the mutational effects of mytomycin C. through its effects in increasing the total leukocyte count and mitotic index and reducing in chromosomal aberration, micronucleus formation before and after the drug application.

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Article
The Role of Silver Thiosulphate and Glutamine on Direct Organogenesis of Two Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Cultivars
دورثايوسلفات الفضة والكلوتامين في تكوين الأعضاء المباشر لصنفين من نخيل التمر(Phoenix dactylifera L.)

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Abstract

This study was conducted to examine the effect of silver thiosulphate (STS) and glutamine at various concentrations on direct organogenesis and shoots multiplication of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Barhi and Maktom cvs. Shoot tip quarters were cultured in vitro on modified MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/1 2ip, 1.0 mg/1 BA, 1.0 mg/1 NAA and 1.0 mg/1 NOA with various concentrations of STS (30, 60, 90 and 120 µM) and glutamine at (0.35, 0.70, 1.4 and 2.1 mM). The same concentrations were used in multiplication stage with medium supplemented with 4.0 mg/1 2ip, 2 mg/1 BA, 1.0 mg/1 NAA and 1.0 mg/1 NOA. Results indicated that the addition of STS at 90 µM and glutamine at 0.7 mM gave the best result for adventitious bud formation after 16 weeks (8.1 and 9.4 buds per explant for Barhi and Maktom respectively). Subculturing of these buds on agitated liquid MS medium with 90 µM STS and 1.4 mM glutamine gave the highest average of shoots number (12.5 and 14.7 shoots for Barhi and Maktom respectively). Maktom cultivar produced more buds and shoots than Barhi irrespective of the level of STS and glutamine. Shoots were rooted and successfully transferred to soil. These results confirm the importance of supplementing plant culture media of date palm cvs. Barhi and Maktom with both silver thiosulphate and glutamine in order to optimize and improve the clonal propagation protocol for these two cultivars.

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Article
Cytogenetic Studies on Groups Exposed to Pesticides in Baghdad
دراسة الوراثة الخلوية للمجاميع المتعرضة للمبيدات في بغداد

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Abstract

Pesticides effect human cytogenetic parameters adversely. This negative effect can be monitored in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The study conducted to investigate the effect of pesticides (mixture) on some cytogenetic parameters in risk groups represented by farmers, pesticide sellers and pesticide manufacture workers (all of them were men ), each group involved 25 person in addition to control group (25 men) from Baghdad university staff. The cytogenetic parameters studied were; estimation of chromosomal aberrations (CA), induction of micronuclei (Mn) and mitotic index ( MI ). Results showed that the chromosomal aberrations spontaneous was less than 1% (Control group ), then these abnormalities increased in farmer, sellers and pesticides workers (1.48 % , 2.86 % , 3.42 % respectively ) . Mn profile was similar to CA as represented direte or indirect parameter. MI in farmers was with no significance compared to control group (1.72) (P<0.01), but it was lowred to 1.35 in sellers, and to 1.2 in workers with significant difference (P<0.01).

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Article
Purification And Characterization of Trametes hirsute DSMZ No.5072 Laccase
تنقية وتوصيف انزيم اللاكس(laccase) المنتج من الفطرTrametes hirsuta DSMZ no.5072

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In this study, the Production of laccase enzyme from Trametes hirsuta strain (DSMZ No.5072) in the 2L fermenter using different culturing media had been achieved. The production of laccase was also induced by using different concentrations of Copper sulphate, 2, 5 Xylidine and Gallic acid as inducers. The maximum laccase activitiy observed during T. hirsuta growth in the presence of various inducers was 5.89 U ml -1. Laccase purification was performed by precipitated the enzymes with ammoniam sulphate, saturation 90%, followed by gel filtration chromatography using Sephadex-G25 and more purified by ion-exchanger (DEAE-Sephadex). The obtained enzyme was concentrated by ultra filtration membrane and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The activity of home prepared laccase and the commercial laccase from Trametes versicolor were carried out in different media (aqueous, reverse micelles, co-solvent, ionic liquid and ternary systems) depend on oxidation of ABTS as an enzyme substrate. The optimum pH for the laccase activity of the two fungal laccases was observed at acidic pH values close to (pH 3.5-4.6) while the optimum temperature was 70ºC.

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Article
The effect of aqueous plant extracts (Hibiscus sabdariffa and Glycyrrhiza glabra), on the growth of Entamoeba histolytica in vitro
تأثير المستخلص المائي لنباتي الكجرات وعرق السوس على نمو ونشاط الأميبا الحالّة للنسج( Entamoeba histolytica ) في الزجاج

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Entamoeba histolytica parasite was isolated from a stool sample, cultivated and maintained in vitro using Locke-egg medium (LEM) and Liver infusion agar medium (LIAM). The effect of two aqueous plant extracts (Hibiscus sabdariffa and Glycyrrhiza glabra) on the growth and activity of the parasite in the two culture media was investigated. The aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa and G. glabra were effective in reducing the parasite size in the LEM medium. With respect to the reproduction rate, the third concentration (19.71 mg/ml) of H. sabdariffa was significantly effective in inhibiting such rate to 57.6 and 83.6% in LEM and LIAM media, respectively, while for G. glabra, no significant difference in the reproduction rate was observed in both culture media.

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Article
The effect of gamma radiation on callus growth and plantlet regeneration of four tomato hybrid Lycopersicon esculentum mill In vitro
تأثير أشعة كاما في استخلاف ونمو كالس أربعة هجن من الطماطةLycopersicon esculentum mill خارج الجسم الحي

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Calluses were induced from four tomato hybrid (Davista, superDavista, Muntcarloo, Hymar). On MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D Auxin at concentration of 4 mg/L. The Callus were divided into two groups the first one was affected with gamma radiation at the doses (0,2,4,6,8)Gray and re cultured on the same mentioned medium. The second group was also affected with gamma radiation with the same doses mentioned above and re- cultured on MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg/L Kinetin for regeneration. Fresh and dry weight was measured after 8 weeks. The number and length of shoots were measured as indicators after 6 weeks. Results revealed that the dose 2 Gray was superior to give highest rate of fresh and dry weight reaching 238.5 and 43.1 mg respectively and the hybrid super Davista was superior in giving the highest fresh and dry weight reaching 231.6 and 30.2 mg respectively. Moreover the results revealed that control treatment was superior in giving the highest rate in number and length of plantlets. The 2 Gray treatment showed a significant effect on the rate and length of plantlets. In addition, there were significant differences among the cultivars in most characters mentioned above.

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Article
Determination of the Optimum Conditions for Ethanol Production from Whey by Utilization the Local Isolate Kluyveromyces sp.
تعيين الظروف المثلى لإنتاج الايثانول من الشرش باستعمال خميرة kluyveromyces Sp المعزولة محليا

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A series of experiments were conducted to explore the optimum conditions for ethanol production from cheese whey. The optimum conditions were: incubation period, 8 days, fermentation temperature, 30◦c, Size of inoculum, 1.15 x 106 C.F.U/ml, initial pH of medium, 5.0. The optimum composition of the fermentation medium were : Whey containing 9.3% lactose and fortified with ( NH4)SO4, 0.015 % , Yeast Extract, 0.01% , K2HPO4, 0.015% and it was found that the addition of date Syrup at a level of 0.5% noticeably increased ethanol yield compared with the medium which contain no date Syrup. By collective utilization of all the optimum conditions mentioned above, the following results were obtained, metabolized lactose 70.9%, ethanol production 4.48% and fermentation efficiency 132.36%.

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Article
Effect of ethanolic extract of Clove (Eugenia caryophyllus) on growth of some types of pathogenic bacteria
تأثير المستخلص الكحولي لنبات القرنفل Clove (Eugenia caryophyllus) في نمو بعض الانواع البكتيرية الممرضة

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Effect of ethanolic extract of Clove (Eugenia caryophyllus) examined against (4) species of pathogenic bacteria ('Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium) using: diffusion method, determination the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC, and minimum bactericidal concentration MBC. The results showed that Clove extract appeared high inhibitory effect on the growth of' 'Staphylococcus aureus & Pseudomonas aeruginosa, this inhibition increased with increasing the concentration. The MIC values were, 2.0, 4.0 mg/ml respectively, on the other hand, the MBC value against 'Staphylococcus aureus was 4.0 mg/ml. while the MBC value against Pseudomonas aeruginosa dose not effective. Further Escherichia coli & Salmonella typhimurium showed resistance to the activity of Clove extract.

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Article
Use of sheep horn hydrolysate as nitrogen source for lactic acid bacteria growth
استخدام المتحلل البروتيني لقرون الماشية مصدرا نايتروجينيا لنمو بكتريا حامض اللبنيك

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This study included used the sheep horn Hydrolysate as a nitrogen source in growth medium (SHHM) for cultivation of lactic acid bacteria, The results showed the optical density of growth in 540 nm for Lactobacillus casei and lactobacillus acidophillus was 1.38 and 1.31 respectively after cultivation in (SHHM) medium. Otherwise the optical density of growth for Lactobacillus casei and lactobacillus acidophillus was 1.27 and 1.32, respectively after cultivation in (MRS) medium, Which contain peptone, yeast extract and meat extract as a nitrogen source. In the inhibition capability test the results showed that the inhibition zone average of cell free extract for lactobacillus casei which cultivated in SHHM was (14 , 13 and 18) mm against Klebsiella sp, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida sp. respectively, while the inhibition zone average of cell free extract for lactobacillus casei which cultivated in MRS was (12 , 10 and 12 mm) against Klebsiella sp, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida sp. Respectively. The inhibition zone average of cell free extract for lactobacillus acidophillus which cultivated in SHHM was (14 , 14 and 20) mm against Klebsiella sp, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida sp. respectively, and ( 13 , 13 and 16 ) mm against Klebsiella sp, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida sp. respectively after cultivated in MRS medium.

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Article
Isolation, Purification, And Characterization Of Some Cystein Proteases From Bovine Mastites Milk
عزل وتنقية وتوصيف بعض البروتييزات السيستينية من حليب الأبقار المصابة بالتهاب الضرع

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Proteolytic activity of cysteine proteases were studied in bovine mastitis milk, four fractions designated as F1,F2,F3,F4 with cysteine protease activity were separated from leukocytes cell by ion- exchange Chromatography through DEAE-Cellulose The most active fraction F4 was selected for further purification utilizing gel filtration Chromatography on Sephadex G-100 column it has been found that F4 most likely being cathepsin B. purification folds and the enzyme yield was 46.66 and 31.81% respectively . polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis test indicated that the enzyme has been purified to homogeneity by giving a single band . The results of enzyme characterization showed that the molecular weights were 31000 and 30000 Daltons as determined by gel filtration and electrophoresis methods in present of reducing agent SDS- PAGE respectively. The optimum pH for the enzyme activity was 6.0 and it was stable at pH values ranged between 4.5 - 6.5. The enzyme exhibited the maximum activity at 45ºC and the enzyme retained its entire activity over 30 min incubation at 30 -50 C and it retained (50, 20, 10) % of its entire activites over 30 min incubation at (60, 70, 80) C respectively. From this results and results observed from the effect of inhibitor and activator reagents we suggest that enzyme F4 possibly belonged to cathepsin B.

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Article
Effect of Garlic and Celery on lipolysis of chadder cheese with high somatic cells count
تأثير أضافة الثوم والكرفس في التحلل الدهني لجبن التشدر المصنع من حليب ذو محتوى عالي من الخلايا الجسمية

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The study include two experiments, in the 1st one, minced Garlic and Celery weradded performing at 5 and 20% to chadder cheese made from milk contained high somatic cells count (4.2 x10 6 cell/ ml), it was noted that these materials had a significant effect on preventiy lipolysis in cheese which was appeared through decreasing the Acid Degrees Value (ADV) of cheese samples contained Garlic and Celery. This decrease in values were fallowed by increasing the percentages of these materials and which was assured by the sensory evaluation. In second experiment two, chadder cheese samples contained high somatic cells count were brined in 23% solution plus 20% Garlic or Celery. Data of lipolysis also showed that these treatments prevented lipolysis comparing to cheese samples brined without adding minced Garlic and Celery.

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Article
Micropropagation and Cormels Production in Gladiolus spp. Var. Oscar
الأكثار الدقيق وأنتاج الكريمات من نبات الكلاديولس صنف Oscar خارج الجسم الحي

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Plant tissue culture techniques are used for the micropropagation of Gladiolus, Oscar variety, using axillary buds of the flower stalks, axillary buds of corms and cormels. It was aimed to design production program for micropropagation and cormels production all year round. This work included many experiments. The effect of Benzyl adenine (BA) and Kinetin (Kin) and the interaction between BA and Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on shoot proliferation, the effect of BA on shoot multiplication, the effect of NAA on rooting after 30, 40 and 50 days, were studied. The role of the composed (Peatmoss only, Peatmoss: sand, sand only) in plantlet survival during acclimatization was also studied. Results showed that BA supplemented to the medium at 2.0 mgl induced shoot proliferation from axillary buds of flower stalks, giving an average shoot height of 2.5 cm. while reached 7.4 cm. in shoots induced from axillary buds of corms on a combination of 0.05 mgl NAA and 0.4 mgl BA. In cormels, the best response occurred at concentration of 1.0 mgl Kin giving average shoot length of (6.5 cm.). Maximum average of shoot number and length at the multiplication stage occurred at 0.75 mgl BA in axillary buds taken from both flower stalks and corms, while at 0.5 mgl in cormels. NAA at 1.0 mgl achieved the highest response in root number and length for all studied explants. Rooting percent, number and root length increased over time. Cormels formed 50 days after rooting reaching 100% cormels formation on all plantlets regenerated from the different explants under investigation. Peatmoss was found the best among the three tested media in sustaining plantlets survival.

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Article
The effect of crude methanolic extract of ginger (Zingibe officinale) root in different cell lines in vitro
دراسة تأثيرالمستخلص الميثانولي الخام لجذور نبات الزنجبيل ginger (Zingibe officinale) في انواع مختلفة من الخطوط الخلوية السرطانية خارج الجسم الحي

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This study involved the affectivity of crude methanolic extract of ginger root on different cells line in vitro, four cancer cell lines were tested Hela, L20B,Hep2, AMN3 compared with normal cell line (REF)and transformed cell line (Vero). Four extract concentrations were prepared (125,250,500,1000) µg/ml respectively, the results showed a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of different cell lines under study, also regression showed a significant negative relationship between plant extract and cell lines,1000 µg/ml concentration showed significant effect on cell lines growth (HELA,Hep2,L20B and Vero) on the other hand AMN3 was not affected by the plant extract, there was a direct relationship between concentrations and the rate of inhibition of the cell lines, on the other hand the normal cell line were more effected than cancer cell lines under study.

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Article
Chemical detections of active compounds in Melilotus indica extracts
الكشوفات الكيميائية للمركبات الفعالة في المستخلصات الخام لنبات الحندقوق Melilotus indica

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The crude extracts of the leaves of melilotus indica which collected in two dates (midFebruary, mid March) have been prepared by three solvents (Distilled water, ethanol 80% and chloroform) and three buffer solutions (Sodium acetate buffer, Sodium phosphate buffer and Tris-hydrochloric acid buffer), the greater percentage of crude extracts achieved by phosphate buffer which were 47.3% and 29.2% for second and first dates, respectively, while the lowest percentage of crude extracts achieved by chloroform extracts which were 13.2% and 10.0% for second and first dates, respectively. The qualitative chemical detections for active compounds in crude extracts revealed a positive results for the saponins, tannins, coumarins, flavones and glycosides, while the detections revealed a negative results for the alkaloids, resins and volatile oils. The active compounds in crude extracts prepared by solvents and buffer solutions were studied by thin layer chromatography (TLC), the solvent extracts were contains five compounds with relative flow (RF) 0.65, 0.4 for coumarin and umbelliferon, respectively, and 0.5, 0.27, 0.2 which belong to simple coumarins compounds in melilotus indica, while buffer solution extracts were contains two compounds with RF value 0.65 and 0.4 for coumarin and umbelliferon, respectively.

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