Table of content

Jornal of Biotechnology Research Center

مجلة مركز بحوث التقنيات الاحيائية

ISSN: 18151140
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Biotechnology Research Center (BRC) in a Al-Nahrain University issued in 2007 the first edition of a tightly seasonal scientific journal named as the journal Biotechnology Research Center (JBRC) which got authorization in 2005 and held an impact number ISSN: 1815-1140.The journal accepts scientific researches in Arabic and English.
JBRC’s main interest is Biotechnology researches in the Medical, Molecular, Agriculture and environmental fields which have an important impact on the public and private sectors in Iraq.
JBRC’s structure consists of editing committee (headed by the manger of the BRC and the editor in chief), consulting committee (contains a well- known iraqi scientists in biotechnology) and editing secretary.
All researches are submitted to the JBRC’s regulations which is mainly is that they must be according to the journal directions and instructions , then the researches will be evaluated by three well-known scientists in the field and after that reviewing occurred by the editing committee to ensure and verify all JBRC’s instructions and regulations are taken into consideration .
A special edition of JBCR is issued to cover all researches that presented to the BRC’s scientific conferences which subjected to all regulations and instructions of publishing in JBCR.

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Contact info

brcn2012@yahoo.comيتم الاتصال عبر البريد الالكتروني لمجلة مركز بحوث التقنيات الاحيائية


0096407707766148او للاتصال تلفونيا
بسكرتارية التحرير
م.م. سعاد محمد مجيدب
محمد منير حسين

Table of content: 2009 volume:3 issue:2

Article
Antimicrobial Studies of novel metal complexes of 3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl phenyl methanone and 1-benzoyl-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one
تحضير ودراسة الفعالية المضادة للجراثيم لمعقدات جديدة مشتقة من 3,5-ثنائي مثيل-1هيدرو-بايروزول-1-يل فنيل ميثانون و 1-بنزويل-3-مثيل-1هيدرو-بايروزول-5 (4هيدرو)-ون

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Abstract

Chromium )III), cobalt (II), nickel (II), copper (II) and cadmium (II) complexes of 3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl phenyl methanone and 1-benzoyl-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV/visible spectra, and room temperature magnetic susceptibility. Cadmium complex is expected to have tetrahedral structure while the other complexes are expected to have octahedral structure. The free ligands and their metal complexes have been tested in vitro against a number of microorganisms (Staphylococcus aurous, E.coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella) in order to assess their antimicrobial properties.

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Article
Histopathological Effects of Tilletia fungus Spores Causing Wheat Smut on the Stomach, Intestines and Heart of Experimental Mice
التأثيرات المرضية النسيجية لسبورات فطر الـ Tilletia المسبب لتفحم الحنطة على معدة وامعاء وقلب الفئران المختبرية

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Oral dose and intraperitonial injection of 30 experimental mice with spore suspension of Tilletia fungus revealed different clinical signs, included decrease in body weight, emaciation, general weakness, dyspenia, and ataxia. Severity of these changes depend upon concentration of spore suspension. While histopathological effects on heart, stomach and intestine of these experimental mice, were seen at concentration of 0.1 milligram / 0.5 milliliter PBS of spore suspension. Oral dose revealed more histopathologic damage in stomach, and intestine tissue than intraperitonial injection. Oral dose of 0.1 milligram /0.5 milliliter PBS caused mucous epithelium sloughing or detachment squamation accompanied with formation of ulcers oedema damage and necrosis, on the other hand, intraperitonial injection caused epithelium detachment with ulceration.


Article
Effect of Some Physical Mutagens on Pseudomonas aeruginosa H3 in Alginate Production
تأثير المطفرات الفيزيائية على قابلية بكتريا H3 Pseudomonas aeruginosa في إنتاج الالجينيت

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Abstract

Effect of physical mutagens on the ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa H3 in alginate production was performed by subjection of the cell suspension of P. aeruginosa H3 to different doses of UV radiation (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 J/m2) and LASER for (30, 60, 90 and 120 sec.), then cell suspension was spread on LB agar plates and incubated at 37 ˚C for 24hrs. After that, random selection of thirty colonies that arose from the cells subjection to the effect of different doses of UV radiation and laser were made (90% of the suspended cells were killed and were tested for their alginate production). Results showed that the mutagenesis by UV radiation caused an increase in the ability of P. aeruginosa H3 in alginate production. Over-producer mutant, H3R1, was obtained from this treatment. The productivity of the alginate from this mutant was 170mg/l in comparison with the productivity of wild type (70mg/l). On the other hand, results also showed that mutagenesis using LASER radiation caused an increase in the ability of P. aeruginosa H3 in alginate production. Over-producer mutant, H3R42, was obtained from this treatment characterized by its high ability in alginate production (130mg/l) in comparison with the productivity of wild type (70mg/l). Results of Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) for alginate produced by the wild type of P. aeruginosa H3 and over-producer mutants H3R1 and H3R42 at a wide range of wave lengths absorbance (400-4000) cm-1 showed that there were no any structural differences in the chemical structure of alginate produced by them on the basis of infra-red light absorption by different functional groups of alginate

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Article
تاثير المبيد Oxamyl في الوراثة الخلوية للخلايا اللمفاوية للدم المحيطي في الانسان
Effect of Oxamyl on Cytogenetics of human peripheral lymphocytes

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Abstract

The effect of of carbamate pesticides (Oxamyl) on some parameters of cytogenetics of human peripheral blood lymphocytes was studied. These parameters were induction of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and it's types; and formation of Micronuclei (Mn); in addition to estimating the mitotic index (MI) of cultured cells. The concentrations used were (0.1, 0.5, 5, 25, 50) × 10 -5 M which were added to lymphocyte cultures. Results indicated that the concentrations induced the CAs as the concentrations increased with positive correlation coefficient (r = + 0.904). Abnormalities in the control treatment were mainly as chromosomal breaks , these increased to 2 , 4 , 4 , 10 , 18 respectively and were with significant differences compared to control treatment (P<0.01) . Dicentric chromosomes appeared with 2 % level at concentration 25 × 10 -5 M , the latter abnormality raised to 4 % at concentration 50 × 10 -5 M in addition to the appearance of acentric chromosomes (1 % ), all of them were with significant differences (P<0.01). Micronuclei (Mn) increased in cells as the concentrations increased with positive correlation coefficient (r = + 0.983), and the highest value recorded at concentration 50 × 10 -5 M (6.66 %). MI had no significant difference from the control treatment (P>0.01), but started to decline at concentrations 5, 25, 50 × 10 -5 M and the values were 1.77, 1.5, 1.33 respectively compared to control treatment (2.5) with significant difference (P<0.01).

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Article
Effect of lysostaphin and crude extract of Salvia officinalis on local isolate Staphylococcus aureus I1 resistant to vancomycin
تأثير انزيم اللايسوستافين والمستخلص المائي لنبات الميرامية على العزلة المقاومة لمضاد الفانكومايسين Staphylococcus aureus I1 المحلية

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Abstract

This study included determining the effect of lysostaphin enzyme, and crude extract of Salvia officinalis and the combination of the crude extract of Salvia officinalis with vancomycin, on growth of the S.aureus I1 isolate which is isolated from patients with osteomyelitis and resistant to vancomycin, the results showed that : water crude extract have many active compounds like glycosides, tannins, saponeins, flavonides, resins, volatiles oil, but no alkaloids were detected. The 15.25 mg/ml was the best concentration from crude extract of Salvia officinalis that inhibits growth of the isolate. The crude extract of Salvia officinalis increased in action of vancomycin in 260 times (in presence of 470 μg/ml) crude extract the concentration of lysostaphin 20μg/ml inhibits growth of S.aureus I1

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Article
Cytogenetic effect of lactobacillus acidophilus concentrated filtrate on albino mice bone marrow cells
التأثيرالوراثي الخلوي لبكترياlactobacillus acidophilus في نقي العظم للفئران البيض

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Abstract

This study deals with the cytogenetic effect of lactobacillus acidophilus concentrated filtrate on metaphase index of bone marrow cells in mice. Cyclophosphamide is a drug that is used primarily for treating several types of cancer. In order to work, cyclophosphamide first is converted by the liver into two chemicals, acrolein and phosphoramide. The results showed that lactobacillus acidophilus concentrated filtrate caused a significant increased in metaphase index in comparison with the negative control (distilled water) and positive controls (Cyclophosphamide) especially at high doses. The results of interaction study showed that pre- and post-treatment with lactobacillus acidophilus concentrated filtrate caused a significant increased in metaphase index of mice bone marrow cells

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Article
Study of Hydrophobicity and Autoaggregation of Lactobacillus acidophilus Isolated from vagina
دراسة صفة السطح الكاره والتجمع الذاتي لبكتريا Lactobacillus acidophilus المعزولة من المهبل

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The Hydrophobicity of the seven isolates of L.acidophilus were detected by applying BATH test (Bacterial Adherence To Hydrocarbons) using xylene. The percentage of Hydrophobicity of the isolates ranged between 28-88% and the differences between the rates were significant (P<0.05). There was three hydrophobic isolates. The autoaggregation ability of the three isolates was tested by using the supernatant of MRS and LAPTg media in which the bacteria was cultivated for 24 hr. The results revealed that the three isolates were more aggregative in LAPTg supernatant. The percentage of the aggregation ranged between 70- 83.3% .On the other hand the percentage of the autoaggregation using MRS supernatant ranged between 30-70%. The nature of the surface and secreted factors which are responsible for the autoaggregation were determined by treatment of the bacterial cells and their LAPTg supernatants by proteinase K, lipase and sodium periodate. Results obtained indicated that the two types of these factors were proteins because of the inhibition of the aggregation after either the treatment of cells or the supernatants by proteinase K, and it's resistance to treatment with lipase or sodium periodate.

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Article
Assessment of genomic instability in blood and tissues from prostate cancer patients by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis
تقييم عدم الثبات المجيني لعينات الدم والنسيج في مرضى سرطان البروستات بواسطة تحليل الـ RAPD

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All genetic alterations in the genome that predispose to the development of cancer are utmost importance in gaining a complete understanding of the exact molecular events involved in the development of tumorigenesis. In this study, the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used for assessing genomic instability in prostate cancer patients. DNAs were obtained from blood and tumor tissues of five prostate cancer patients, then amplified individually by RAPD with five different 10-mer arbitrary primers. The ability to detect genomic instability in five cancer tissues by each primer ranged from 20 to 100 percent. Change in the genome that revealed by RAPD technique included deletion or insertion and allelic losses or gains. The most important finding is that deletions were also observed in blood DNAs, while the corresponding fragments were present in the tumor DNA. Our results display an insertion of a 1093 bp fragment in 2 of 5 tumor samples using primer OPA-03. A deletion of the same 1093 bp fragment was observed in a blood sample using the primer OPA-03. These results confirm other reports that RAPD technique is useful for assessing genomic damage in cancer

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Article
In vitro cytotoxic study for partially purified resveratrol extracted from grape skin fruit Vitis vinifera
دراسة للسميّة الخلوية لمادة Resveratrol المنقاة جزئياً والمستخلصة من قشور ثمرة العنب Vitis vinifera في الزجاج

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The partial purified resveratrol was obtained from the skin of black grape fruit cultivated in Iraq using 80% ethanolic solution, then an acid hydrolysis with 10% HCl solution for (10–30) min at 60Cº was carried out. The aglycone moiety was taken with an organic solvent (chloroform), then using an open glass column packed with silica gelG 60 as a stationary phase and a mobile phase of; benzene: methanol: actic acid (20:4:1). The study utilized an in vitro evaluation for the cytotoxic effect of the partially purified resveratrol on some cell lines including, the murine mammary adenocarcinoma (Ahmed –Mohammed –Nahi–2003 -AMN -3) cell line; the human laryngeal carcinoma (Hep -2) cell line and the Rat Embryo Fibroblast (REF) cell line at different concentrations and different exposure time of treatment. The partial purified resveratrol extract concentrations ranging (7.8–4000) µg/ml in a two fold serial dilutions were used to treat the three types of cell lines for 48 and 72 hours intervals. AMN-3 cell lines showed highest sensitivity toward the cytotoxic effect of the paritial purified resveratrol than other cell lines after 48 hours in a dose dependent manner. While Hep-2 cell line showed novel behavior, the lowest concentration of cell treatment gave the most significant (P< 0.01) inhibitory effect. Only the highest concentration gave significant inhibitory effect (P< 0.01) with the transformed Ref cell line.

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Article
Extruction of keratinase from the local isolate Bacillus licheniformis and partially purified and characterized
إستخلاص انزيم الكيراتينيز من العزلة المحلية Bacillus licheniformis وتنقيته جزئياً وتوصيف

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The keratinase produced from local isolate Bacillus licheniformis was purified by two steps included precipitation by ammonium sulphate with 40% saturation; followed by ion exchange using CM-Cellulose column. The enzyme was purified to 12.6 times in the last step with an enzyme yield of 17%. Enzyme characterization results indicated that: The optimal pH for enzyme activity was 7.5 and it was stable at 7-9.5. The optimal temperature for enzyme activity was 50°C and it was stable for 30 min at 25-45 °C. Substrate specifity was tested using casein, Bovine serum albumin, gelatin, hooves, human hair, chicken feathers and wool; higher specifity was recorded using casein gave 0.6 unit /ml. The enzyme was inhibited by PMSF and metal ions like Hg+2, Fe+2, Cu+2 and Mn+2, and activated by Ca+2, Mg+2, Zn+2and Al+3.

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Article
In vivo and in vitro studies on heavy metal tolerance in Sesbania grandiflora L
للمعادن الثقيلة خارج وداخل الجسم الحي Sesbania grandiflora L. دراسات عن تحمل نبات السيسبان

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Several experiments were carried out to study heavy metal tolerance in tissue cultures or whole plants of S. grandiflora., Callus was induced and maintained on modified Murashige and Skoog, 1962 medium (MS) supplemented with (0.5)mg/l benzyl adenine and (2)mg/l 2,4-phenoxy acetic acid . Heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Cr or Zn) were added to the culture medium at different concentrations as contamination agents. In order to asses the effect of these heavy metals on seed germination; seeds were sown in soil contaminated with different concentrations of heavy metals for 3 weeks. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer was used for analysis of samples taken from whole plants and callus cultures. Results showed that callus fresh weight decreased with increasing heavy metal concentration in cultural medium. Germination percentages and plant heights increased over time. However, a reduction occurred in these parameters with increasing heavy metal levels. Percentages of metals accumulated in calli were (0.001, 0.011, 0.012 and 0.013%) at (0.0, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1)mg/l Cd respectively; (0.001, 0.008, 0.016 and 0.006%) at (0.0, 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5)mg/l Co respectively; (0.001, 0.020, 0.034 and 0.015%) at (0.0, 0.075, 0.2 and 0.5)mg/l Cu respectively; (0.001, 0.013, 0.012 and 0.010%) at (0.0, 0.25, 0.4 and 0.5)mg/l Cr respectively and (0.027, 0.051, 0.059 and 0.056%) at (0.0 , 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5)mg/l Zn respectively. Percentages of metals accumulated in whole plants were (0.08, 0.55, 1.11, 0.83 and 0.44%) at (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0)mg/Kg soil Cd respectively; (0.11, 0.22, 0.55, 0.47 and 0.44%) at (0.0, 15.0, 30.0 45.0 and 60.0)mg/Kg soil Co respectively; (0.01, 0.10, 0.57, 0.58 and 0.72%) at (0.0, 25.0, 50.0, 75.0 and 100.0)mg/Kg soil Cu respectively. (0.08, 0.80, 1.28, 1.31 and 0.88%) at (0.0, 25.0, 50.0, 75.0 and 100.0)mg/Kg soil Cr respectively and (0.06, 1.11, 1.20, 1.83 and 2.22%) at (0.0, 100.0, 200.0, 300.0 and 400.0)mg/Kg soil Zn respectively.


Article
Study the toxic effect of non-bound colicins extracted from Escherichia coil on transplanted Murine adenocarcinoma (AM3)
دراسة التأثير السمي للكولسينات الخام الحرة (غير المرتبطة) المستخلصة من بكتريا Escherichia coli في خط خلايا سرطانة الغدة اللبنية الفأرية (AM3) المغروسة في الفئران المختبرية الطبيعية

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Four types of non-bound colicins (H5, H9, H13, H19) extracted from intestinal normal flora E.coli isolated from apparently healthy people’s stool. Then cytotoxic effect of colicins on transplanted murine adenocarcinoma (AM3) was studied. The results showed,that the four colicins had inhibitory effects on growth of AM3 cells when injected intratumorally at (200) mg/kg. Percentages of tumor inhibition were (98.79, 90.45, 90.08 and 88.26) % for colicins (H19, H13, H9 and H5) respectively. Intraperitoneal injection caused less inhibition, (57.47, 36.25, 60.26 and 53.25) % respectively using a daily dose of (200) mg/kg for period of 24 days.


Article
Determination the optimum condition for production of superoxide dismutase (SOD) from a local isolate of staphylococcus aureus
تعيين الظروف المثلى لانتاج انزيم Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) المنتج من عزلة محلية لبكتريا Staphylococcus aureus

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Thirty three isolates classified as Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 183 different samples that included wounds, burns, boils, abscesses, ear, nose, vaginal swabs, blood, urine samples, sputum, seminal fluid and cerebrospinal fluid. The ability of these isolates to produce superoxide dismutase (SOD) was tested by using submerged culture. It has been found that the isolate S.aureus HM86 has the highest productivity of the enzyme. The optimal condition for SOD enzyme production from the isolate S.aureus HM86 by the submerged culture method were determined using (0.5 %) Mannose as carbon source and peptone (0.5%) and pancreatic digest of casein (2%) as nitrogen sources with initial pH of 7 after 12 hours of incubation at 37oC, in shaker incubator at 150 rpm and with aeration ratio (1: 6.6). It has been found that the best method for enzyme extraction is by using ultrasonication for 15 min, the optimal time for addition of paraquat at concentration of 0.5 mM is after 6 and 8 hours of growth.

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Article
Estimating the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus isolated from different sources on some pathogens of urogenital infections in women group
تقييم التأثير التثبيطي للعصيات اللبنية المعزولة من مصادر مختلفة ضد عدد من المسببات المرضية للالتهابات البولية التناسلية لدى مجموعة من النساء

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This study was aimed to identify of pathogenic organism isolated from urogintal tract and estimate the effect of Lactobacillus which isolated from different sources on the growth of these pathogens including (Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Gardnerella viginals, Klebsiella oxytoca ,Proteus mirabilis). The results showed that Lactobacillus which was isolated from vagina on solid medium was effective against pathogenic isolates more than the Lactobacillus species isolated from yoghurt, cow milk, human milk with inhibition zone (12-16) mm, while the highs inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus isolated from vagina in liquid media with inhibition zone reached to(18)mm. Adversely, lowest inhibitory effect was shown with supernatant of Lactobacillus spp isolated from human milk with inhibition zone reached to(11)mm comparison with Lactobacillus spp isolated from yoghurt and cow milk with inhibition zone (13-15) mm. Also the result revealed that Lactobacillus spp isolated from vagina, human milk, cow milk and yoghurt by overlay method had no effect on pathogenic bacteria but high effect was shown only with the vaginal Lactobacillus isolates on C .albicans.

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Article
The Effect of Sperm Preparation Medium on Malondialdehyde Concentration in the Seminal Plasma of Normozoospermic and Oligoastheno- teratozoospermic patient
تأثير إضافة وسط تنشيط النطف إلى البلازما المنوية على تركيز المالوندايألديهايد للمرضى ذوي النطف السليمة والمرضى المصابين بقلة ووهن وتشوه النطف

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Intra uterine insemination (IUI) has been widely used to treat infertility. Infertility may be due to increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the seminal plasma. The goal of our study was to confirm that using sperm preparation medium to activate the spermatozoa in IUI might be helpful to decrease the levels of ROS in the seminal plasma, lowering the oxidative stress and the damage effects of the sperm and enhance a good quality sperm capable of capacitation, acrosomal reaction and fertilization. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in the seminal plasma in 40 infertile men of normozoospermia and oligoastheno-teratozoospermia before and after adding medium to the samples. Results showed that there was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in all parameters of semen samples in oligoastheno-teratozoosperia as compared with the other group, there was no significant increase in the level of MDA before adding the medium to the samples and a significant (P<0.05) increase after adding the medium to the same samples in the second group as compared with normozoospermic patients. Results reported in this study, clearly indicated that adding sperm preparation medium to the semen samples would improve the fertilization rates by decreasing the oxidative damages to the spermatozoa. Our results might be need a further studies to find a clue for the treatment of infertility in man.

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Article
The ability of polyphenols extracted from green tea Camellia sinensis in influence of genetic cytotoxicity of catechol on mice bone marrow cells ( in vivo )
قابلية الفينولات المتعددة المستخلصة من الشاي الاخضر Camellia sinensis في التأثير على السمية الوراثية للكاتيكول في خلايا نقي عظم الفئران (داخل الجسم الحي)

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Aqueous and methanolic of polyphenols and trepenoids extractions were obtained from green tea leaves. Process of confirmation were performed with conventional qualitative chemical tests,polyphenols(F1)and trepenoids(F2) represented 27.6% and 3.0% from dry weight of leaves recepectively .Catechins recovery was 67.2% from the original polyphenols (F1) contents by HPLC. Results showed that, a single oral administration for mice of both catechol concentrations (156 and 234 mg/kg) caused decreasing mitotic index (MI), blastogenic index (BI) and increasing micronucleus frequency (MN) in bone marrow, catechins treatment due to non significant changes in BI, significant increasing in MI and decreasing in MN, while the combination treatments (catechins and catechol) improved the cytogenetic parameters (BI, MN) in comparison with single treatments of catechol. In fact a clear effect in mitotic activity was reveal such as decreasing in MI and significant increasing in MN after Methotrexate (MTX) treatment dependent on the periods of administration (2-6 weeks), and/or in comparison with negative control.

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Article
Effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract on IVF outcome in Mice : Experimental model for mammals
تقييم تاثير مستخلص عرق السوس على معدل الاخصاب والنمو الجنيني في الزجاج باستخدام الفئران كموديل للبائن

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Objective: To evaluate and examine the effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (GgE) on the fertilization rate and embryonic development in vitro using the mice as a model for mammals. Design: Prospective study. Methods: Seven hundred forty ova were collected from superovulated ( SUO) females mice .Glycyrrhiza glabra extract was prepared and used for in vitro activation of caudal epididymal sperm . In vitro fertilization was performed using both 10% GgE mixed with IVF medium for 367 ova (treated group) and IVF medium alone for 373 ova(Control group) . Fertilization rate and normal development of different early embryonic cleavages stages was recorded. Results : There was a significant ( P<0 .05) increase in the fertilization rate (FR ) of SUO mice oocytes (53.89%)by using 10% GgE Compared to IVF medium alone in SUO group(36.82%) . Addition of 10% GgE to the IVF medium, the number of 2-cell and 4-cell embryonic stages of SUO mice was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of control mice embryos cultured with IVF medium alone (60% and 60% Vs. 51% and 54%, respectively). Conclusion: The investigation showed that the Glycyrrhiza glabra extract may contain many growth factors, and energy sources that supporting the FR and normal development of early cleavage stages of mice embryos in vitro .This result can be utilized for IVF program in mammals.


Article
Identification of Mediterranean mutation in the G6PD gene on molecular level in Iraqi population
الكشف عن طفرة البحر الأبيض المتوسط في جين G6PD على المستوى الجزيئي لعينات عراقية

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The study involved extraction of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from 71 samples of random G6PD patients and 85 samples of apparently healthy individuals from different Iraqi populations respectively, which was then amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and later subjected to digestion by restriction enzyme to create restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to enable the detection of mutation that caused G6PD deficiency namely Mediterranean (Med). The results of the current study showed that Iraqies were affected by G6PD deficiency in a percentage of 7.2% and showed that the majority of affected cases were caused by Med mutation (95.8%). It could be concluded that Med mutation causes a serious impact on pediatric health and its the most prevalent cause of G6PD deficiency.

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Article
Effect of N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) on callus induction and survival rate on mature embryos of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)
دراسة تأثير المطفر النايتروزوجواندين NTG في نشوء وبقاء الكالس من الاجنة الناضجة لنبات الفاصوليا) Phaseolus vulgaris (

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This research was conducted to study the effect of the chemical mutagen N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine on the percentage of callus induction and survival from mature beans embryos harvester cultivar. Seeds were treated with (0.2 or 0.4) millimolar of the mutagen NTG in combination with 0.0, 4 or 8% of ethanol, pH 5 ±2 0. for 24 h. Calli were induced on mature embryos by using MS medium with 0.5 mg/l of Benzyl adenine (BA), 1 mg/l Indole acetic acid (IAA) and 100 mg/l from each of Casein hydrolysate, Glycine, Asparagine, Tyrosine, and Myo-Inositol. Results showed that the hypocotyl surpassed the radical and the plume significantly in terms of survival reached 56.3%. Mutagen treatments showed asignificant effect on calli survival. Treatment with 8% Ethanol was lethal for all explants. While treatment with 0.4 mM NTG without Ethanol gaved the highest survival rate. The interaction between the treatments and the explants showed that the lowest survival percentage was which 8.8% that was for shoots treated with 0.2 mM of 4% Ethanol. Calli induced on hypocotyls treated with 0.4 mM NTG without Ethanol gave the highest fresh weight (347.2) mg while the lowest was (60) mg for calli induced on the radical treated with 0.4 mM NTG with 4% Ethanol. Moreover the highest dry weight was 22.5 mg for calli induced from hypocotyls treated with 0.4 millimolar NTG without Ethanol that was higher than the control 17.2 mg.The lowest dry weight obtained from calli induced on the radical treated with 0.4 mM NTG with 4% Ethanol was 3 mg. In conclusion the results showed that 0.4 mM NTG without Ethanol gave the highest survival rate and the highest fresh and dry weight for calli induced on the hypocotyl.

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Article
Production high class of micro tuber potato seeds (Solanum tuberosum L.). by Using tissue culture technique
انتاج درينات تقاوي الرتب العليا للبطاطا Solanum tuberosum L. باستخدام تقنية زراعة الانسجة النباتية

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Abstract

The aim of this investigation was produced micro tubers of four potato cultivars Premiere, Bintje, Estima and Escort in vitro. Apical meristems (0.2-0.4 mm) of potato cultivars were excised and cultured on nutrient medium and incubated at 24±2 Cº and 1000 lux light intensity for 16 hrs per day. The developing plantlets were examined serological by using ELISA technique to eliminate the viral infected plantlets. The virus-free plantlets were chopped into pieces with single bud and re cultured on fresh medium for mass propagation. For micro tubers formation in test tubes, the cultures were transferred to another medium containing a high percent of sucrose (60g/L) with different concentrations of kinetin; the cultures were incubated under 16±2 Cº and 8 hrs photoperiod. The plantlets formed micro tubers after 8-10 weeks from culturing. The results showed significant differences among cultivar’s in their response to in vitro culture and micro tubers formation. The results also showed that the kinetin concentration had significant effect on micro tubers, and 1mg/l kinetin concentration was the best. The micro tubers were stored for 10 week at 4Cº to break down the dormancy period, and gave 100% germination under nursery condition. Numbers of tubers derived from micro tubers and normal tubers of these cultivars were compared at the end of season.

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Article
Purification of some active ingredients of alcoholic extract of anise seed (Pimpinella anisum) and assessment their estrogenic effect on some physiological traits of immature female mice
تنقية بعض المواد الفعالة للمستخلص الكحولي لبذور الينسون ودراسة تأثيرها الأستروجيني على بعض الصفات الفسلجية في اناث الفئران غير البالغة

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Abstract

This experiment was conducted in order to purify some active ingredients of 70% alcoholic extract of aniseed by adsorption chromatography on silica gel and gel filtration on sepharose CL-6B column, using phosphate buffer (0.1M, pH 7.0) as eluent, as well as gel filtration on sephadex LH-20 where chloroform : methanol (3:1) was used as an eluent. Thin layer chromatography on silica gel was used as a criterion for the identification of purified fractions. Ultra violet transilluminator as well as vanillin-H2SO4 reagent were used to identify and develop of separated fractions, respectively. However, the fractions which purified on sephadex LH-20, showed an Rf value (0.71) which corresponded to the Rf values of anethole. To assess the estrogenic activity of purified fractions a dose of 150 mg/kg of body weight of collected fractions were given to immature female mice at three weeks age and administered orally for four weeks period. Twenty immature female mice were divided randomly into five groups. First group received crude extract of aniseed, while the second, third, and fourth groups received fractions purified on silica gel, sepharose CL-6B and sephadex LH-20 columns, respectively. Group five served as control, such treatments were continued until maturity, and then the animals were sacrified for studying weight changes in ovaries and uterus. The results of this study revealed that there is a significant increment (P<0.01) in the weights of ovaries in the treated groups as compared to the control, while fractions obtained from sepharose CL-6B had no significant effect (P>0.01). Also there is a significant increment (P<0.01) in the weights of uterus in the treated group with respect to fractions obtained from sephadex LH- 20 as compared to other treated groups and control.

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Article
Biochemical interaction between Eucalyptus, Neem residues with some plants and microorganisms
التداخلات البيوكيميائية لمخلفات اشجار اليوكالبتوس والنيم مع بعض النباتات والاحياء المجهرية

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Abstract

The study was carried to determinate the allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus globules and Azadirachta indica against Raphanus sativus and Lepidium sativum by adding their residues to the soil at rates of (3 , 6) gr / kg soil . The second part of study was to extract the oil seed and determine the biological activities against some pathogenic microorganisms namely Escherichia col, Klebesiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis. These oils used at cons. (2.5, 5, 10, 15)% prepared and separated by stem distillation. Agar well diffusion method was used in bacteria preparing, and comparing extracts effect by determining the inhibition zone. Residues of Eucalyptus and Neem added to the soil at rates of 3gr/ kg soil significantly reduced the seed germination number and shoot length. While adding 6gr/ kg soil inhibited the seedling growth. Also the result shows inhibitory effects of the Eucalyptus oils against E .coli, S. aurus and K. pnenumonia, put there was no inhibition against P. aeruginosa and P.mirablils treatments. In conclusion, it seem much useful to cultivated Eucalyptus and Neem trees at river bank and lake beach because their residues could be use as herbicides, antibacterial against same microorganisms which polluted the water.

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Article
Diagnosis of Human Visceral Leishmaniasis by PCR Technique in Iraq
تشخيص الحمى السوداء باستخدام تقنية سلسلة تفاعل البلمرة في العراق

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Abstract

In the present study, 93 blood samples and 20 bone marrow aspirates from 93 patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) from three hospitals in Baghdad during the period October 2005 - May 2006, were screened using molecular and serological techniques. Samples that were negative (N = 50) in parasitological and serological tests were used as controls. Of the 93 samples analyzed by ELISA technique, 19 samples (17.7%) gave positive culture result on NNN medium. However, when the technique was combined with molecular characterization by PCR, 7 samples (36.8%) gave a positive result. Nineteen patients with Leishmania parasites in bone marrow cultures showed PCR amplification of the correct band, as did the seven bone marrow aspirates positive for Leishmania. None of the negative controls tested using PCR or in an ELISA assay. These results indicate that PCR could replace the conventional parasitological examination in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis since it provides very satisfactory results with clinical samples

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