Table of content

Jornal of Biotechnology Research Center

مجلة مركز بحوث التقنيات الاحيائية

ISSN: 18151140
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Biotechnology Research Center (BRC) in a Al-Nahrain University issued in 2007 the first edition of a tightly seasonal scientific journal named as the journal Biotechnology Research Center (JBRC) which got authorization in 2005 and held an impact number ISSN: 1815-1140.The journal accepts scientific researches in Arabic and English.
JBRC’s main interest is Biotechnology researches in the Medical, Molecular, Agriculture and environmental fields which have an important impact on the public and private sectors in Iraq.
JBRC’s structure consists of editing committee (headed by the manger of the BRC and the editor in chief), consulting committee (contains a well- known iraqi scientists in biotechnology) and editing secretary.
All researches are submitted to the JBRC’s regulations which is mainly is that they must be according to the journal directions and instructions , then the researches will be evaluated by three well-known scientists in the field and after that reviewing occurred by the editing committee to ensure and verify all JBRC’s instructions and regulations are taken into consideration .
A special edition of JBCR is issued to cover all researches that presented to the BRC’s scientific conferences which subjected to all regulations and instructions of publishing in JBCR.

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Contact info

brcn2012@yahoo.comيتم الاتصال عبر البريد الالكتروني لمجلة مركز بحوث التقنيات الاحيائية


0096407707766148او للاتصال تلفونيا
بسكرتارية التحرير
م.م. سعاد محمد مجيدب
محمد منير حسين

Table of content: 2011 volume:5 issue:2

Article
Study of Tigris River Pollution with Heavy Metals (Zinc and Lead) in Baghdad Government, Chemical and Biological Evaluation and Suitability for Civilian and Agricultural Uses
دراسة تلوث نهر دجلة في محافظة بغداد ببعض العناصر الثقيلة (الزنك والرصاص ) وتقييم نوعيته كيميائياً وأحيائياً ومعرفة التغاير الكيميائي والأحيائي وصلاحيته للأغراض المدنية والزراعية

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Abstract

ater samples were collected monthly from December 2007 - May 2009 from four sites on Tigris River in Baghdad, (Al-Etafiah, Al-Tahrer Bridge, Al-Jadiriah Bridge and Al-Wihdeh square near water treatment station). Three months average was taken. Hydrogen activity (pH) range was (7.3-7.5), Electrical Conductivity (EC) range was (0.80- 0.94) dS/m, with significant difference in relation to sites. Rang of Calcium ions concentration was (3.8- 4.2) mmolс/l, Magnesium ions (2.0- 2.7) mmolс/l, Sodium ions (2.1- 3.0) mmolс/l, Potassium ions (0.1) mmolс/l, Chloride ions (2.0- 3.3) mmolс/l, Sulfate ions (4.1- 5.0) mmolс/l, and Carbonate ions (1.3- 1.9) mmolс/l. Total Dissolved Salts (TDS) ranged from (512.0- 601.6) ppm, with significant difference in regard to sites. Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) ranged from (1.15- 1.91) along all the River sites and through the months of the study. Tigris River can be considered adequate for civilian uses according to WHO and Iraqi Quality Assurance System after adequate treatment in filtration and sterilization stations. Three classification systems were used to evaluate water suitability for agricultural purposes, United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) Classification System (1954), and the result was class C3-S1 for all studied samples. FAO Classification System (1985), the result was “Water with mild-moderate problems” for salt concentration represented by EC. But for SAR and effect of Na concentration on soil permeability, the result was “No problem to use water for irrigation”. FAO Classification System (1992), its result was “Low salt irrigation water”, No sample was classified as “Danger possibilities” in regard to SAR and its effect on soil permeability. According to an Iraqi Classification System, these samples were classified as “good quality water for agricultural irrigation purposes”.

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Article
Study of Some Parameters to Evaluate Immunization against Leishmaniasis in Golden hamsters
دراسة بعض المؤشرات لتقييم التمنيع ضد الخمج بداء اللشمانيات في الهامستر الذهبي

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Abstract

Incubation period, smears, impression and parasite culture for each liver, spleen, foot and blood were observed along five times follow up (15,30, 45, 60, 75, 90) days after challenge infection with virulent Leishmania tropica isolate in four groups of golden hamsters, inoculated with (one, two, three) doses of different antigens as following: Group (1) inoculated with autoclaved killed Leishmania tropica, Group (2) inoculated with BCG vaccine alone while Group (3) Inoculated with mixed vaccines (autoclaved killed Leishmania + BCG) and (4) control animals inoculated with phosphate buffer saline. Group 3, was considered as the best vaccine in this study because animal inoculated with this vaccine showed the following results compared with other antigens: - No lesion appeared along 90 days of following up.- Negative foot impression and culture up to 15 and 30 days of infection respectively, - Negative spleen and liver impression up to 30 days of infection when comparing with other groups.

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Article
Evaluation of complements serum level (C3 and C4) in pregnant women with history of toxoplasmosis
تقييم مستوى المتمم C3 و C4 في مصول مجموعة من النساء الحوامل المصابات بداء المقوسات

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Abstract

C3 and C4 serum level were evaluated in 30 pregnant women which divided into groups: Group A16 (53.3%) (Pregnant women with history of abortion and positive anti toxoplasma IgM antibodies), Group B10 (33%) (Normal pregnancy women with no history of abortion or Toxoplasmosis.), Group C6 (20%) (Pregnant women with history of two abortion and positive anti toxoplasma IgM), group D 10 (33.3%) (Pregnant women with history of only one abortion and positive anti- toxoplasma IgM), group E 4 (13.3%) (Pregnant women with history of only one abortion and negative anti-toxoplasma IgM). The results showed that highest level of both C3 and C4 in women with positive anti toxplasma IgM and history of one or two abortion/abortions while the lowest level of these two complements were in women with negative anti toxplasma IgM even they had one abortion or no abortion. There is significant differences in concentration of C3 ( 189.7 ± 20.3 mg/dl ) and C4 ( 59.3 ± 7.5 mg/dl ) in group A and C3 ( 189.6 ± 17.7 mg/dl ) and C4 ( 63.08 ± 4.7 mg/dl) when compared with group B and E, and the result showed statistical differences in C4 concentration between group C and D at P< 0.05. We conclude that complement was play role in immune response of pregnant women especially against toxoplasmosis that cause abortion to these women.

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Article
Isolation and characterization E. coli O157:H7 from meat &cheese and detection of Stx1, Stx2, hlyA, eaeA by using multiplex PCR
عزل وتوصيف بكتريا E. coli O157:H7 من اللحم والجبن والكشف عن جينات Stx1 و Stx2 و hlyA و eaeA باستخدام تقنية Multiplex PCR

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Abstract

total of 189 samples were collected from 74 raw uncooked minced beef meat, 115 local white cheeses from 3 different areas in Baghdad. All samples were surveyed and examined for the presence of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 and differentiate it from other Non -Sorbitol Fermenting Escherichia coli (NSF E. coli). The Bacterial isolates were identified by using morphological diagnostic methods; Samples were cultured on liquid enrichment medium, incubated at 41.5Cº for 6 hrs, and then cultured on Cefixime Tellurite -Sorbitol MacConkey Agar (CT- SMAC). 66 non-sorbitol fermenting bacterial isolates were obtained of which 13 were identified as Escherichia coli from (6 meat and 7 cheese samples). By using traditional biochemical tests and Api20E diagnostic system without differentiation between serotype O157:H7 and other NSF E. coli isolates. Four specific biochemical tests (Cellobiose fermentation, β-Glocuronidase production, KCN and Enterohemolysin production) were done to differentiate serotype O157 differentiation from other NSF bacteria. Only 2 isolates belonging to the serotype O157 were obtained of which one isolate from meat and other isolate from cheese. Latex agglutination test for O157 and H7 showed that the 5 isolates gave positive results with both kits. The Bacterial isolates were identified by using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPCR) technology for the presence or absence of 4 genes (Stx1, Stx2, hlyA and eaeA) that encode for main virulence factors to diagnose E. coli O157:H7 isolated from various sources by using specific primers in mPCR. The result showed that gene content variety in two E. coli O157:H7 isolates, 1 from meat contain all 4 genes and other isolate from cheese contains 2 genes: Stx1 and hlyA .

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Article
Cytogenetic study of the pure Resveratrol extracted from grape skin on normal peripheral human blood lymphocytes
دراسة الوراثة الخلوية لمادة الـ Resveratrol المستخلصة والمنقاة من قشور ثمرة العنب على خلايا الدم اللمفاوية البشرية الطبيعية

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Abstract

his study was conducted with the aim to extract and purify a polyphenolic compound “Resveratrol” from black grapes skin Vitis vinifera cultivated in Iraq. The pure extracted resveratrol has been employed for a cytogenetic evaluation on the normal human blood lymphocytes and revealed that the substance reduced significantly the mitotic action of the mutagen (PHA). The results of the cytogenetic study suggested that the substance appeared to have potent antimitotic and antiblastic cell formation.

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Article
Effect of Sucrose and Naphthalene acetic acid Concentrations on Rooting of Sugarcane In vitro
تأثير السكروز ونفثالين حامض الخليك في تجذير قصب السكر خارج الجسم الحي

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hoots of two sugarcane genotypes (Co.J.64, Co.J.86) were rooted in vitro on MS medium supplemented with different concentration of sucrose (0, 30, 50, 60, 70) gm/l or NAA (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0) mg/l in separate experiments. All cultures were incubated at 25±2C◦with 16 h/d light (1000 lux) for 60 days. Data of roots per plant, length, dry and fresh weights were taken after 8 weeks. Results showed that 70g/l of sucrose gave higher mean in length and fresh weight of roots reached 1.70 cm /plant, 19.80 mg/root, respectively, while 60g/l sucrose gave higher mean in number and dry weight reached 9.95 root, 4.60mg, respectively. NAA concentrations were significantly effected in root length reached 1.23 cm/plant at 5 mg/l NAA while a significant effect in root number, fresh and dry weight. The genotype Co.J.64 was the best in number of roots in sucrose experiment, while genotype Co.J.86 surpassed in number of root, fresh and dry weight in NAA experiment.


Article
Assessing the Anti-mutagenic Potentials of Sage Salvia officinalis L. Leaf Aqueous Extract in Cultured Blood Cells of Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia Patients Using the Micronucleus Formation Assay
تقدير الفعل المضاد للتطفير للمستخلص المائي لأوراق نبات الميرمية في خلايا المزارع الدمية لمرضى ابيضاض الدم اللمفي الحاد باستخدام فحص تكون النوى الصغيرة

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three concentrations (250, 500, 1000) µg/ml of sage Salvia officinalis L. leaf aqueous extract were assessed for their anti-mutagenic potentials in cultured blood cells of 10 acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) patients and a similar number of apparently healthy controls. The parameter of assessment was micronucleus (MN) formation, which was either spontaneous or induced by a treatment with the mutagen cytostar 125 µg/ml, and accordingly, eight cultures were set-up. Blood cells in culture I was negative control (untreated cells), while in culture II, the cells were treated with the mutagen cytostar (cytarabine) at a concentration 125 µg/ml. Cultures III, IV and V were treated with the three concentrations of sage extract respectively, while in cultures VI, VII, VIII, interactions between the extract (the three concentrations respectively) and cytosar were carried out. The results demonstrated that ALL patients showed a significant increased frequency of MN formation in the eight cultures as compared to the corresponding cultures in healthy controls. With respect to the spontaneous formation of MN formation (cultures III, IV, V), the three concentrations of sage extract demonstrated a gradual significant reduction of MN frequency in patients (0.0144, 0.0098, 0.0062) MN/cell, respectively and control subjects (0.0104, 0.0076, 0.0038) MN/cell, respectively. In the induction cultures (VI, VII, VIII), a similar reduction was observed and the dose 1000 µg/ml exerted the highest reduction in both patients and controls (0.0108, 0.0086) MN/cell, respectively. These results demonstrate the anti-mutagenic importance of sage leaf aqueous extract.

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Article
Effect of lead acetate injection into pregnant mice on the testis function of their male offspring at puberty
تأثير حقن اناث الفئران الحوامل بمادة خلات الرصاص على وظيفة الخصى لمواليدها الذكور عند البلوغ

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Abstract

the study aimed to follow up the effects of injection lead acetate into pregnant females on the testicular development and semen quality of their male births at puberty time. Forty mature female Swiss Webster mice (8-10) weeks old were divided into two equal groups (experimental and control). After mating with fertile males, the pregnant females injected intraperitoneally with 0.1 mg/kg of body weight of lead acetate from the first day of gestation and continued throughout the gestation period 20 days. While the control groups were injected by the same dose and rout of injection with normal saline. At parturition, numbers of the neonate were recorded. After six weeks the male births only isolated and weighted then mated with normal fertile females to evaluate their fertility through assessing their birth rate, then sacrificed to get their testes; each testis was weighted and the left one was fixed, then histological sections with a thickness of 5 microns were prepared. The epididymis was minced with warm normal saline to get a spermatozoal suspension to evaluate the sperm concentration, sperm motility, and abnormal sperm morphology and sperm viability. Results showed a highly significant decrease in the body and testicular weights of experimental male animals. A highly significant reduction in their birth rate after mating with normal partners was recorded together with a significant inverse changes in all semen parameters.

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Article
Yeast extracts production from Whey by utilization of local isolate Kluyveromyces marxianus
انتاج خلاصة الخميرة (Yeast extract) من الشرش باستخدام عزلة محلية من خميرة Kluyveromyces marxianus

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Abstract

local isolated Kluyveromyces marxianus from local sources (yoghurt) was used for yeast extract production. Optimum conditions of chemical and physical properties of this isolate were identified for the optimal growth and biomass production, so the optimum temperature and pH were 30C, 5.0, respectively, the speed of shaker incubator was 200 rpm, the inoculum size was 1×106 CFU/ml. The optimum fermentation medium was included the non-protein whey which fortified with 10% lactose, 0.2% (NH4)2HPO4, 2% Na2HPO4 and 2% of heated hydrolyzed yeast, the obtained biomass was about 0.52 g/100 ml, fermentation efficiency was 16.7%.The produced biomass under optimum conditions referred above was applied for yeast extract production by using sonicator and electric vacuum oven for drying the biomass. The chemical composition of the resulted yeast extract was: 50% protein, 31.6% total carbohydrate, 6.8% glucan, 5.4% moisture. The resulted yeast extract was involved in the composition of some culture media, and comprised with standard yeast extract. The growth yield in these media which was determent by measuring optical density was estimated to those of media with standard yeast extract, which were 0.539, 0.552 respectively in MRS and 1.05, 1.15 respectively in Davis's yeast salt broth.

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Article
Phenotypic Expression of Type 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae Fimbriae in Escherichia coli HB101
التعبير المظهري لخمل النمط الأول لبكتريا Klebsiella pneumoniae في بكترياEscherichia coli HB101

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Abstract

Four selected isolates of K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae were tested for adhesion and the results revealed that isolates MK20, MK1, MK2, MK6 displayed adhesive capability with means (76.25 ± 6.0),(75.88 ± 5.13), (69.83 ± 8.43), (27.4±4.65) bacteria/ epithelial cell, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis was performed to detect plasmid profile for the four selected isolates. Results showed that all isolates exhibited two bands of small plasmid DNA with molecular size ranged from less than 4kb for the smaller one to more than 12kb for the larger one as compared with DNA molecular size marker )lambda phage restricted with EcoRІ & Hind). Besides two bands of large plasmid DNA were obtained from the isolates MK20, MK1, MK6, but the isolate MK2 didn’t show any band of large plasmid DNA. Transformation of plasmid DNA was performed using standard genetically modified E. coli HB101 strain as the recipient for plasmids of the selected isolates, while E. coli HB101with pBR322 plasmid was used as a positive control. In respect to the adhesion test, it was observed that the transformants, designated as (T1, T2, T6, T20), showed adherence capability of: (54.37±5.38), (48.33±4.475), (43.46±0.625), (33.0±6.71) for the transformants T2, T20, T1, T6, respectively. However, these transformants showed no significant differences in the adherence capability, however, the mean of adhesion capabilities of the transformants were less than that of the wild type isolates.

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Article
Study the effect of the mixture alcoholic extract of Peganum harmala seeds and cones of Cupressus sempervirens and their effect on viability of protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus in vivo
دراسة تاثير مزيج المستخلص الكحولي لبذور الحرمل ومخاريط السرو في حيوية الرؤيسات الاولية للمشوكة الحبيبية Echinococcus granulosus داخل الجسم الحي

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this study included the using of the mixture of alcoholic extract Peganum harmala seeds and cones of Cupressus sempervirens at concentrations (1+50) mgml. And then experimentation on the mice injected with protoscolices and its comparison with the mice injected with only protoscolices (as positive control group), and the mice injected with normal saline (as negative control) to investigate the effect of plant mixture in vivo, it appeared of getting the reduction of hydatid cyst with percentage 100% in processed group with the mixture compared with positive group as its absence of the hydatid cyst in processed group. The lowering significantly occurred in the averages of the weights of the liver and spleen and the averages of its distension in processed groups and about of the positive group and which was approach to the negative group. Also study the tissular changes occurred in the liver and spleen, in the liver it occurred of changes in the liver cell and increase in the number of the kupffer cell as a defensive in the processed group were less than what it appeared in the positive control, but the spleen, it appeared the dilation of the whit pulp and the appearance of the cell composing of the hemic platelets (megakaryocyte cells) in the mice processed in comparison with negative control. These changes were of less acuity in the group processed. Thus from the results of this study at appeared the possibility of using the mixture in vivo in successful and safe way by it a capability of initiating the immunity system to the inhibition of the protoscolices and prevent the development of the secondary hydatid cyst in vivo without causing the negative side effect.

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Article
The Role of Plasmids in Pathogenicity of Locally Isolated Plesiomonas shigelloides
دور البلازميدات في أمراضية بكتريا Plesiomonas shigelloides المعزولة محلياً

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one hundred and twenty diarrhea samples were collected from different hospitals in Baghdad, four isolates 3.3% (P1, P2, P3, P4) were obtained and identified as Plesiomonas shigelloides from these samples. Four isolates were also obtained and identified as the same bacteria from the environmental samples, two isolates 10% from twenty water samples (termed W1, W2) and two isolates 10% from twenty fish samples (termed F1, F2). Investigation of antibiotic susceptibility was done for all isolates. Some of the virulence factors were determined in this bacterium, like its ability to produce some enzymes. Ability of bacterial isolates to adhesion on epithelial cells was studied as one of important virulence factors; it was found that all isolates have the ability to adhesion on living and non-living surfaces. The plasmid profile for all isolates was studied, and the results showed that the plasmid profile was similar for all isolates. All isolates contained two small plasmid DNA bands approximately in the same sizes. The role of plasmids in pathogenicity of P. shigelloides P1 were studied, throughout cure this isolate using SDS. These results indicated that the trait of β-lactamas, haemolysin and proteinase production in addition to resistance trait for tetracycline and streptomycin were plasmids born. While the lipase and lecithinase production trait were chromosomal born in Plesiomonas shigelloides P1.

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Article
The Mutagenecity Effect of Aqueous Extracts of Malva parviflora by Bacterial System (part one)
القابلية التطفيرية والمضادة للتطفير للمستخلص المائي لنبات الخباز Malva parviflora بإستخدام نظام بكتيري ( الجزء الأول )

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his study was carried out in order to determine the toxic and mutagenic and antimutagenic effects for Mallow (Malva parviflora) against the mutagenic effect of Methotrexate (MTX).The effect was studied in a bacterial system (G-system). The used system consisted of three isolates G3 Bacillus spp, G12 Arthrobacter spp and G27 Brevibacterium spp. The study depended on recording survival fraction (Sx) as an indicator for the induction of Streptomycin and Refampicin resistance mutants as a genetic marker. Water Extract was prepared from fresh and dry mallow leaves, stems, flowers and roots Gradual concentrations of plant water extracts were use to choose the suitable concentration which is remembered the negative control. The interactions included three types of treatments (pre - MTX, with- MTX and post-MTX) as a chemical mutagen in order to determine the mechanisms of this plant extracts in preventing or reducing the genotoxic effect of MTX. The results showed that the interaction effect between the optimum concentration of water extract and the mutagen on survival fraction (Sx) increase the value of the survival fraction of G-system isolates to reach normal value compare with positive control (MTX ). The results of the interaction between optimum concentration for extracts and the treatment with mutagen to induce resistance mutant for streptomycin and refampicin found that the MTX had no effect to induce resistance mutant for these two antibiotics, for the three types of treatment (pre-MTX, with-MTX, and post- MTX) for all extracts, the water extract suppress or repair mutant and give protection 100% for bacterial cells.

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Article
Influence of different concentrations of Sildenafil Citrate on histological parameters of mice epididymis
تأثير تراكيز متعددة لسترات السلدينافيل على المتغيرات النسجية لبربخ الفئران

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sildenafil citrate (SC) is widely used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and maintains a sufficient erection for satisfactory sexual performance. Very limited literatures were published about effects of SC on histological changes of epididymes in human or laboratory animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different concentrations of SC for different administration periods on some histological parameters of mice epididymes. Seventy five male mice (7-8) weeks old, weighing (23-25)g were used in the present study. The possible effect of SC was tested through the treatment groups of mice with different doses of SC (2, 4, 8, 16)mg/Kg body weight, and for different periods (1, 3, 5) weeks. Histological examination of epididymes were carried out and compared with those belong to untreated group. Results revealed no significant differences (P>0.05) in epididymal weight, tubules diameters and thickness of epithelial layer between treated groups and control group. Conclusion in this study, SC has no effect on epididymis histology


Article
Effect of Citrullus colocynthis on some physiological aspects of female reproductive system in mice as a model for mammals
تأثير استخدام المستخلص الكحولي للحنظل على بعض المعايير الوظيفية للجهاز التناسلي لإناث الفئران كموديل لللبائن

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The study was design to investigate the effect of oral administration of Citrullus colocynthis (CC) on some physiological and histological characters of female reproductive organs in mature mice of Swiss albino strain as a model for mammals. The animals were divided into three groups each contains 8 animals. Group one was treated with 6 mg/ Kg body weight BW/ day of alcoholic extract of CC, group two was treated with 9.6 mg/ Kg BW/day of alcoholic extract of CC and group three served as control throughout eight weeks period. The results of the study showed no significant (P>0.05) difference in the ovarian and uterine weight among groups. Significant (P<0.05) differences were shown in ovarian activity in control and group one compared to group two. The number of corpura lutea was highly significant (P<0.01) improved in group one than that of control group. The number of pregnant females was 50% in group one and control group. However the females treated with 6 mg/ Kg BW/ day of alcoholic extract of CC were gave a significant (P<0.01) results in the number of litters when compared with control group. It is concluded from the present research that treating with limiting dose of CC may accelerated the action of ovarian activity and resulted in improvement in the number of litters.


Article
The Nutritional and chemical content of basil leaves Ocimum basilicum L.
المحتوى الغذائي والكيميائي لأوراق الريحان Ocimum basilicum L.

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the nutritional value, mineral elements and phytochemicals of Basil were investigated using standard analytical methods in order to assess the nurmerous potential of the plant leaves. The proximate analysis showed the percentage of moisture content, ash content, crude protein, lipids, crude fibers and carbohydrate of the leaves on dry weight basis as (10.58, 14.12, 17.66, 2.53, 18.09, 55.11)% respectively while its caloric value is 313Kcal/100g. The percentages of major mineral elements were Calcium 2.41%, Phosphorus 1.41%, Magnesium 0.32% and Nitrogen 2.82% the minor mineral elements content were Iron 281.29ppm, Zinc 47.27ppm, and Cupper 6.62ppm. The aqueous extract of the plant was acidic its pH 6.3. Water extract and alcoholic extract were achieved from Basil leaves and chemical qualitative detection was done for some active ingredients in the extracts included reducing sugars, glycosides, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoides, phenols and terpenoids. The quantitative determination of leaves showed the presence of phytochemicals Flavonoides 13.49%, Alkaloids 14.52%, Saponins 4.82% and mucilages 3.71%. The results of the analysis of basic components and a high proportion of protein, carbohydrates, fibers and mineral elements gave the basil importance of food and the presence of phytochemicals indicates its potential as a source of drugs. The significance of the basil leaves in traditional medicine and the importance of the chemical constituents in the pharmaceutical industries were discussed.


Article
Determination of the optimum conditions for Gelatinase production from local isolate Enterococcus faecalis B91
تحديـد الظروف المثلى لانتـاج انزيـم الجيلاتينيـز مـن العزلـة المحليـة لبكتريـا B91 Enterococcus faecalis

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A total of 70 isolates belonged to Enterococcus faecalis collected from different clinical sources : (29 urine sample, 22 stool sample, 9 blood sample, 1 vagina sample, 2 sputum sample, 1 pleural fluid sample, 1 peritoneal fluid sample and 5 wounds sample). Seven isolates were able to produce gelatinase since they were able to liquefied the gelatin medium and clear zone were observed around the bacterial growth after floating the plate with freizer's reagent. Enterococcus faecalis B91 was higher producer of gelatinase in submerged culture by using Yeast extract gelatin Medium. Optimization study revealed that fructose was the best carbon source at 2.5% and 1% gelatin as inducible source to production the enzyme and inoculum size 1x109 cfu/ml at initial pH7, incubated for 24 hours at 40°C by using shaking incubator at 150 rpm.

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Article
Evaluation of SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunostrip technique for detection of Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus in IRAQ
تقويم كفاءة الترحيل الكهربائي على هلام الاكريلامايد وتقنية الأشرطة المناعية في الكشف عن فيروسي موزاييك التبغ وموزاييك الخيار في العراق

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his study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of electrophoresis on SDS- poly acrylamide slap gel and immunostrip techniques for detection of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, genus Tobamovirus) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, genus Cucumovirus, family Bromoviridae), compared with symptoms on diagnostic plants for the two viruses. The results obtained showed that the two methods were effective. The analysis of samples of purified CMV, total proteins from infected cucumber plants, and extracts from infected plants with or without chlorophyll, by electrophoresis on 10% polyacrylamide slap gel containing 0.1% SDS showed two bands of 24 and 26 kd in size, and absent in samples of total protein or extracts of healthy plants. These two proteins represent the coat protein (CP) of CMV. In addition, one 18 kd protein band appeared on SDS- polyacrylamide gel profile which represent the CP of TMV, when samples of purified virus, total protein of infected plants, and plant extracts with or without chlorophyll were analyzed. This band was absent in similar samples from healthy plants. The test of immunostrip specific for CMV showed positive reaction with extracts from melon, cucumber, winter squash, and zucchini infected plants. Similarly, a positive reaction with immunostrip specific for TMV appeared with extracts from tobacco, tomato infected with TMV. No reaction was obtained with healthy plants extract. These results were similar to those obtained from indicator plants for the two viruses.

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