جدول المحتويات

مجلة زراعة الرافدين العراقية

ISSN: 1815316X
الجامعة: جامعة الموصل
الكلية: الزراعة والغابات
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين لأول مرة عام 1966 واستمرت لغاية عام 1982، وتوقفت بعد ذلك لمدة ثلاث سنوات بسبب القرار الوزاري بتوزيع المجلات العلمية على الجامعات العراقية وحسب الاختصاصات حيث كانت حصة العلوم الزراعية لجامعة صلاح الدين التي أصدرت المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية (زانكو)، وكانت المجلة الوحيدة في العلوم الزراعية في وزارة التعليم العالي والبحث العلمي ، ثم صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين مرة أخرى وذلك في عام 1986 واستمرت إلى عام 2000 إذ تم اعتماد مجلة زراعة الرافدين مجلة قطرية وبهذا تم تغير اسمها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية . وحصلت على الرقم الدولي ISSN 1609-4077 واستمرت بالصدور إلى المجلة إلى عام 2004 إذ تم إعادة اسم المجلة إلى مجلة زراعة الرافدين واعتبرت مجلة قطرية – دورية-علمية – محكمة وحصلت على الرقم الدولي الجديد ISSN 1815-316X وصدر المجلد 33 العدد 1 وهو تسلسل مجلة زراعة الرافدين إذ أن المجلة أصدرت 32 مجلد قبل تحويلها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية. واستمرت المجلة في الصدور إلى الوقت الحاضر 2012 المجلد (40) .

كانت المجلة عند صدورها عام 1966 بعدد واحد سنوياً، وحالياً تصدر بأربعة أعداد دورية لكل سنة. ولابد من الإشارة إلى أن المجلة في بداية إصدارها عام 1966 كان يضم العدد خمسة بحوث باللغة الانكليزية، وتزايدت في الوقت الحاضر لتضم 30 بحثاً باللغتين العربية والانكليزية .

حصلت المجلة خلال مدة عملها على تقييمات وزارية عالية فقد حصلت هيئة التحرير في عام 1996 على كتاب شكر وتقدير من السيد الوزير لتميز المجلة ، كما اعتبرت المجلة متميزة في عام 2009 أيضا إذ حصلت على درع الوزارة وشهادة تقديرية .وقد حصلت المجلة في سنة 2012 على الاعتمادية الدولية وبالتالي اصبحت في متناول جميع دول العالم .

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معلومات الاتصال

E-mail:agrimeso@yahoo.com

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2010 المجلد: 38 العدد: 3

Article
EDUCATIONAL AND TRAINING REQUIREMENTS OF FARMERS IN AL-TA’MIM GOVERNORATE IN THE FIELD OF USING & MAINTAINING CENTER PIVOT SPRINKLER IRRIGATION SYSTEMS AND THEIR RELATION WITH SOME FACTORS*
المتطلبات التعليمية والتدريبية للفلاحين في محافظة التأميم في مجال استخدام وصيانة منظومات الري بالرش وعلاقتها ببعض العوامل

المؤلفون: Aamel F. AlAbbassi عامل فاضل خليل العباسي
الصفحات: 2-11
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الخلاصة

The main objectives of this research are to assess the educational and training requirements of farmers in Al-Ta’mim governorate in the field of using and maintaining the center pivot sprinkler irrigation systems and identifying the differences between these requirements according to some independent factors. The research sample consisted of 142 farmers representing 60% of the total number of farmers who were using these systems. The data was collected through a questionnaire form and utilizing the Borich equation. After testing the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, the data acquisition commenced through personal interview, the data then were analyzed by using analysis of variance and step-wise regression analysis. The results showed that 94% of farmers require medium to high levels of education and training and that there are significant differences in these requirements according to: educational level, number of months of utilizing the system, annual income, size of holding, and communication level with information sources. Yet, there are no significant differences according to readiness to change and social norms. It is also found that the (number of months of utilizing the system) is the most contributing factor in the interpretation of the variance of the educational and training requirements.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
SOME VARIABLES THAT RELATED WITH ATTITUDES OF RURAL YOUNG’S TOWARDS AGRICULTURAL WORK IN TALKEF DISTRICT / NENAVA GOVERNORATE
بعض المتغيرات ذات العلاقة باتجاهات الشباب الريفي نحو العمل الزراعي في قضاء تلكيف /محافظة نينوى

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الخلاصة

This research aims at identifying the attitudes of rural youth towards agricultural work in talkef District and relationship with some variables. Questionnaire used in data collection consist of two parts first one included personal social, economical, communicational.asecond part consisted of (26) items to measure attitudes of rural young’s towards agricultural work. The data collected from 80 farmers which represent 5% of population. After testing the validity of the questionnaire, reliability was measured by using split-half method. The data were collected by personal interview and analyzed by using(:Person’s correlation) The results revealed that (71.25%)of respondent were of negative attitudes towards the agriculture work, (26.25%) were of nutral and (2.50%) of respondents were of positive attitudes. Also the results showed that there were positive relationship between attitudes of rural youth towards the agriculture work and variables(age, members of family involved in agricultural work, agricultural cultivated area, cosmopolitans). But there were no relationship between attitudes of rural youth owards the agriculture work and variables, level of education, type of carrier type of farm ownership,).

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
AN ECONOMIC STUDY OF THE REALITY OF WATER RESOURCES IN IRAQ AND ITS FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
دراسة اقتصادية لواقع الموارد المائية في العراق وآفاقها المستقبلية

المؤلفون: Adnan Ahmed Thalaj عدنان أحمد ثلاج
الصفحات: 12-20
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الخلاصة

The research included descriptive analysis depending upon describing relations within the field (scope) of the study in order to find solutions for problems facing the usage of waters in Iraq by analyzing phenomena related to water resources and the best ways in using them . Throughout the next two decades, the problem will increase seriously in the light of the supply of Iraqi water resources and the increase of demand upon water resources due to the increase in population and the increase of water needs in various uses from another . The deterioration of water positions will be reflected severely upon agricultural production . The increase in demand for water resources for unagricultural uses will be actually an adverse effect upon the fixed supply for these resources and on the expense of resources not specialized for agriculture . Infact, the main aim in this field will contain two parts : the first is about developing and protecting water resources and this from the side of supply . the second is about good usage of water resources from the side of demand . These factors are connected with technical issues constituted in the frame work of water policies related to the topic .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND GERMINATION MEDIA ON A VIABILITY OF POLLEN GRAIN OF FIVE PISTACHIO MALE STRAINS
تاثير درجات الحرارة واوساط الانبات في نسبة انبات حبوب اللقاح وطول الانبوبة اللقاحيةلخمسة سلالات من الفستق الحلبي المذكرة

المؤلفون: Mohamad Kardoush محمد كردوش
الصفحات: 12-21
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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of germination media and three temperatures on five male strains of pistachio at research center of agriculture faculty – Aleppo,(Arab center),.In this experiment, the rates of pollen germination were tested in different germination media (sucrose 10%, sucrose 10%+0.25 gr. boric acid P L. and sucrose 10%+0.0625 gr. boric acid P L.) with 3 temperature levels( 10,20 and 30◦c) .The media was contain 3 gr. agar per liter of water. The results showed that male strain 36 was gave the best germination rate, (78.33 % and tube length 796.1micron) as compared with other strains ,and male strain 47 was the lower (63.11%,511.3 micron) tube germination and tube length (63.11%,511.3 micron) respectively, but all were gave high rates of germination. sucrose 10% media gave the best germination rate (77.07%) and sucrose 10%+ 0.25 gr. boric acid P L. gave the lowest germination rate (62.2%), sucrose 10%+0. 0.25 gr. boric acid P L. gave highest tube germination length (777.68micron), where as 10% sucrose +0.0 625gr. boric acid P L. was the lowest tube length (499.88micron) .On the other hand, 30◦c gave the best germination rate and pollen tube germination length (88.73%and 1005.26 micron), however 10◦c gave lowest rates of these parameters (45.53% and, 244.3 micron) for germination rate and tube pollen length respectively. Generally, all media were gave highest significant results in germination rates and pollen tube length for all strains at all temperatures. we conclude that sucrose 10%was better media for pollen germination and sucrose 10%+0. 25 gr. boric acid P L.was the best for pollen tube length .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
MICROPROPAGATION OF GARDENIA Gardenia jasminoides
الاكثار الدقيق لنبات الكاردينيا Gardenia jasminoidesباستخدام العقد المفردة

المؤلفون: Mosleh M.S.Duhoky مصلح محمد سعيد دهوكي
الصفحات: 21-30
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الخلاصة

The present study was carried out to study the micropropagation of Gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides) by using single nodes excised from soft cuttings using half strength MS salts, 30gl-1 sucrose, 7gl-1 Agar and different concentrations of plant growth regulators in culture medium. Results of the experiment at initiation stage revealed that the culture of single nodes of Gardenia on a medium containing 5mgl-1BA gave the highest number of shoots (2.2 shoots/explant). Concerning the interaction, a nutrient medium containing (2 mgl-1 BA+ 0.4 mgl-1 IAA) gave the highest values of average number of shoots and leaves and length of new shoots (1.6 shoots/explant, 2 leaves/explant, 1.6cm respectively). At vegetative multiplication stage, the results showed that the medium supplemented by 2 mgl-1 BA gave the highest values of average number of shoots and leaves and length of new shoots (2.20 shoots/explant, 3.20 leaves/explant, 1.80cm respectively), whereas the medium supplemented by 0.3 mgl-1 IAA gave the highest number of shoots and length of new shoots. In order to promote the shoots produced at vegetative multiplication stage to root, it was noticed that the treatment of 8mgl-1NAA gave the highest percentage of rooting (90%) and the medium supplemented by 12mgl-1 IAA gave (100%) rooting. Plantlets obtained were transferred to pots and acclimatized with 95 % success.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF SUCROSE AND 8-HQS ON VASE LIFE OF TWO CULTIVARS OF CARNATION Dianthus caryophyllus
تأثير السكروز و8-HQS في العمر المزهري لصنفين من أزهار القرنفل Dianthus caryophyllus

المؤلفون: M. M. Ibrahim مثنى محمد إبراهيم
الصفحات: 21-34
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الخلاصة

The experiment was carried out in Horticulture and Landscape design Dept. on two cultivars of carnation Plants Dianthus caryophyllus, Jeanne Dionis Blano white flowers and Marie Chabaud Jaune yellow flowers, to study the effect of pulse treatment(2h) with sucrose at 0, 5 and 10% interacted with 0, 300 and 600 mg/l of 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate (8-HQS) in holding solution on vase life flowers. So Factorial Experiment was conducted by using Randomized Design with three replicate and three flowers for each. The results showed: plants of white flowers cultivars manifested the significant results in vase life, water uptake, change in fresh weight percent after 2 days and glucose concentration in flowers and stems at initial stage of vase life. Flowers pulsed in 5% sucrose gave significant higher values of vase life 11.5 days, water uptake 14.0 cm3, glucose concentration in flowers and stems at initial stage of vase life. Flowers treated with 300 mg/liter 8-HQS gave best results of vase life, higher percent increase in fresh weight after 2 days. In general, pulsing white cultivar flowers in 10% sucrose, then hold in 300 mg/liter 8-HQS manifested best result of vase life.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF NPK COMPOUND FERTILIZER AND FOLIAR APPLICATION OF IRON , GIBBERELLIC ACID ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF SALEMY POMEGRANATE CULTIVAR (Punica granatum L.)
تأثير السماد المركب NPK والرش بالحديد وحامض الجبرليك في نمو وحاصل الرمان

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الخلاصة

This investigation had been conducted in an special orchard in Al-Hawija town Kirkuk governorate for two growing seasons during 2005 and 2006 growing seasons in order to study the effect of NPK fertilizer and foliar application of iron and gibberellic acid (GA3) and their interactions on the chemical characteristics of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) trees CV. Salemy (local variety) .The trees were fertilized with compound fertilizer (NPK) at rates of (0 , 440 and 880) Kg/Hectare , and were sprayed with iron (Fe –EDDHA) which contains 6% Fe at rates of (0 , 100 and 200) mg Fe/l . While the gibberellic acid (GA3) used at rates of (0 , 100 and 200) mg GA3/l . The results of the experiments are summarized as follows: Adding of 880 kg NPK/Hectare caused a significant decreased of (TSS), the total acidity (TA), the percentage of reducing sugars (glucose, and fructose) and anthocyanin pigments in the berries. Foliar application with 200 mg Fe/l caused a significant increase in (TSS), total acidity (TA), percentage of reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) and anthocyanin pigments in the berries. Spraying with 200 mgGA3/l. caused decreasing the percentage of (TSS), (TA), reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) and caused a significant increase in anthocyanin pigments in the berries for the first season.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF NPK COMPOUND FERTILIZER , FOLIAR APPLICATION OF IRON AND GIBBERELLIC ACID ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF SALEMY POMEGRANATE CULTIVAR (Punica granatum L.)
تأثير السماد المركب NPK والرش بالحديد وحامض الجبرليك في نمو وحاصل الرمان

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الخلاصة

This investigation had been conducted in an special orchard in Al-Hawija town - Kirkuk governorate during 2005 and 2006 growing seasons in order to study the effect of NPK fertilizer and foliar application of iron and gibberellic acid (GA3) and their interactions on concentration of some minerals in leaves and berries of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) trees Salemy CV. (local variety) .Results of both seasons summarized as follows: Adding of the 880 kg NPK/Hec. caused a significant increasing the concentration of nitrogen and iron in leaves and fruit berries nutrient , while adding 440 Kg NPK/Hec. caused a significant increasing the concentration of phosphorus and potassium in leaves and fruit berries .The foliar application with 200mg Fe/l caused a significant increasing the concentration of nitrogen (in first season) and phosphorus and potassium in leaves and fruit berries in both seasons. The spraying with 100mg GA3/l caused a significant increasing the concentration of nitrogen (in first season) and potassium in leaves and fruit berries in both seasons. The spraying with 200 mg GA3/l caused a significant increasing the concentration of nitrogen (in second season) , phosphorus and iron leaves and fruit berries in both seasons. Interaction results were asserted that adding of the 440 kg NPK/Hec.+200mg Fe/l +100mg GA3/l caused a significant increased the concentration of nitrogen in leaves, adding 440 kg NPK/Hec.+200mg Fe/l+200mg GA3/l caused a significant increased the concentration of phosphorus in leaves and fruit berries, adding 440 kg NPK/Hec.+100mg Fe/l + 100 mg GA3/l caused significant increased of potassium in leaves and fruit berries, adding 880 kg NPK/Hec.+200mg Fe/l+200mg GA3/l caused a significant increased of iron concentration in leaves and fruit berries for both seasons .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE INFLUENCE OF SOIL MULCHING ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF TWO STRAWBERRY VARIETIES
تأثير تغطية التربة في نمو وحاصل صنفين من الشليك

المؤلفون: Zuhair A. Dawood زهير عزالدين داؤد
الصفحات: 61-69
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الخلاصة

This research was conducted at the Department of Horticulture science and landscape design College of Agriculture and forestry Mosul University , Iraq, during the growing season 2006-2007 this study was to investigate the effect of soil mulching on growth and yield of two varieties of Strawberry (Hapil and Kaisers samling) and three types of mulches (Polyethylene, black plastic and straw) were used in addition to control (without mulching).The experiment design was split-split plot within (RCBD) with three replicates , each experimented unit included 9 plants, all results were tested by using Duncan's multiple range test at probability of 5%.The obtained results could be summarized as follows: Most vegetative growth and yield characteristics were significantly increased in Hapil variety as compared with Kaisers samling variety. Soil mulching by three types of mulches caused a significant increased in leaf area and number of stolen per plants. Average weight of fruit increased significant by straw mulching. The highest percentage of (TSS) recorded by black plastic mulching, at the same time, soil mulching by Polyethylene caused a significant increased in number of flowers per plants. There was different effects of interaction treatments between types of mulches and variety on vegetative, flowering growth and yield characteristics.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
BIOLOGICAL OXIDATION OF SULFUR IN SOME CALCARIOUS SOILS IN NORTHERN OF IRAQ
الأكسدة البايولوجية للكبريت في بعض الترب الكلسية لشمال العراق

المؤلفون: M. A. Al-Obaidi محمد علي جمال العبيدي
الصفحات: 70-79
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الخلاصة

A study was conducted to evaluate sulfate release kinetics in two different texture of calcareous soil (clay and loamy sand) amended with different levels of agricultural sulfur and to select the best mathematical models which describes the mechanism of biological oxidations of sulfur under different time of incubation. Agricultural sulfur was mixed with soils at rates (0, 5, 10, 20) gm.S-1. kg-1 soil. Water was added to raise the soil moisture content to field capacity, the soil samples were incubated at 298° K. Sulfate release was monorated by using anion capsule resin (OH-resin) inserted in soil for 1, 7, 14, 21, 35 day. Five kinetics models (zero order, first order, parabolic diffusion, Elovich and power function). Were applied to describe sulfate and hydrogen release rate coefficient, in order to select the best model the results showed a significant increase in the accumulated sulfate release with sulfur treatments with increasing. The results showed a significant increase in accumulated H and SO4= release with sulfur treatment with increasing incubation period. The result showed also that parabolic diffusion equation was the best one to describe the rate coefficient of H+ and SO4= that range from 21 to 78 in clay soil and 19 – 69 day -12 in loamy soil for hydrogen release while the rate coefficients of SO4= release were ranged from 9 to 36 and 19 to 47 day -12 for clay and loamy soils respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE EFFECT OF POTASSUM AND BORON ON QUANLITY
تأثير البوتاسيوم والبورون في حاصل ونوعية البنجر السكري (Beta vulgaris L.)

المؤلفون: W. Al-Baddrani وحيدة علي احمد البدراني
الصفحات: 80-87
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted at growing season of 2002 ـ 2003 at two locations to study the effect potassium (0 , 36 , 72 , 108) kg.ha-1 added to the soil as potassium sulfate and three levels of boron (0 , 5 , 10) ppm sprayed to the leaves of sugar beet and their interaction on the growth ,of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), using randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D) with three replicates. The quantities characteristic for the sugar beet crop, which included, weight per one plant, total yield (ton.ha-1) in roots. The results show that the use of higher levels of potash fertilizer and sprayed with boron and their interactions caused a significant effect on yield quantity by increasing the total yield, yield per one plant and weight per one root. The effect of the interaction of potassium and boron at higher concentration was more significant than each factor alone. potash fertilizer treatment at a rate of (108) kg K/ha with (10) ppm boron gave an increase in each of the characterize in two locations. Higher response to fertilizer (K and/or B) application was found in the soil of Al- Sheikh Mohamed location compared with Qaber Al-Abed location, in the root yield quantity by increasing the total yield Also the fertilizer efficiency were higher in AL-Sheikh Mohamed soil compared with soil of Qaber Al- Abed at all levels of added potassium and boron fertilizers.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF SULPHUR , PHOSPHORUS AND GIBBERELLIC ACID ON SOME MINERAL CONCENTRATION IN LEAVES OF DIXIRED PEACH TRANSPLANTS
تأثير الكبريت والفسفور وحامض الجبرليك في تركيز بعض العناصر الغذائية في أوراق شتلات الخوخ صنف Dixired

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الخلاصة

Dixired peach transplants which were budded on peach seedling rootstock and planted on black polyethylene bags containing 9 Kg soil were fertilized with three levels of sulphur ( 0 , 250 and 500 mg. S Kg-1soil ) and phosphorus ( 0 , 15 and 30 mg P Kg-1 soil ) .The agriculture sulphur ( 95 % S ) and triple super phosphate ( 22 % P ) used as a source for sulphur and phosphorus respectively , which were mixed with soil when the transplants planted in the bags at the 17th of febroury at both seasons . Transplants were sprayed with three levels of GA3 ( 0 , 15 and 30 mg. GA3 L-1 ) twice at both seasons , first spray was after 45 days from full buds burst , while the second was after one month from the first spray . Results indicated that application of sulphur , phosphorus and GA3 each alone and all interactions among them significantly increased N , P , K and S concentrations in the leaves in both seasons , except the effect of GA3 on N concentration in the leaves at both seasons , and the effect of phosphorus on leaves K concentration at the second season only . The treatment 500 mg. S Kg-1 soil + 30 mg. P Kg-1 soil + 30 mg. GA3 L-1. was the best , which gave the highest means of P , K and S at both seasons , the concentration of N , P , K and S on it was respectively 2.38 , 0.19 , 2.31 and 0.27 % in the first season and 2.57 , 0.23 , 3.38 and 0.35 % in the second season

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF FAT ADDITION IN THE FINISHER RATION ON PERFORMANCE AND RATE OF FEED PASSAGE OF BROILERS
تأثير إضافة الدهن إلى العليقة النهائية في الأداء الإنتاجي وسرعة مرور الغذاء في القناة الهضمية لفروج اللحم

المؤلفون: RAFH MOHAMMED TAHER رافع محمد طاهر خليل
الصفحات: 98-105
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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted on 40 unsexed broiler chicks(ROSS) one day old to study the effect of using added fat (sunflower oil) in the finisher ration on some productive traits and rate of feed passage. The chicks were raised on floor in the first four weeks of age on starter ration with 2890 Kcal/kg ME and 22.43% CP .At four weeks of age 40 birds were selected randomly and distributed in single cages to four treatments with ten birds as replicates for each treatment .The four finisher rations 4 – 8 weeks were isoenergitic 3000Kcal/kg and protein 18% and different in the level of added fat 0 , 2 , 4 , 6 % . At the end of the experiment three birds of each treatment were slaughtered for carcass traits . The results showed that added fat have no significant effect on live body weight, daily weight gain , feed conversion ratio, growth rate, protein conversion ratio, dressing percentage, percentage of edible offal's, abdominal fat ,carcass parts , length of duodenum, intestine, cecum , and rate of feed passage ,while there was a significant effect on feed and protein consumption during 4-5 weeks (p≤0.01) and 6-7, 7-8 weeks (p≤0.05). Adding of 2 and 4% fat increased ration cost and decreased economic efficiency while 6% cause very simple improvement

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF UNDEGRADABLE PROTEIN ON THE NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY , RUMEN FERMENTATION AND SOME BIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN AWASSI LAMBS.
تأثير النسب المختلفة من البروتين غير المتحلل في معامل هضم المركبات الغذائية وطبيعة تخمرات الكرش وبعض الصفات الكيموحيوية في الحملان العواسية

المؤلفون: Sabah A. Shamoon صباح عبدو شمعون
الصفحات: 106-113
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الخلاصة

This study was carried out by using 9 Awassi Lambs, 10-12 months of age with average body weight 48.25kg. The lambs were divided into three groups each of three lambs, and fed on one of the three rations which contained different levels of undegradable protein (UDP) (20, 40, 60%) of the total protein of the rations. Results indicated that there were no significant effect of the different levels of UDP on dry and organic matter and crud protein digestibility. While, the digestibility coefficient of ether extract was highly (P < 0.01) increased in group fed on the rations contained 40 or 60% UDP as compared with 20% UDP, it was ranged between 60.39 – 82.28%. The digestibility coefficient of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were significantly (P < 0.01) in the ration contained 40% UDP as compared with 20 and 60% UDP. The average digestibility coefficient were ranged between 52.26 – 63.3 % and 36.68 – 49.52% respectively. Rumen liquor pH before feeding was not affected by UDP levels, but it was significantly (P < 0.01) decreased 4hrs after feeding in 20 and 40% UDP (5.82 and 5.83) as compared with 60% UDP (6.14). In contrast, ammonia concentration in rumen liquor was significantly (P < 0.01) decreased before feeding in ration (60% UDP) 4.29 mg/100ml. as compared with ration (20 and 40% UDP) 9.24 and 8.43mg/100ml. While ammonia concentration were similar in the samples taken 4hrs after feeding in all rations. The calculated microbial protein synthesis according to the digested organic matter was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in the lambs fed on 40% UDP (128.16g/d) as compared with 20 and 60% UDP (109.45 and 109.03 g/d) respectively, Statistical analysis of blood constituents showed no significant difference between the three levels of UDP on blood glucose, total protein, albumin globulin and triglyceride concentration.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
FECUNDITY,SEX RATIO AND AGE AT SEXUAL MATURITY OF CRUCIAN CARP ,Carassius carassius L.,1758 IN TIGRIS RIVER,MOSUL-IRAQ
الخصوبة ونسبة الجنس وسن النضج الجنسي لسمكة كارب الكرسين

المؤلفون: Ali A.Jasim علي عبد الوهاب جاسم
الصفحات: 114-120
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الخلاصة

A total of 107 fishes of crusian carp, Carassius carassius L.,1785 were caught from Tigris-river during March, April and May for determinating of fecundity,sex ratio and age at sexual maturity.It was shown that absolute fecundity ranged between 3360-79402 eggs for total length of 117.3-264mm, while the relative fecundity was ranged between 119.6-316.9 eggs for each gram of body weight for the total weight of 21.8-250.5 gm. the largest egg dimeter was 1.5mm, and the most correlation of fecundity was with gonad weight (o.99). Females were most dominant during the three months and the total sex ratio for the total fishes was 26.04%:73.96%(males: females). Chi-squares showed differences between the sex ratio (x2, p<0.05).Age at sexual maturity was 119 and 123 for males and females respectively at the second year (I+) of age, and T-test showed no difference between length and weight between males and females (p>0.05).

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Article
EFFECT OF Zingiber officinale RHIZOMS ON THE ACTIVITY OF SOME
تأثير مسحوق رايزومات الزنجبيل Zingiber officinale في فعالية بعض الأنزيمات في أنسجة الكبد والقلب والأمعاء الدقيقة لذكور وإناث الأرانب المحلية

المؤلفون: Thaer M. Al-Mashhadani ثائر محمد المشهداني
الصفحات: 121-127
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الخلاصة

The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Zingber Officinale on liver, heart and small intestine in male and female local rabbits by measuring the levels of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Acid phosphatase (ACP) enzymes. Twenty rabbits (8 - 9 months age) were divided into 2 group, ten rabbits each: 5 males and 5 females was the control group and 10 rabbits was the treated group. The control group was given the standard ration and water, the treated group was given Zingiber Officinale powder 1000 mg/kg in addition to the daily ration for 4 weeks. The results showed that there was a significant decrease in ALT and AST enzymes levels in liver, heart and small intestine, and significant increase in ALP and ACP enzymes levels in liver , heart and small intestine.

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Article
EFFECT OF GARDEN CRESS (LEPIDIUM SATIVUM ) ON MITOTIC INDEX AND FORMATION OF MICRONUCLEI IN WHITE MICE BONE MARROW CELLS
تاثير عصير اوراق الرشاد (Lepidium sativum) على معامل الانقسام وتكون الانوية الصغيرة في خلايا نقي عظام الفخذ للفئران البيض

المؤلفون: Ilham A. Khalaf الهام عبد الهادي خلف
الصفحات: 128-136
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الخلاصة

The effect of garden cress ( Lepidium sativum ) on mitotic index (MI) and formation of micronuclei (Mn) in bone marrow cells of white mice was studied , in addition to the study of the counter effect of plant juice on MI disruption and Mn induction by cyclophosphamide (Cp) . The results indicated that Cp reduced the MI to level of positive control after 2 , 4 , 6 days with significant differences compared to the negative control (P<0.01) , while the plant juice 0.1 , 0.25 , 0.5 ml / animal administrated orally had no effect and the MI values were similar to the negative control. Oral administration of juice before administration of the mutagen (R/Cp) or with the mutagen (R+Cp) helped the tissues to preserve their MI values at natural level. Administration of juice after the mutagen (Cp/R) resulted in reduction of MI values compared to the natural values with statistical significant difference (P<0.01) Results of Mn induction indicated that the quantities of juice used had no effect on induction of Mn and were significantly different from positive control . Similar results obtained upon using the treatment (R/Cp), but using the juice with mutagen (R+Cp) or using the juice after mutagen (Cp/R) elevated the count of Mn with significant differences (P<0.01) and the case persisted for 6 days (the experiment duration ) .

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Article
EFFECT OF LONG TERM ADMINISTRATION OF CARROT ROOTS (Daucus carota) ON SOME CYTOGENETIC PARAMETERS IN WHITE MICE
تأثير الإطعام طويل الأمد بجذور الجزر (Daucus carota) في بعض المؤشرات الوراثة الخلوية في الفئران البيض

المؤلفون: Ilham A. Khalaf الهام عبد الهادي خلف
الصفحات: 137-146
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الخلاصة

The effect of long term administration of carrot roots (2 months) on some cytogenetic parameters in bone marrow cells of white mice was studied , these included , mitotic index (MI) , micronuclei formation (Mn ) , and chromosomal aberrations (Ch . ab .) of different types . In addition the effect was studied in germ cells (Sperms) by scoring the number and types of sperm – head abnormalities in comparison of the effect induced by cyclophosphamide (Cp) . Results showed that Cp reduced the MI to about 44 % of the normal value (6.84), administration of carrot before the drug (Ca/Cp) raised the index to 74 % of the normal value , while administration of carrot with the drug (Ca+Cp) restored 92.4 % , and administration of Cp followed by carrot (Cp/Ca) restored 88.9 % of the normal value . Cp induced Mn to about 17 times of the baseline value 1.06 .The different treatments with carrot reduced the Mn to 3.8 – 6.7 times the natural values , and the (Ca/Cp ) treatment was the best . Cp treatment for long time raised the Ch .ab. to about 10 times the natural value 1.62 , these values reduced upon administration of carrot to about 24.5 – 29.8 % of the positive control 17 , and such effect extended to the types of Ch. ab. except that of dicentric chromosomes which persisted with high values , but it was lower than the positive control with statistical difference (P<0.01) . The drug increased the sperm – head abnormalities to about 18 times the natural background 1.15 . Different treatments of carrot reduced the level of abnormalities with significant differences compared to positive control (P<0.01) , but the abnormalities were higher than the negative control with statistical difference (P<0.01) , these results were reflected on the types of abnormalities .

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Article
STUDY OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN OLIVE OIL WHICH EXTRACTED FROM SOME VARIEITIES AND DURING STORAGE
دراسة المواد الفينولية في زيت الزيتون المستخلص من بعض الاصناف وعند الخزن

المؤلفون: S.R.Al-Obady شيماء رياض العبادي
الصفحات: 147-155
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الخلاصة

Three type of olive oil (Iraqi, Syrian and Spanish)had been taken from the local makets, the first aim of this study is to determination of phenolic compound s quantity and chlorophel A&B which transfer from olive to oil after storage in darknees for three months at 7,15 &30◦C .The second aim of this study was to know the estimating and analyzing of some factors affecting he quality of oil (refractive index, relative density, free fatty acid, peroxide value and saponification value). Organoleptic evaluation was done till the end of the storage period , we used linear regress analysis to try to find relationship between phenolic compound content in olive oil and peroxide value and chlorophel A&B content . The results showed that phenolic compounds and chlorophel content decreased during storage period for all type of olive oil and all the temperature storage, Thus some of the oil constants was increased for all type of olive oil and all a degree of storage. The highest increasing occurred at 30°C , linear regress analysis and %R2 showed that they found relationship between the two properties, organoleptic evolution showed that the best type of sample at the end of storage was Syrian, Iraqi and Spanish .

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Article
EFFECT OF SOME ANTIBIOTICS ON GROWTH OF PROBIOTIC LACTIC ACID BACTERIA
تأثير بعض المضادات الحياتية في نمو بكتيريا حامض اللاكتيك العلاجية.

المؤلفون: GH. M. Hassan غانم محمود حسن
الصفحات: 156-163
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الخلاصة

The effect of different antibiotics on local and imported bacteria Bifidobacterium sp., Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. bulgaricus , Streptococcus thermophilus, L. Casie has been studied by using Disk assay . All bacteria were found to be sensitive to tetracycline at the concentrations 0.1, 0.2 ppm. The inhibition zone ranged from 12-34 mm . All bacteria except L. acidophilus were inhibited by ampicilline . All bacteria except L. bulgaricus and L. plantarum were found to be sensitive to streptomycine at the concentrations 0.2, 0.4 ppm . The inhibition zones were 13 and 15 mm, respectively, at concentration of 0.4 ppm . Local and imported L. acidophilus were found to be more sensitive to erythromycine . None of the bacteria were affected by cephalexine and chloramphenicol at the concentrations used . All bacteria showed sensitivity toward ampicilline at concentration of 0.2ppm except Strep. thermophilus, L. bulgaricus and L. plantarum which were sensitive to this antibiotic at the concentration of 0.1ppm . All bacteria except L. bulgaricus, local and imported L. acidophilus showed sensitivity to neomycine at the concentrations 0.150 and 0.300 ppm . In conclusion bacteria differed in antibiotics resistance and this must be taken into consideration when using these bacteria as starters in dairy products processed from milk containing residues of antibiotics with inhibiting concentrations to their growth.

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Article
INFLUENCE OF GALANT SUPER APPLICATION TIME AND RATES IN CONTROL JOHNSON GRASS (Sorghum halepense) (L.) Pers. IN COTTON CROP (Gossypium hirsutum)
تأثير مواعيد ومستويات الرش بمبيد Galant superبتراكيز مختلفة في مكافحة الحليان

المؤلفون: Arshad Thanoon Al-Niaumi أرشد ذنون النعيمي
الصفحات: 164-168
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الخلاصة

A factorial experiment was conducted in the season 2004 to study the effect of Galant super herbicide for controlling Johnson grass in cotton crop with two factors, the first : two time of application (after irrigation) and after a week of irrigation , and the second four rates (0 , 2 , 3 , 4 m/Liter) of herbicide in split plot system with RCBD at the fields of technical institute of Mosul –Al namrood location using Koker-310 variety of cotton to study the characters of plant height , No. of fruiting branches , stem diameter , No. bolls per plant , boll weight and seed cotton yield . Both time and rates of spraying herbicide and the interaction between them had height effect in reducing No. of plant and plant height of Johnson grass which calculated in the end of season . The No. bolls per plant and boll weight affected significantly at 1% of probability with spraying time , the application rates affected significantly for all characters except seed cotton yield , while the interaction between the two factors had significant effect on No. bolls per plant . Spraying Galant super in concentration 4ml./liter significantly increasing almost all characters of cotton , and spraying after a week of irrigation significantly increasing No. bolls per plant and boll weight which reflects to non significant increasing of seed cotton yield . It’s important to study applying higher concentrations of this herbicide in controlling Johnson grass in cotton fields in future .

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Article
FIRST RECORD OF POPLAR LEAF TWERS, EPINOTIA ABBREVIANA (TORTICIDAE: Lepidoptera) ON POPULUS SP. TREES IN IRAQ.
أول تسجيل لرابطة أوراق الحور

المؤلفون: Ismail N.Almaroof اسماعيل نجم المعروف
الصفحات: 169-178
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الخلاصة

The life cycle of Epinotia abbreviana Fabi (Tortricidae : Lepidoptera) was studied and recorded for the first time in Iraq in 2006 under laboratory conditions (30.5°c and 25.5%R.H). The study showed that the mean length of incubation period, larval stages and longevity of adults, males and females, were 7.51, 19.92 and 7.37, 7.27 days respectively. The study also showed that all larval instars have the ability to tie two or more leaves together and feed on the epidermis of the tied up leaves. The study indicated that the mean number of eggs laid by a singles female were 98.70, and the egg viability 82%. The sex ratio of male to female was 1.2:1. Also it was found that this species has 5 generations per year. The average duration of each generation was 38.10 days. The toxicities of some insecticides on the second and the fifth larval stages were evaluated. These insecticides were Alphacypermethrin, Diazinon, Endosulfan and Sevin with concentrations ranged from (0.0010-0.0300) %. Alphacypermethrin showed higher toxicity effect on larvae and significantly difference from other insecticides. And Sevin toxicity has the lowest effect of the tested insecticides. Diazinon and Endosulfan had less toxicity effects on larval than Alphacypermethrin respectively.

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Article
STUDY OF SOME OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMICAL INDICATORS FOR DIFFERENT MECHANIZATION SYSTEMS IN THE SEMI QUARANTEED RAIN REGION
دراسة بعض المؤشرات الفنية والاقتصادية لنظم مكننية مختلفة في المنطقة شبه مضمونة الأمطار

المؤلفون: Saddam Hussen Al lwayzy صدام حسين اللويزي
الصفحات: 170-178
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted in Nineveh, Humaedat region which located in the semi guaranteed rain region, for the 2004-2005 agricultural season, to see some indicators of economic assessment and technological indicators, by taking data from the four companies (different mechanization systems) to plant wheat and barley crops for making comparison among them for tillage, planting and harvesting to find the values of these indicators of the total agricultural operations and the average of these companies and to compare with some universal values. The average values of the four companies in the total agricultural operation, showed that the fuel consumption was 24.8 L/ha, 21.3 L/hr, specific fuel consumption 0.17 L/kw.hr. The percentage of fuel costs from the total costs 7.8% and the percentage of the fuel cost of mechanization costs 17.5%.While one kw serving area of land 0.76 hectares, the share of the tractors and harvesters of the earth 589 ha/tractor, 688 ha/harvester respectively. the Average of the time work of tractors and harvesters per year 529 and 419 hr/year respectively. The average productivity of the season 0.42 ha/hr, actual productivity 0.85 ha/hr. The work efficiency of the agricultural season was 48%, and the human effort 3.07 man.hr/ha. The agricultural worker share of the land 41.72 ha/man. The cost of mechanization to planting one hectare was 14382 ID. The percentage of mechanization cost of total costs 44%. The effectiveness of total capital was 1.48. The effectiveness of mechanization capital was 3.61 where yields were 264.2 kg/ha.

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Article
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT HEIGHT AND DIAMETER LEVELS THROUGHOUT THE STEM ON VESSELS DIMENTIONS AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF Platanus occidentalis L.TREES GROWING AT NINAVAH PLANTATION
تأثير مستويات مختلفة من الارتفاع والقطر ضمن الساق في أبعاد الأوعية والوزن النوعي لأشجار الجنار الغربيoccidentalis L. Platanus النامية في مشجر غابات نينوى

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الخلاصة

Two 10 years old Platanus occidentalis L. trees growing as copies had been fallen to study the variation in vessel element dimensions and specific gravity between and within the trees . Eight discs were cut from each tree from the stump until 14.30 m. with 2 m. interval between each disc. Also ,five wood specimens were taken from each disc from pith to bark at north direction .The results showed that the average vessel element length was 0.566 mm. , mean diameter was 79.45 micron, while mean specific gravity was 0.594. Average vessel elements length and diameter varied throughout stem lengths, there were an increase in these values from base to 2.30 m. height by which the highest mean values were presented (0.504 mm and 58.84 micron respectively ), then these values decreased up to the 8.30 m. height level followed by gradual increase to the 10.30 m. height level then it decrease to the last height level (14.30 m.). Specific gravity mean values decreased by increasing stem height levels , the highest mean was 0.649 at the stump level (0.30 m. ) and lowest value was 0.5541 at 14.30 m. height level. Variation of vessels mean length and diameter among stem diameter level was found to have an increasing values from pith to bark , the lowest mean value was at the pith ( 0.539 ml. And 74.539 micron respectively ), and the highest mean value was near the bark ( 0.612 mm and 85.o66 micron respectively ). There were decreasing in specific gravity mean values from pith toward the bark , the highest mean value was near the pith 0.619 and the lowest value was 0.561 near the bark. Also it was found that there were significant differences between the trees in vessel diameter and specific gravity, but there was no significant differences in vessel length between the trees.

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Article
EFFECT OF Nattrassiae mangiferae ON THE WOOD SOLUBLE AND NON-SOLUBLE CHEMICAL COMPONENT
تأثير الفطر Nattrassiae mangiferae في مكونات الخشب الكيميائية الذائبة وغير الذائبة

المؤلفون: Aree Adel Abdulqader ئاري عادل عبدالقادر
الصفحات: 187-195
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الخلاصة

The effect of Nattrassiae mangiferae ( H. & P. Sydow ) Sutton & Dyko on the wood soluble chemical components in ethanol – benzene and hot water , showed that the highest lost of these contents were in the willow wood , poplar , sycamore , oak , pine wood respectively. The affect of non-soluble chemical components by the fungus emphasized throughout. a highest alternation in the amount of lignin in pine woods followed by poplar , sycamore , oak and willows wood respectively. Woods content of lignin increased gradually with the continuous of incubation period. The highest lost in ash was found in the willow, sycamore, pine, oak wood, poplar was the lowest, with no effect of the incubation periods. Holocellulose of pine and oak wood showed the lowest lost by the fungus while it was highest in willow and their amounts decreased according to incubating duration.

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